Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society"

See other formats

■ - I ■ 

1 ■■ 










3 1833 01095 7451 

<§ L 








Superintendent of the Society 


New Hampshire Historical Society 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


Address on Col. Israel Morey 

Dartmouth College . 
Great Tornado of 1821 
Gen. Thomas Bartlett 
Stephen Bachiler 
Field Day, 1909, Hall 
Paseataqua Bridge 
Oyster River Massacre 
Town Histories . 
Chester Fifty Years Ago 
Tories of New Hampshire 
Corner Stone Ceremonies 
Dedication Ceremonies 
Meetings, annual, June 14, 1905 . 
field day, Oct, 11, 1905 
special, Oct. 18, 1905 . 
special, Jan. 17, 1906 „ 
special, Feb. 14, 1906 . 
special, March 14, 1906 
special, April 18, 1906 . 
annual, June 13, 1906 . 
field day, Oct. 16, 1906 
special, April 17, 1907 
annual, June 12, 1907 
special, June 26, 1907 
special, June 29, 1907 
special, April 16, 1908 
annual, June 10, 190S 
special, Sept. 9, 1908 
special, April 14, 1909 
annual, June 9, 1909 



































, corner stone, June 9, 1909 . . •. 216 

field day, Sept. 29, 1909 . 


special, April 12, 1910 . 


annual, June 8, 1910 . 


field day, Sept. 28, 1910 


special, Jan. 18, 1911 . 


annual, June 14, 1911 . 


special, July 19, 1911 . 


special, Sept. 27, 1911 . 


special, Nov. 1, 1911 . 


dedication, Nov. 23, 1911 

. 354 

special, Dec. 21, 1911 . 

. 416 

special, Jan. 25, 1912 . 

. 417 




. 421 





June, 1905, to June, 1907 












h;,T . 


Concord, X. H., June 14, 1905. 

The eighty- third annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held at the rooms of the Society in 
Concord, Wednesday, Jane 14, at eleven o'clock in the fore- 
noon, about forty-five members being in attendance and Pres- 
ident Wait in the chair. 

The report of the secretary for the last annual meeting was 
read and approved. 

The report of the secretary of the membership of the Society 
was as follows : 

Number of members June 8, 1904, 
Isew members qualified during the year, 

Less members deceased during the year, 




Present membership, 

Names of members who have died during the year: 

Mrs. Mary O. Long, Exeter, October 14, 1904, 
Augustas IL Bixby, Francestown, December 21, 1904. 
Mrs. Caroline B. Bartlett, Concord, January 16, 1905. 
Joseph C. A, Wingate, Strathani, March 11, 1905. 
John F. Jones, Concord, March 28, 1905. 
John C. Ordway, Concord, April 23, 1905. 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, Henry A. Kimball was elected 
recording secretary, and took the oath of office before Samuel 
C. Eastman, Justice of the Peace. 

On motion of James M. Killeen, it was moved a committee 
of three be appointed to nominate officers for the ensuing year. 
S. C. Eastman moved that the motion be laid on the table. A 


division "being called for, the motion was carried by a vote of 
26 to 14. 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, it was voted to proceed to the 
election of president, and Rev. Daniel C. Roberts, D. D., re- 
ceiving the majority of the votes cast was declared elected. 

On motion of A. S. Batchellor, the Society proceeded to 
vote for vice-presidents, and Henry M, Baker and Daniel Hall 
were unanimously elected. 

On motion of J. E. Pecker, the Society proceeded to vote 
for corresponding secretary, and Charles R. Corning was 

On motion of John C. Thome, the Society proceeded to 
vote for treasurer, and William P. Fiske was elected. 

On motion of A. S. Batchellor, it was voted the election of 
librarian be postponed until the adjourned eighty-third an- 
nual meeting in October, and that the adjournment be to the 
third Wednesday in October, the. 18th instant, at 11a. m. 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, Dr. Eli E. Graves was elected 
necrologist by a viva voce vote. 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, Giles Wheeler, John C. Thorn e 
and Edson C. Eastman were elected a standing committee. 

On motion of Otis G. Hammond, Rev. George IT. Reed, Mrs. 
Frances C. Stevens, and Arthur II. Chase were elected a library 

On motion of S. C. Eastman, a publishing committee, con- 
sisting of John Dowst, Rev. N. F. Carter and John R. East- 
man, was elected. 

On motion of Otis G. Hammond, Rev. N. F. Carter, Dr. 
Jane Elizabeth Hoyt and Howard M. Cook were elected a 
committee on new members. 

On motion of William M. Chase, Joseph B. Walker, Lyman 
D. Stevens and Rev. Howard F. Hill were elected a commit- 
tee on speakers. 

On motion of Albert S. Wait, John R. Eastman and Charles 
R. Corning were elected a committee on the naval history of 
Xew Hampshire. 

The annual report of the treasurer, William P. Fiske, was 
read and laid on the table. 


Receipts credited to general income: 

Income from permanent fund, 


Xew members, 




Books sold, 


State appropriation, 


Income from Todd fund, 


Expenditures charged to general income: 

Printing and binding, 


j; volume o 

f r 



Books purchased, 



Expenses account Sabine Library, 

Work on "Cotrin Monument" grounds, 

Salary of librarian, 

Incidentals at library, 

Stamps and envelopes, 

Premium and accrued interest, 

Extra labor. 

Permanent fund, 

Current funds, 

To new account 

Permanent fund, 
Current funds, 















The William C. Todd Fund. 

To investments, 




Fund received from executor of W. C. 

Todd's will, 



By paid for genealogical works, 



Securities in hands of the treasurer: 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, $1,000.00 

Receipt, Johnson Loan & Trust Co., 250.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe bonds, 

$500,00 each, 1,000.00 

2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul bonds, 2,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co.'s bonds, 2,000.00 
13 shares Concord & .Montreal Railroad, 

Class 4, 2,268.50 
5 shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

Railroad, 500.00 

3 shares Concord Electric Co., 300.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 2,019.74 

Deposit in National Bank, 672.83 


The William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific-Great Northern bond, $1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co.'s 4.} bonds, 2,000.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 2,500.00 

1 city of Laconia 4 per cent, bond, 1,000.00 



• Building Fund. 

Subscription of William C. Todd, $5,000.00 
Other subscriptions, 4,980.00 
Subscription from J. H. Pearson trus- 
tees, . 5,000.00 
Income received on the fund, 1,498.71 

In bank, $16,378.71 

Xote, 100.00 



I have this day examined the account of William P. Fiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, for the 
year ending June 14. 1905, and find the same correctly cast 
and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. I have also examined 
the securities constituting the funds of the Society, and find 
them correct. 

Giles Wheeler, 

For Committee. 
Concord, X. IT., June 14, 1905. 

The necrologist, Dr. Eli E. Graves, read his report, which 
was accepted and ordered placed on file. 

The report of the standing committee was presented by 
John 0. Thome, which was accepted, adopted, and placed on 
i file. 


The committee would report that they have attended as 
usual to the duties devolving upon them in the care of the 
building and grounds and in making necessary provisions for 
such things as were needed in carrying on the work of the 
Society as well as could be under the restrictions of wholly 
inadequate accommodations. 

At the annual meeting in June, 1903, at the suggestion of 
the committee an appropriation was made of a sum not exceed- 
ing *100, to give needed care to Bradley Monument and lot 
on Pleasant Street and to the Memorial Monument and lot on 
the Plains. A year ago a few dollars only were expended in 


cleaning the Bradley stone, repainting the letters and also the 
iron fence. Here much might be done to beautify this loca- 
tion — the grounds are unsightly, demand cleaning up, grading 
and perhaps relocating the monument more centrally for eas- 
ier approach. Hon. Henry M. Baker and myself visited 
Mrs. J. IT. Dearborn of Pembroke, owner of the surrounding 
land, and after consultation and consideration an offer was 
made of about two acres of land lying along the highway west 
and north of the monument. 

As will be seen upon the plan copied here from an engineer's 
survey, the city has encroached upon the Society's land in 
straightening the bend in the highway which comes at this 
point. In cutting away the embankment the appearance and 
approach to the monument has been injured. General Baker 
has in view, at the suggestion of the committee, a confer- 
ence with Mrs. Mary Baker G. Eddy, whose estate is just 
opposite, to assist liberally in the improvement of the Bradley 
Monument grounds. It is thought by your committee that, 
with the aid of the city, which has put itself under obligation 
to make good the encroachment upon the property; with the 
generous aid of Mrs. Eddy, who we feel will join in the 
improvement, and with our own, of course, somewhat limited 
resources, a decidedly unsightly spot can be made into a some- 
what beautiful one. 

The Plains lot surrounding the Memorial Monument, denot- 
ing the place of the first religious service in Central Xew 
Hampshire, has bad the past year about *40 expended upon 
it in trimming up the undergrowth on about an acre in extent, 
and in laying out a winding driveway and grading the same, 
extending through the grounds out to a point upon the bluff 
from which a beautiful view is obtained of the valley of the 
Merrimack, the city of Concord and its encircling hills. Some 
further improvements are contemplated, aided by the gift of 
an adjoining piece of land, which will materially increase the 
value of the surroundings of this Memorial Monument. 
Respectfully submitted, 

John C. Thorxe, 

For the Committee. 



Joseph B. Walker made a verbal report in regard to secur- 
ing a portrait of William C. Todd. 

John C. Thome made a report for the building committee, 
which was accepted and placed on file. 


The committee to whom was referred the question of erect- 
ing a new building for the Society and who were authorized 
by vote at a meeting held April 12th "to consider plans, make 
recommendations and report at the next annual meeting " do 
hereby respectfully report that they have carefully considered 
the matter, and acting upon the present conditions of the 
Society are able to report that a building suitable for its needs 
can be erected on the present site for the sum of £25.000, 
incorporating in a practically fire-proof structure everything 
which the Society would require for the next fifty years. 

In view of the fact that the Society now has in hand and 
promises nearly enough to cover this amount, the committee 
would herewith submit plans which have been prepared as a 

Information has, however, come to the committee recently 
that there is a possibility of a large gift for building and 
endowment which is worthy of our careful consideration. 
The committee, after duly considering this, has deemed it 
wise to recommend that further action in regard to the erec- 
tion of a new building be postponed until the next annual 


Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Ed sox C East max, 
William P. Fiske, 


Henry aI< Farlaxd, 
James M. Killekx, 


Respectfully submitted, 


Thorn e, 



James M. Killeen offered the following resolutions, which 
were accepted : 

Resolved, That further consideration of the location of the 
library and the erection of a new building therefor be post- 
poned to a meeting to be held for the consideration of that 
subject on a day following in the fall of 1906, to be definitely 
tixed at the next annual meeting. 

Resolved, That it is for the best interests of the Society to 
erect a building that shall be adequate for the future needs of 
the Society, and an ornament and credit to the State, and as 
that cannot be done with the funds now on hand, that a com- 
mittee of three, consisting of Messrs. Henry M. Baker, Benja- 
min A. Kimball and Samuel 0. Eastman, be appointed to 
increase the present fund and procure designs for a building of 
a classical character that will meet the requirements of the 
Society, to be used especially to inform donors as to the general 
character, arrangement and style of building it is proposed to 
erect (an ideal design not planned for construction) in say 
four forms : 

1. General elevations, with an imposing entrance properly 

2. First floor for library and executive department. 

3. High basement for storage, cataloguing, heating, ventilat- 
ing and general purposes. 

4. Section through the center of the building showing the 
iuterior arrangements as well as possible. 

The design should be made with special reference to its 

James M, Killeen. 

5. C. Eastman made a verbal report for the publication 

S. C. Eastman, chairman of the special committee on the 
disposal of books, made his report, which was accepted and 
ordered placed on file. 



The special committee on the disposition of the, United 
States and State Public Documents of the Society submits the 
following report : 

In view of tw^o votes passed by the Society at meetings 
when no member of the committee was present, it may be 
well to recall the occasion of its appointment. 

After the fund of 810,000 for a new building was created, 
a committee, with President William 0. Todd as chairman, 
was appointed to consider the subject of a new building. That 
committee made a carefully considered and unanimous report. 
Although it was printed and distributed to members before 
any action was taken upon it, so that all might be aware of its 
recommendations, and was also printed in the annual proceed- 
ings, it may not be amiss to say that it considered the objects 
for which the Society was formed, the cost of building and 
maintaining a library, and closed with recommending that 
present room be secured by dispensing with such portions of 
our collections as did not seem to be needed in view of their 
duplication in the State Library and as not being specially 
germane to the scope of the Society. It also recommended 
that the disposal of the mass of unbound periodicals be at- 
tended to by the library committee, and that certain other 
proposals be considered by a new committee. 

The report of Mr. Todd's committee was accepted and 
adopted and a new committee was appointed, to whom the 
matters last mentioned were referred. 

This second committee consisted of two members of the 
Todd committee and Mr. Thorne. This committee agreed on 
a recommendation to dispose of the Patent Office Journal and 
the majority recommended that a committee be appointed 
witli power to dispose of the United States Public Documents 
and of such State Documents, with the exception of those of 
the Xew England states, as in the judgment of the committee 
was desirable. Mr. Thorne presented a minority report dis- 
senting from this view. 

These reports were laid upon the table and after several 


meetings were taken up and considered. The recommenda- 
tions of the majority report were adopted and the present 
committee was appointed. 

The committee entered upon the. discharge of its duties. It 
was found that the collection of Public Documents, while tol- 
erably complete for a period of about fifty years, during which 
the Society was a designated depository, was still imperfect, 
there being many gaps, and also that there were large num- 
bers of duplicates and in some instances from live to ten cop- 
ies of the same book. For twenty-five years past the Society 
had ceased to be a depository and had only comparatively a 
few books of this class and those without order or complete- 
ness, but with the same persistence of duplicates and tripli- 

The committee could find no market for these books as a 
whole. It is possible that a few of them can be sold. Such 
as were thought to be salable were put aside and have not 
yet been dealt with. 

The superintendent of documents at Washington informed 
us that "the law prohibits the disposal of documents by libra- 
ries which receive them from the Government," and that con- 
sequently they had no commercial value. This applied to the 
sets bound in sheep, about two thousand volumes. He added 
that he could not take them back for redistribution to other 
libraries, on account of lack of room, and suggested that by 
the aid of Senator Gallinger's frank the books be sent to other 
libraries in the state. 

The committee found that Dartmouth College could make 
use of these books and was willing to receive the whole collec- 
tion. After careful consideration of the situation, their offer 
was accepted, and the collection, 2,540 bound volumes and 
980 unbound volumes, were sent, to Hanover. A few volumes 
were returned to the departments. The Patent Office Journal 
and the reports were also returned to the Patent Ofiice. The 
committee also disposed of a lot of books and pamphlets, 
mostly of an advertising nature, which seemed to be of no 

The committee had devoted a ^ood deal of time and labor 



to this task and also to the separation of the formal documents 
of the states, such as journals of legislative proceedings, re- 
ports of state officers, like bank and insurance commissioners, 
when the advent of cold weather compelled them to suspend 
further operations, and nothing has since been done. 

At a meeting of the Society held in Dover in September, at 
the instance of the librarian, a vote was passed, in consequence 
of which the library committee directed the librarian to 
demand the return of certain books. 

This committee immediately asked the members of the 
library committee for a conference, at which all that had been 
done in reference to the Public Documents of the United 
States was fully explained, as well as the transfer of cer- 
tain duplicates to the State library Building. The library 
committee visited the State library and saw the books in 
question. That committee unanimously approved of the dis- 
posal of the books to Dartmouth College and of the transfer 
of the books to the State Library Building, and decided that 
they did not desire the books so taken to be returned. It may 
be added that the librarian of the State Library said that the 
Historical Society could have as many copies of this class of 
books as it desired at any time. As we still have duplicate 
and triplicate copies of these reports printed during the past 
forty or fifty years, and as they have no exchangeable or sal- 
able value, being f reel}' given away by the state, it does not 
seem reasonable to increase our store. 

At the May meeting a vote was passed suspending further 
action by the committee. 

The committee has endeavored to discharge its duty as it 
believed the interests of the Society demanded. Its work is 
by no means completed. There is very much weeding out of 
books not germane to purposes of the Society still to be done. 
No society and no library not possessing the resources and the 
income of an empire can afford to keep or receive everything 
that is offered without discrimination. 

On motion of William M. Chase, the committee was con- 
tinued for the completion of the work. 



On motion of S. C. Eastman, the report of the librarian was 
taken from the table, amended, accepted and placed on file. 


During the past year the regular routine work has gone on 
as usual. In the line of special improvement it is a pleasure 
to say that a card catalogue of the Sabine library and the 
Bell alcove has been made at comparatively small expense by 
Roy M. Grover in a very satisfactory manner. He possesses 
tbe essential qualities of a true librarian, has taken great inter- 
est in the work and deserves high commendation. 

Duplicates of historical and genealogical works made possi- 
ble by the gift of the Tappan library have been sold to the 
value of $347.7.3, which sum, according to the conditions of 
the gift, goes to form the " Tappan Fund, 1 ' the income of 
which is to be used for adding to the collection. 

Other noteworthy gifts during the year other than books 
and pamphlets are a clock nearly 100 years old from Charles 
Barker of Concord ; oil portraits of Alexander Tilton and his 
wife, Abigail B. B. Tilton, by the will of Mrs. Ellen B. Phil- 
brick, of Tilton; bronze medals of all the presidents from 
■George Washington to Theodore Roosevelt, from Hon. Henry 
M. Baker; three large maps of the Battle of Gettysburg show- 
ing the position of the Confederate and Union forces on the 
three days respectively of the battle, used in illustration of a 
lecture given more than 200 times by Rev. Clarion H.Kimball, 
from his widow, Mrs. C. II. Kimball, of Hopkinton; a map of 
Derry, Ireland, as besieged in 1688, from Hon. Gordon Wood- 
bury, of Manchester; from Miss Edna Dean Proctor, the 
poet, a tine photograph of herself; a series of state insurance 
maps from Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, of Concord ; several old 
Croydon (X. H.) deeds, from Rev. L. H. Elliott, of Water- 
bury, Vt. ; and several commissions issued to Jeremiah H. 
Woodman as justice of the peace, by Governors Langdon, Gil- 
man, Plumer, Woodbury, Bell, Dinsmore, Hill, Hubbard and 
Williams, a writ dated.. 1773, a deed, 1810, and a brick from 
the temporary tomb of Gen. U. S. Grant, from Hon. Noah 



Tebbetts, of Brooklyn, N. Y.; ami volumes YII-XXV of the 
American Journal of N'timismatim i from Dr. Samuel A.Green 
of Boston. Accessions have been 230 bound volumes and 
1^71*2 pamphlets. 

Books and pamphlets have been received from individuals 
as follows : 

Abbott, Miss Frances M. 

s. Pam. 

Adams, George S. 
Ahem, W. J. 


Amen, Harlan P. 
Anderson, Rev. Asher 
Anderson, Rev. Wilbert L. 



Ayer, Rev. Franklin D. 
Avers, S. G. 
Bachelder, Nalmm J . 
Baxter, Chester J. 
Beckwith, A. C. 
Blanc hard, Anna A. 




Blanchard, Miss Grace 


Blomberg, Anton 


Bogert, Henry L. 
Briggs, Frank 0. 
Brigham, Johnson 
Brintnell, R. H. 





Bryant, II. W. - 
Buckshorn, Rev. Louis H. 



Cabot, Henry B. 
Caldwell, W. H. 


Calvin, Samuel 
Carroll, Lysaudei H. 


Carter, Rev. Clark 
Carter, Mrs. Hartie G. 
Carter, Rev. N. F. 



Carter, Solon A. 
Chadwick, C. K. 
Chandler, William D. 
Chadwick, William P. 
Clephane, Walter C. 
Cobb, Rev. Levi II . 
Cobb, Rev. William H. 




Colby, Fred M. 
Collaraer, Newton L. 
Comstock, J. M. 


Cone, Mrs. Kate M. 
Congdon, G. E. 
Conn, Dr. Granville P. 
Cook, Howard M. 
Corning, Charles R. 
Cox, William V. Z. 
Cousins, Rev. E. M. 
Cragg, Thomas 
Cross, Mrs. Lncy H. R. 
Currier, Miss Mary M. 
Delaney, Bishop J. B. 
Dike, Rev. Samuel W. 
Dodge, James 
Donnelly, Richard A. 
Eastman, E. G. 
Eastman, Samuel C. 
Eaton, Thomas E. N. 
Elliott, Rev. L. II. 
Evans, Alonzo H. 
Fiske, Miss Abby G. 
Fitts, Mrs. James H. 
Fleetwood. F. G. 
Foster, Rev. A. P. 
Frost, Lucy J. H. 
Folsom, Capt. A. A. 
Galliiiger, Hon. J. H. 
Gannett, Henry 
Garrison, W. C. 
Gerould, E. A. 
Geronld, Rev. Samuel 
Gibbs, W. D. 
Gilchrist, David S. 
Gill, Charles G. 
Goddaxd, George A. 
Goold, Nathan 
Green, James M. 
Green, Dr. Samuel A. 

Vols. Pam. 

Griffis, Rev. W. E. 
Hall, E. W. 
Hardy, Rev. W. A. W. 
Hastings, V. C. 
Hay ward, Rev. Silvanus 
Herbert, Alma J. 
Hobbs, W. J. 
Howe, Miss S. A. 
Hubbard, A. S. 
Ives. Rev. Joel S. 
Jack, David K. 
Jenks, Albert E. 
Jones, George M. 
Kimball, John 
Kingsbury, Frank B. 
Kummel. Henry B. 
Lamb, Fred W. 
Lane, Dr. Edward B. 
Lane, Thomas W. 
Lanphere, George N. 
Larkin, Miss Josephine C. 
Lealey, William A. 
Linehan, John G. 
Little, George T. 
Lyon, Clara P. 
Macmillan Company 
Marden, George N. 
Mathes, Miss Fannie P. 
Matthews, Mrs. C. D. 
McCobb, Miss Ella 
McCollester, Rev. S. H. 
McGann, Edward W. 
McGuire, Irvine E. 
Means, Emily A. 
Minot, Mrs. James 
Mitchell, Henry 
Mitchell, I. Alfred 
Morehead, James M. 
Munro, John J. 
Mnsgrove, R. M. 
Nelson , William 
Oliver, William M. 
Page, Elwin C. 
Parker, Dr. M. G. 



. Pam. 




Parvin, Newton R. 



Patterson, Samuel F. 



Pearson, Edward N. 



Peaslee, John B. 



Pidgeon, Charles F. 



Pierce, Marshall 



Plimpton, George L. 



Plumer, Dr. A. 



Qnimby, Charles E. 



Rogers, James G. 



Root, Azariah A. 


4 1 

Rowell, Mrs. W. E. 



Sanborn, Frank B. 



Sargent, Rev. O. C. 



Simpson, John C. 



Slafter. Rev. Edmund F. 



Smiley, Albert K. 



Stevens, E. Ellis 



Swan, Robert T. 



Tappan, Miss Eva M. 




Taylor, John P. 



Tenney, Miss M. J. 



Thayer, Miss Kate M. 



Thomas, Douglas H. 



Tibbetts, Charles W. 



Tittmaim, 0. H. 



Tufts, James A. 



"Walker, Isaac 



Watkins, David 0. 



Watson, Dr. Irving A. 




Webster, J. C. 



White, Miss Almira L. 



Woodbury, Frank D. 


Wooriworth, Mrs. Albert B 



Wright, Elizabeth E. 


Historical societies have con- 
tributed as follows : 

American Irish 2 

Buffalo 1 

Chicago 1 1 

Colorado 1 

Connecticut 1 1 

Delaware 1 3 



Vols. Pam. 
Illinois 1 

Iowa State 1 2 

Iowa State Department 1 4 

Kansas 1 1 

Kentucky State 4 

Manchester Association 
Manchester Institute 
Maryland 3 

Massachusetts 2 


New England Genealogical 
New Haven Colony 
New Jersey 1 

New Loudon 
New York 
North Dakota 
South California 
Texas Association 
West Virginia 1 


From other societies : 

American Antiquarian 2 
-American Historical and 

Philosophical 2 2 

American Philosophical 1 1 

Appalachian Club 3 
Bureau of Ethnology 2 
Ohio Archaeological and 

Historical 3 
Davenport Academy 1 
Royal Academy of Antiquity 1 
Smithsonian 5 19 
Worcester Society of An- 
tiquity 2 

Donations from libraries: 

Maine State 

11 17 
22 6 

Vols. Pam. 

New Hampshire State 5 

New York Public 12 

New York State io 

Ohio State 

Peoria Public 

St. Louis Public 

Syracuse Public 

U. S. State Department 

Vermont State 11 1 

War Department 9 

Educational institutions do- 
nated : 

Amherst College 1 
Audover Theological Semi- 
nary l 
Bangor Theological Semi- 
nary 1 
Bowdoin College 3 
Brown University 1 2 
Carnegie Institute 1 
Colby College 3 
Colorado College 1 
Drew Theological Semi- 
nary 1 990 
Hartford Theological Semi- 
nary 1 
Harvard University 1 1 
Johns Hopkins University 14 
Mass. Institute of Tech- 
nology 3 
Michigan University 10 
Mount Holyoke College 1 
Smith College 1- 
St. Paul's School 1 
Tufts College 2 
U. S. Naval Academy- 1 
University of California 1 
University of Chicago 1 
University of Cincinnati 1 3 
University of Iowa 1 
University of North Caro- 
lina 1 



University of Toronto 
University of Toulouse 
Wei Lesley College 
Wesleyan University 
Yale University 

V0I3. Pam. 
1 2 

Received from other sources: 

Atchison, T. & S. F. R. R. 1 

Adams Nervine Asylum 1 

American Board 3 
Bank Commissioners 4 

Barnard Memorial 1 
Benevolent Fraternity of 

Churches 1 1 
Boston Budget . 1 
Boston City Hospital " 1 
Boston Provident Associa- 
tion 1 
Boston Record Commis- 
sioners 1 
Boston Y. M. C. U. 2 
Bunker Hill Monument As- 
sociation 1 
Bureau of Census 1 3 
Bureau of Labor 1 
Butler Hospital 1 
Chicago, R. I. & Pacific 

R. R. 1 
Children's Mission to the 

Destitute 1 
Commissioner of Education 2 
Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion 1 
Concord & Montreal R. R. 1 
Congregational Church, 

Lyme 1 
Democratic State Commit- 

mittee 10 

Department of Agriculture 1 
Derrick Publishing Co. 1 

Good Roads Commission 1 

Government 5 43 

Hartford Retreat 1 

Hospital for Epileptics 1 

Vols. Pam 
House of the Good Samari- 
Industrial Aid Society 
Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission 1 
Library Companies 
Little Wanderers' Home 
Maine General Hospital 
Mass. Eye and Ear Infirm- 
Mass. General Hospital 
Mass. Infant Asylum 
Mass. Soldiers' Home 
Mass. State Hospital 
Mayflower Descendant 
Missouri World'sFair Com- 
New Hampshire License 

Newton Hospital 
N. Y. Sons Revolution 
Palisade Commissioners 
Perkins Institution for 


Purchase and Exchange 270 
Republican State Commit- 
Retreat for the Insane 
Standard Oil Co. . 
Superintendent of Docu- 
Penn. Prison Discipline 

Superintendent of State 

Town Clerk, Golfs town 
Trustees of Public Reser- 
Union League of Philadel- 
Womau'sUnion "Missionary 



The library receives regularly the following publications 


Boston Advertiser. 
Boston Journal. 

Bristol Enterprise. 
Canaan Reporter. 
Exeter News-Letter. 
Independent Statesman. 
Kearsarge Independent. 
Littleton Courier. 
Meredith News. 

Nashua Telegraph. 


Milford Cabinet. 
Mirror & Farmer. 

Plymouth Record. 
Somersworth Free Press. 
Woodsville News. 




A merica n Missiona ry. 
Bible Society Record. 
Home Missionary. 
Life and Light. 

Missionary Herald. 
North American Review. 
Sabbath School Missionary. 
Sailors' 1 Magazine. 


American Catholic Historical Record. 

American Historical Review. 

Annul* of Iowa. 


Dedhdm Historical Register. 

Essex Antiquarian. ' 

Historic Quarterly. 

Iowa Historical Record. 

Ioiva Journal of History and Politic*. 

Kentucky Register. 

Mayflower lh scemhint. 

Medjield Historical Register, 

New England Historic find Genealogical Register. 

New Hampshire Genealogical Record. 

Neu- 1'ork Genealogical and Biographical Record. 

Quarterly Bulletin of Grand Lodge of Iowa. 

Texan Stoic Association (Quarterly. 

Transalh gheny Magazine. 

West Virginia Historical Magazine. 

William and Mary Quarterly. 


The Society has received on deposit from Ernest Brown of 
Nashua four boxes of newspapers, mostly the Nashua Telegraph, 
to become the property of the Society if never called for — an 
event unlikely. Some of these are bound volumes. Of 
smaller donations we would mention the Baptist Home Mis- 
sionary Monthly and Baptist Missionary Magazine for 1903, 
from Frank J. Pillsburyof Concord; the Sunday School Times, 
1903, Public Opinion, 1903-4, and many church and confer- 
ence programs, from the Rev. S. L. Gerould of ilollis; The 
Independent, from Miss Alma J. Herbert of Concord; Repub- 
lican campaign literature, from Hon. J. II. Gallingcr of Con- 
cord ; a check-list of Union School District, 1895, from 
Howard M. Cook ; proclamations, 1904-5, from E. K. Pear- 
son; and seventeen scattering numbers of the Concord 
Gazette, 1806-18. 

As a result of the work of your special committee the or- 
derly arrangement of the books has been greatly disturbed, 
and remain in disorder, as it has been thought best to let them 
remain as they have been left till some decision has been ren- 
dered as to their final disposal. We would have been glad to put 
them ou the ample empty shelves, but did not care to incur the 
charge of interference. The library needs another thorough 
overhauling, but this cannot economically be done till we have 
ample room for the needed classification with a view to future 
expansion. The assertion made at the last annual meeting that 
the removal of the documents specified in the majority report 
would make room for several Sabine libraries, can be easily 
demonstrated today as the dictum of an excessive optimism. 
r \ ne urgent need of a new building for the proper care of the 
library is by no means lessened. 

Respectfully submitted, 

X. F. C.\in kk, 




Rev. N. F. Carter for the committee on new members re- 
ported the names of the following persons : 

Hon. Arthur G. Whittemore, Dover. 
Mr. William F. Whiteher, Woodsville. 
Mr. Charles A. Farr, Littleton. 
Mrs. Grace E. Foster, Concord. 
Dr. George Cook, Concord. 
Mr. Alvin B. Cross, Concord. 
Mr. Thomas W. Streeter, Concord, — 
and they were unanimously elected to membership. 

On motion of J. B. Walker, the annual assessment of three 
dollars was voted. 

On motion of Julia C. Thome, the president, secretary, and 
treasurer were made a committee on Field Day with full 

On motion, voted to adjourn to the third Wednesday in 

Henry A. Kimball, 


The annual Field Day of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in Portsmouth, October 11. There were 
about thirty persons present. 

Various places of interest, among them St. John's Chapel, 
the Navy Yard, Warner House, St. John's Church, the Lang- 
don House, Fort Constitution and the Governor Wentworth 
Mansion, were visited. 

At the Navy Yard Chaplain Curtis II. Dickens presented 
the Society with a bayonet from the federal earthworks of 
Seven Pines, and the brass casings of two shells, which were 
fired on the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth, Septem- 
ber 5, 1905. 

Much of the pleasure of this most enjoyable day was due to 
the courtesy of Rear Admiral Meade, Rev. Henry E. Hovey 
and Mr. Templeton Coolidge. 

Henry A. Kimball, 



Concord, N. II., October 18, 100.5. 

The adjourned eighty-third annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire [Historical 'Society was held in the rooms of the 
Society, Wednesday, October 18 at eleven o'clock in the fore- 
noon, Rev. Daniel C. Robert*, D. D., president, presiding. 

Thirty members were present. 

The report of the secretary for the annual meeting was read 
and approved. 

The minute of the Field Day in Portsmouth was approved. 

Rev. N. F. Carter for the committee on new members 
offered the following names for membership, and they were 
unanimously elected : 

Rev. L. II. Buckshorn, Concord. 
Miss Theodate Burpee, Lakeport. 
Mr. Fred AY. Lamb, Manchester. 
Rev. O. C. Sargent, Concord. 
Mr. Stillson Hutchins, Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Prentiss M. Kent, Boston, Mass, 
Mr. James F. Brennan, Peterborough. 
Mrs. James M. Blake, Concord. 

The resignation of Rev. N. F. Carter, librarian, was read 
by the president. 

On motion of Mr. S. C. Eastman, the resignation was ac- 
cepted to take effect April 18, 1906. 

The president read a communication from Senor Felix 
Romero, president of the Mexican Society of Geography and 
Statistics of Mexico, in relation to the fourth centennial cele- 
•bration of the death of D. Cristobol Colon, which occurred on 
the 20th day of May, 1506, in Yalladolid, Spain. 

Mr. L. D. Stevens moved a committee of three be appointed 
by the chair to consider the matter, and report. 

The president read a "clipping" in regard to the Society 
preventing the removal of the -Manor House at Odiorne's 
Point, liye^ in the construction of the state boulevard. 

Mr. S. C. Eastman moved a committee of the members of 
the Society resident in Portsmouth be appointed to look into 
the matter. The motion prevailed. 



On motion of Mr. Arthur II. Chase, the following vote was 
passed : 

At a regular and fully attended meeting of the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society held on Wednesday, October 18, 1905, 
in the rooms of the Society at Concord, it was unanimously 
voted that the cordial thanks of this Society are due and 
are hereby tendered to 

Rear Admiral William W. Meade, commandant of the 
IT. S. Navy Yard at Portsmouth. 

Rev. Curtis IJoyt Dickens, chaplain IT. S. X. 

Lieut. Richard P. \Vinslow, at Fort Constitution. 

The Rev. Emerson Hovey, rector of St. John's Church, 

Mr. C, A. Hazlett, 

The Rev. Alfred Langdon Elvryn. 

Mrs. Penhallow. 

Miss Sherburne. 

Mr. Templeton Coolidge, — 
for distinguished courtesies extended to the members of this 
Society on the occasion of their visit to Portsmouth on the 
annual Field Day of the Society, October 11, 1905. 

Henry A. Kimball, 


Rev. George II. Reed read a communication from the town 
of Canaan, in relation to the restoration by the Society of the 
tombstone of John Scoville. 

On motion of Rev. X. F. Carter, the tombstone was ordered 

Rev. (George II. Reed, fur the library committee, made a 


Your committee would report that in accordance with the 
vote of the Society they have dUj.osed of such unbound mag- 
azines and pamphlets as seemed to contain but little that was 
germane to the purpose of a historical library. 

In their interpretation of your instructions the committee 


voted to retain the North American Review, the Atlantic 
Monthly and the Revietv of Reviews. 

There remained : the Popular Science Monthly, only four 
volumes complete; DeBow's Revieic, forty magazines; the Old 
and New, twenty-five numbers; American Biblical Repository, 
twelve numbers; the African Repository, a missionary mag- 
azine; Seribtier's, 1881-91; Westminster Review, in the 
sixties, North British Review in the fifties (both American 
reprints); Century, 1882-92; and Harper's, 1854-97. 

Your committee ascertained by inquiry in Boston and Xew 
York that these magazines possessed no market value. There- 
fore the larger part of them were sold for old paper. Some 
were sent to the hospital, and the committee have reserved 
Harper's and the Century, intending to send them to the lum- 
ber camps unless otherwise instructed. 

Many catalogues, pamphlets and .-magazines which were 
duplicates or odd numbers have also been removed. 

George IT. Reed, 
For the Committee. 

On motion of 31 r. S. C. Eastman, the report was accepted 
and ordered placed on file. 

On motion of Mr. S. C. Eastman, — 

Resolved, That the library committee be authorized to 
employ competent and trained assistants, who, after April 18, 
1906, shall classify and catalogue the library according to the 
Dewey decimal system, with such modifications as may be 
found necessary, and that the " committee ,1 be authorized to 
dispose of duplicates and books not in accord with the pur- 
poses of the Society. 

Resolved, That the library committee, with the treasurer, be 
directed to investigate and report at the annual meeting the 
amount available for the arrangement and cataloguing of the 
library, together with definite recommendations as to future 

The president appointed Mr. John C. Thome, Mr. J. E. 
Pecker and Miss Mary C. Eastman, a committee to make 
report on the Society's action in regard to the celebration of 


the anniversary of the death of D. CristoboL Colon, Vailadolid, 

Mr. Arthur IT. Chase moved a circular be prepared and sent 
to members requesting them to enlarge the membership of the 
Society, which was voted. 

On motion, the matter of having monthly meetings the com- 
ing winter was referred to the committee on speakers with 
full power. 

On motion of Rev. X. F. Carter, it was moved the Society's 
proceedings for the past year be published. 

The president appointed Mr. C. E. Hazlett, Rev. Alfred L. 
Elwyn and Mr. E. P. Kimball, a committee to look into the 
matter of preservation of the Manor House, Odiorne's Point > 

Voted to adjourn to the call of the president. 

IIexky A. Kimball, 


Coxcokd, X. II., January IT, 1906. 

The second adjourned eighty-third annual meeting of the 
Xew Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society, Wednesday, January IT, at 2 o'clock in the 

In the absence of the president, vice-presidents and secre- 
tary, Hon. Samuel C Eastman was chosen president pro tewi., 
and Rev. X. F. Carter, secretary pro tern. 

Rev. X. F. Carter, chairman of the committee on new mem- 
bers, reported the following names, and they were unanimously 
elected members of the Society : 

Mr. James C. Derby, Concord. 
Dr. O. B. Douglass, Concord. 
31 rs. Charlotte Q. Kimball, Concord. 
Mrs. Ella II. J. Hill, Concord. 
Dr. Loren A. Sanders, Concord. 
Mrs. Helen E. White, Concord. 
Elisha R. I>rown, Esq., Dover. 


Mrs. Laura M. Page, Haverhill. 

Mrs. Curtis B. Childs, Henniker. 

James Wilson Grimes, Hillsborough Bridge. 

Mr. Henry A. Brown, Penacook. 

D. Warren Fox, Penacook. 

Joseph E. S ymoridsy. Penacook. 

Hon. Henry E. Burnham, Manchester. 

Hon. Joseph W. Fellows, Manchester. 

Dr. George A. Weaver, Warren. 

Charles L. Ayling, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

Edward S. Comins, Boston, Mass. 

George A. Fernald, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. E. F. HarTenrerTer, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Philip Carpenter, Esq., Xew York City. 

Mr. William G. Wheat, Springfield, Mass. 

Owing to a misunderstanding in regard to price per member 
for carriage ride in Portsmouth on occasion of the annual 
tield day, October 11, 1005, it has been found a balance still 
remains due the liveryman. 

On motion of Mr. Win. P. Fiske, it was voted the treasurer 
pay such balance as remains uncollected. 
Voted to adjourn. 

K F. Carter, 
Secretary pro tern. 
A true copy, attest, 

Henry A. Kimball, 


Concord, X. H., February 14, 1906. 

The third adjourned eighty-third annual meeting of the 
Xew Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society, Wednesday, February 14, at 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon, Rev. Daniel C. Roberts, D. D., president, presiding. 

In the absence of the secretary, Rev. X. F. Carter was 
chosen to act as secretary pro tern. 

The attendance was unusually large* 



After the meeting was called to order, Rev. Louis II. Buck- 
shorn was introduced, and gave a very interesting account of 
his u Travels in Germany and Holland," much to the delight 
.and satisfaction of his hearers. 

At its close Hon. J. B. Walker made extended remarks, and 
moved a vote of thanks be tendered to the speaker for his 
entertaining address, and a request for a copy for preservation 
in the archives of the Society, 

The chairman of the committee on new members presented 
the name of James Burns Wallace of Xew York City for 
membership, and he was elected. 

An invitation from the American Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia, Penn., to the Xew Hampshire Historical Society 
to be represented at the celebration of the two hundredth 
anniversary of the birth of its founder, Benjamin Franklin, to 
be held in Philadelphia, on April 17, 18, 19 and 20, 190G, was 
presented by the librarian. 

On motion, Hon. Samuel C. Eastman was appointed such 

Mr. John C. Thome, chairman of the committee on com- 
memorating the 400th anniversary of the death of Christopher 
Columbus, which occurred May 20, 1506, made a written 
report as follows : 

" Your committee appointed at the meeting of the Society 
held October 18, 1905, in response to an invitation from the 
Historical and Statistical Society of the City of Mexico of 
September 1, 1905, lias met and formulated in part an order of 
exercises for that occasion, which is here submitted. That the 
event be honored by a meeting in the Auditorium on Saturday 
afternoon, May 19, that the oration be delivered by Hon- 
Charles R. Corning, mayor of the city, and a member of this 
Society; and that the music appropriate for the occasion be 
given by a chorus from the public schools. Your representa- 
tive also appeared before the city government on Monday 
evening, February 12, and extended an invitation to have the 
city, in an official manner join in the observance of this anni- 
versary. The invitation was unanimously accepted, and a 



committee consisting of his honor, the Mayor, the President of 
the Common Council, Alderman Rolfe and Councilman Cressv 
was chosen to cooperate with the committee of this Society to 
promote the proper observance of the fourth centennial of the 
death of the great discoverer, as outlined." 

On motion of Rev. Mr. Buckshorn, it was voted to adopt 
the report of the committee, and that it he authorized to pro- 
ceed with the arrangements, with full power. 
Voted to adjourn to March 14. 

X. F. Carter, 

Secretary pro tempore. 
A true copy, attest, 

Henry A. Kimball, 

Concord, N. IT., March 14, 1906. 

. The fourth adjourned eighty-third annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held in the rooms of 
the Society, Wednesday, March 14, at 2 o'clock in the after- 
noon. In the absence of the president, the secretary called 
the meeting to order. 

Owing to the absence of the speaker on account of illness, 
as there was no business to transact, on motion of the librarian, 
the meeting was adjourned to April 18. 

Henry A. Kimball, 


Concord, X. IF., April IB, 1906. 

The fifth adjourned annual meeting of this Society was held 
at the rooms of this organization on April 18, 1906, at 2 
o'clock in the afternoon, some twenty members being present. 

President Daniel C Roberts, D. D., in the chair. 
- John C. Thorne was appointed secretary pro tern, in the 
absence of Mr. Henry A. Kimball. 

The record of the previous meeting was read and approved. 


John 0. Thome reported that the proposed celebration of 
Columbus was indefinitely postponed. 

Rev. N. F. Carter, librarian, reported that the tombstone of 
John Scoville of Canaan had been restored, as by vote of the 
Society, October 18, 1905. 

On motion of Hon. L. D. Stevens, it was unanimously voted 
that the hearty thanks of this Society be, and are hereby, pre- 
sented to the Rev. X. F. Carter for his devoted services during 
the past eleven years as the librarian of the Society. 

The librarian, on retiring from office, presented his report. 


In retiring from the office of librarian after a service of 
nearly eleven years, it seems eminently fitting to give a brief 
review of the history of the library meanwhile. Immediately 
on the assumption of its duties occurred the improvements on 
the Society's building, including the digging of a cellar, the 
installation therein of a furnace for heating, and the building 
of a large tire-proof vault for choicest treasures. This necessi- 
tated a general overturning on the lower floor and the removal 
of the Society's valuable manuscripts in the old vault, and as 
well a large quantity of newspapers, for the time seriously 
embarrassing any work looking to classification and arrange- 
ment in needed order for easiest access. On the completion 
of the improvements in the late autumn began the entire over- 
hauling of the treasures of the library and such orderly arrange- 
ment as was needed to make them most easily accessible to 
its patrons. Pamphlets especially were in a chaotic mixture 
analogous to printer's pi. A careful sifting, classifying and 
cataloguing of these have ma<Ie approximately 30,000 usable, 
kept in substantial boxes made expressly for the purpose, shut 
away from dust, arranged alphabetically by subjects and num- 
bered consecutively with room for decimal expansion, the cor- 
responding number also place*! on the catalogue cards, with 
the ultimate design, when a new building furnishes ample 
room, to have the boxes arranged according to number for the 
ready finding of each. An index of these boxes has been pre- 
pared in each case giving the subject-matter within. This 


plan for keeping pamphlets has been highly recommended by 
librarians and others outside the state, and by a Brooklyn, 
N. V., librarian pronounced the best seen. At any rate, it has 
freed the shelves of a large number of unsightly packages of 
miscellaneous matter thrust in endwise without regard to mat- 
ter or order. 

For one side of the new vault boxes were made specially 
for the manuscripts of the Society, which were accordingly 
classified by persons, subjects and localities, with intimation of 
the contents of each placed on the outside to facilitate refer- 
ence. The cherished plan was to have each piece specially 
numbered and indexed so that any manuscript could be in- 
stantly located, but so much other necessary routine work 
called for attention, the plan has not been carried out on 
account of the impossibility of one pair of hands doing every- 
thing. This should be done as soon as the librarian has assis- 
tance adequate to the needs. These statements are made that 
hereafter it may be known that such incompleteness was not 
due to want of foresight or ignorance of the need. 

Beside the bound volumes of newspapers we have large 
accumulations stored from basement to attic and constantly 
increasing, which at no distant day should be carefully in- 
spected, sifted of what may seem worthless to preserve* and , 
in their entireness given room, as soon as the way opens, for 
easy consultation. Thus will be definitely known what we 
have and what we have not. Thus far lack of funds available 
for the purpose has prevented .the binding of many. At an 
early day at least 8500 should be expended for this purpose in 
binding volumes to complete files, and such others as are most 
important and most needed for consultation. A full index 
should be made at the earliest practicable moment. 

Accessions to the library during the eleven years, including 
the Sabine and Tappan libraries of 3,675 and 1,100 volumes 
respectively, have been 30,227. Mow many of these have 
been assured a permanent resting place is not known. Proba- 
bly some of the registrations in the next thousand years may 
prove worthless, but not having divine foresight they have 
been allowed to remain. A few catalogues seemingly of little 


value led the Hon. William C. Todd to leave Mt. Holvoke 
College a benefaction of nearly 8175,000. Other such in the 
future may prove a gold mine to some other institution. 

Six oil portraits have come to the picture gallery during the 
decade, chief of which were those of Daniel Webster, Peter 
Harvey and Prof. Roswell Shurtleff. Also one very valuable 
piece of tapestry and two fine colored worsted pieces. And 
as well, steel portraits of " Lincoln" and "Grant" and the 
"Deathbed of Daniel Webster," and small photographs of 
Admiral Belknap, Edna Dean Proctor, the granite boulder 
monument of Admiral Winslow and the grave of Gen. Enoch 
Poor. Also fine bronze medals of all the presidents to date, 
two brass cartridge cases used on the occasion of the celebra- 
tion of the consummation of the Treaty of Peace between 
Russia and Japan, September 5, 1905, the sword of Major- 
Andre, the British spy, the watch carried by Gen. John Sul- 
livan through the AVar of the Revolution, 130 stuffed and 
mounted birds, with nests, eggs and butterflies, and many 
minor articles too numerous to mention. 

During the decade volumes III and IV of the Society's Pro- 
ceedings have been issued and distributed. 

The Society is subscriber to four series of England's Parish 
. Registers, the Vital Records of Massachusetts' Towns, and 
various historical and genealogical periodicals. 

The motion made at the meeting of last October seeraed to 
intimate that the matter of card cataloguing the Society's 
library was then fur the first time suggested as the outcome of 
the new policy whose adoption was so essential to the very 
existence of the Society. If the mover of the motion had 
referred to the librarian's report for 1902 he would have 
learned that correspondence between this library and the 
Library of Congress had passed in reference to furnishing this 
library with duplicate printed cards, as were being issued 
on re-cataloguing that library. It was estimated that it would 
take five or six years for its corps of expert cataloguers — pre- 
sumed to be the best to be had — to complete the work. It 
was recommended that this library secure duplicates to cover 
its own treasures. At a meeting of the library committee June 


30, 1902, the committee voted unanimously " x to adopt the card 
cataloguing as provided by the Library of Congress." That 
vote stands today unrepealed and takes the precedence of any 
later action, and it only remains for the librarian, after that 
library completes its work, to select such duplicates as will 
cover this library, and at an expense much less than the cost of 
employing home cataloguers. 

It is certainly very probable that the system adopted by the 
Library of Congress is the best yet devised. While the Dewey 
system has its excellences it is not capturing the best libraries 
of the country, as facts demonstrate. Last September the 
librarian of the Los Angeles Public Library sent a personal 
letter to the first one hundred libraries of the United States, 
asking (1) Do you employ the "Dewey classification" literally 
and in all departments : or (2), In part, or in some depart- 
ments, and with what modifications ? He received replies 
from sixty-six of these libraries, and found that only nine use 
the "Dewey classification" almost literally. Twenty-nine use 
it only with important modifications. Twenty-eight do not 
use it at all. The most scholarly libraries in the Ignited States 
do not use it — nor the most important, as for instance the 
Library of Congress, Harvard College, New York Public, John 
Carter Brown, Wisconsin State Historical, Washington Public, 
Johns Hopkins, Newberry (Chicago), Enoch Pratt (Baltimore), 
Cornell University, Providence (11. I.) Public, University of 
California, Chicago Public, St. Louis Mercantile, Xew Orleans 
Public, etc.; also, the Massachusetts Historical, Congregational 
(Boston), and Yale University. Neither does any library 
under government control. The Los Angeles Public Library 
adopted the Dewey system long ago, and retains it only because 
the time and expense necessary to turn to any other would 
involve greater expense than they can afford, and so must 
adapt it to their needs as best they can. Our theory is — and 
we have not yet found any one to dispute it— that that system 
is best that makes the treasures of a library most easily accessi- 
ble to its patrons. What patrons want is certain books, and if 
they can speedily get access to these they do not care a straw 


as to the system used in cataloguing. Too fine sifting may be 
satisfying as an achievement^ but practically may be needless 
and useless. Figures on the Dewey tag are only so much 
Greek to the average patron. If the library committee choose 
to go back on their previous record and judge the " Dewey 
classification " preferable to that of the Library of Congress T 
suppose it can do so. For one I should regret it. My judg- 
ment is that to adopt the cataloguing of the Library of Con- 
gress will be better for the library and a great saying in 
expense in the act of cataloguing. The State Library at Bos- 
ton is a depository for the entire cards covering the Library of 
Congress, and there can selection be made to cover this library. 
As such cards are printed they are much to be preferred to 
those typewritten. 

The Sabine and l>ell libraries have already been catalogued, 
the former by authors and the latter by authors and titles. As 
they will never receive increase in number of volumes, after 
arrangement they have been numbered consecutively as fur- 
nishing the easiest and surest method of detection of any 
missing volume, every card bearing its appropriate number, 
thereby enabling the instant finding of any desired volume. 

A new feature introduced is the insertion in every bound 
volume of the exact date of its reception, and whether by gift, 
exchange or purchase. 

In conclusion I would say that after nearly eleven years of 
experience 1 think 1 am justified in saving that 1 know more 
about the condition and needs of the library than any one else. 
Sufficient reasons are apparent why its order is not what 
miodit be desired. Had there been room for healthy expansion 
the different classifications would all have been by themselves 
and arranged in becoming order greatly to my satisfaction. ] 
regret the occasion for failure in such accomplishment. Since 
the large exclusion of books there are a few empty shelves on 
the third floor available, but time and strength have been inad- 
equate for undertaking the necessary changes to find room on 
the lower tloor to arrange as desirable. When the new build- 
ing materializes or the new regime is permanently established 
and in running order, the perfect arrangement can easily be 



made with the minimum expenditure of time and labor. It is 
hoped that the time is not far distant when this can be done. 
An entire overhauling is essential to satisfactory results. If I 
mistake not some libraries are accustomed to do this once in 
five years. 

What the library needs first of all is a competent male 
librarian. This, in my judgment, is indispensable if the best 
interests of the Society are to be consulted. Something more 
than expert cataloguing is demanded. Desirable as such cata- 
loguing may be, other tilings are of greater importance and 
must receive prompt attention as occasion requires, if the ends 
for which this Society was established are to be satisfactorily 
accomplished. Facts show that the leading libraries of the 
country do not consider an expert in cataloguing simply com- 
petent to manage wisely and well the varied departments of 
their libraries. Xo more should this. Executive ability is 
needed to ensure a proper economy in administration. A 
variety of duties too numerous to mention call for attention. 
A novice in historical research ought not to be considered. A 
large acquaintance with historical and genealogical works is 
essential to a healthy increase in the growth and value of the 
library for the highest usefulness to its patrons. To farm out 
the varied duties to different individuals is a confession of 
weakness. To suspend the purchase of books for a time for 
the sake of using the money for cataloguing to say the least is 
unwise, and savors of stagnation. 

The librarian also must be competent to prepare copy, prop- 
erly index and see through the press the Society's publications. 

The library will be suitably equipped for the best service 
only when funds are ample to warrant a capable, assistant 
whose chief business shall be to look after the cataloguing and 
such other minor matters as circumstances from time to time 
may require. 

In putting oft' the harness I have the great satisfaction of 
knowing that 1 have done more for the proper classification 
and improvement of the library than any who have preceded 
me. Under more favorable circumstances and helpful eo<"»pera- 
tion more would have been accomplished. In the Society's 



special departments of history and genealogy the library offers 
its patrons today twice the number of volumes that were on its 
shelves eleven years ago. I have taken pleasure in all mv 
endeavors to increase its value and usefulness, and know my 
efforts have been promotive of the best interests of the Societv 
and economy in administration. With many pleasant memo- 
ries and the sincere desire that the Society may enter upon a 
new era of prosperity entirely free from unnecessary friction, 
I am glad to be relieved of the many cares and responsibilities 
of this office, and especially of the necessity frcm October to 
May of special Sunday morning trips to replenish the furnace 
fires. With great thankfulness that ill health has not kept me 
from the daily routine, if memory serves me, more than a 
couple of weeks during these years, 

Kespectf ully submitted , 

N. F. Carter. 

On motion of Mr. Howard M. Cook it was voted that the 
report be accepted and placed on tile. 

The report of the committee on the library was given by 
Rev. George II. Reed. 

At the meeting of the Society some live months ago the 
following vote was passed : 

Resolved, That the library committee be authorized to em- 
ploy competent and trained assistants, who, after April 18, 
1906, shall classify the library according to the Dewey decimal 
system, with such modifications as maybe found necessary, and 
that the committee be authorized to dispose of duplicates and 
books not in accord with the purposes of the Society. 

Resolved, That the library committee with the treasurer be 
directed to investigate and report at the annual meeting the 
amount available for the arrangement and cataloguing of the 
library together with definite recommendations as to future 

1. The library committee at this time desires to report that 
acting upon the first clause of the above resolution they have 
employed Miss Edith Freeman of Concord, for several years 


connected with the cataloguing department of the New Hamp- 
shire State Library, to begin work upon the classifying and 
cataloguing of the library on April 19 next. That they intend 
to employ another young lady to work under Miss Freeman's 

2. That they have made arrangements for janitor's service 
covering all the heavier work about the building. That they 
have purchased a typewriter and the cards necessary to begin 
said work. 

They estimate that this work will be finished by two young 
ladies working together as above in about one year, and that 
the total expense attending it will amount to approximately 

They are informed by Mr. Fiske, the treasurer of the Soci- 
ety, that there are current funds in the treasury of $1,060, that 
the state appropriation of $500 will be payable in June, to 
which must be added the dues of members for the year 1906- 
07, making a total of funds in sight which may be applied to 
this work during the coming year of about $1,900. 

o. They recommend that a librarian pro tempore be elected 
at this meeting of the Society who shall without pay per- 
form the technical duties of librarian until the annual meet- 
ing, and reelected at that time to serve until the election of a 
permanent librarian by the Society. Said librarian pro tempore 
to serve without pay and to have no care with reference to the 
classification and cataloguing of the library. 

4. They further recommend the closing of the upper floors 
of the library to visitors during the rearrangement and until 
such time as they shall be put in proper order, at the discretion 
of the librarian. 

George H. Reed. 
Frances C. Stevens. 
Arthur II. Chase. 

This report was on motion accepted and thus brought to the 
consideration of the Society. The action of the committee in 
"employing Miss Edith Freeman of Concord to begin work 
upon the classifying and cataloguing of the library on April 19 
[text," was agreed to. 


The recommendation that a librarian pro tempore be elected 
was not adopted by a vote of five for it and seven against. 

" The closing of the upper floor during the progress of re- 
arrangement,^ was amended by 3!r. Arthur II. Chase, " to be 
at the discretion of the librarian," and was accepted by the 

On motion it was voted that we proceed to the election of a 
librarian. Mr. Chase nominated Mr. Samuel C. Eastman ; Mr. 
Cook nominated Tiev. X. F. Carter. Proceeded to ballot. 
Number of votes cast, 15. Whole number necessary for a 
choice, 8. Samuel C. Eastman had G ; Rev. X. F. Carter had 
9 and was declared elected by the president. 

On motion of John C. Thome it was voted that a committee 
of three he appointed by the president as a committee on field 
day, to be named at or before the annual meeting. 

On motion it was voted that we adjourn at the call of the 

Johx 0. Thorne, 

Secretary pro tempore. 

A true record, attest : 

Hexrv A. Kim halt., 





Mrs. Caroline (Baker) Bartlett became a member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society June 21, 1888, and was 
deeply interested in its transactions. A native of Concord and 
a lifelong resident she was well known to a large number of 
our citizens. She came from a sturdy New Hampshire stock 
and married with the son of the brilliant and intellectual Bart- 
lett family. The Baker family was well known during the 
middle of the last century, and a son became prominent as a 
public man and was chosen governor of the state in 185-1. 
That was Nathaniel B. Baker, brother of Mrs. Bartlett. Abel 
Baker, the father, son of Abel Baker, senior, was born in Con- 
cord, January 16, 1791. His wife was Nancy Bradley, a de- 
scendant of one of Penacook's earliest settlers. 

Whoever wishes to learn some' of the characteristics of the 
Baker family should repair to Bouton's History, which sets 
forth the sterling qualities of that typical New Hampshire 
family most interestingly. 

Caroline was born in the West Parish, in a house now stand- 
ing the first south of Holden's old mill, on the east side of 
North State Street. Her girlhood was passed in Concord, 
where she attended the famous private school kept by Miss 
Ela. She married May 8, 1856, William Henry Bartlett. At 
that time Mr. Bartlett was a lawyer of unusual promise, a 
graduate of Dartmouth College, and a younger brother of a 
recent president of that college. That promise culminated in 
the highest professional promotion, for in 1861 he was appointed 
a judge of the supreme judicial court. Husband and wife 
formed the happiest of partnership, and their home became an 
attractive center up to the time of Judge Bartletfs lamented 
death in 1867. 


Mrs. Bartlett lived to a truly venerable age, dying January 
16, 1905. All her life was spent in Concord, yet her active 
mind made her cosmopolitan in knowledge and sentiment. She 
was a woman of keen intuition, catholic in judgment, and 
charitable in all things. For many years she performed with 
exceeding devotion the secretaryship of the Old Charitable 
Society and of the Home for the Aged. In her case years 
seemed never to count against her, for her heart's sympathies 
remained quick and youthful even to the end. She was a 
communicant of St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 

C. R. C. 


Augustus Holmes Bixby, son of Paul Holmes and Eliza 
Jane (Aiken) Bixby, was born in Francestown, March 12, 
1827, and died there December 21, 1904. He received his 
education at Francestown and Kimball Union academies. He 
studied two years at Amherst College, but did not graduate. 
He fitted himself for a civil engineer, and was employed in 
that capacity bn the Marys ville and Lexington Railroad in 
Kentucky, Wabash, Indiana, Memphis and Xashville, Tenn., 
and Memphis and Little Rock, Ark. He was on the Isthmus 
of Panama in the famous days of 1849. At the breaking out 
of the Civil War he enlisted in the New Hampshire Battalion 
of the Xew PZngland Cavalry as first lieutenant, and was pro- 
moted to captain, and later to brigadier-major; also serving in 
the First Rhode Island and First Massachusetts Cavalry, three 
years in all. He participated in twenty-five engagements, and 
in all commanded his company. He was breveted brigadier- 
major in July, 1S65, and ever after bore that title among his 
friends. After leaving the service he was unable to follow 
any profession on account of disabilities. 

He represented his town in the Legislature, was selectman 
several years, besides holding various other offices. He was a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and of the Louis Bell Post, 
G. A. R., and was department commander, 1871. 

John F. Jones 


He was historically inclined, and joined the New Hampshire 
Historical Society June 14, 1893. 

He married Mary Louise, daughter of William and Mary 
(Doak) Shepherd of Concord, Mass., December 2, 1855, by 
whom he had William Paul, born January 1, 1857, and dying 
July 16, 1888, and Joseph Shepherd, born March 15, 1860. 
His wife and youngest son survive him. 


John Franklin Jones, son of Jonathan and Sarah (Currier) 
Jones, was born in Hopkinton, March 31, 1835, and died sud- 
denly at his home in Concord, March 28, 1905. 

He was educated in the schools of his native town. For 
some years before attaining his majority he was an invalid. 
At the age of twenty-two he went to Wakefield and Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and found employment in a drug store, but the 
business not agreeing with him, he soon returned to Hopkin- 
ton, and was clerk in the general country store of Fellows Sz 
Huntoon, and of Fuller & Putney, Contoocook, till 1861, when 
in company with P. T. Crowell he opened a general merchan- 
dise stove in Contoocook, under the firm name of Jones & 
Crowell, and did a successful business till 1867, when failing- 
health led him to sell out to his partner. He, however, con- 
tinued to reside in Contoocook, engaged in the insurance busi- 
ness, acting as justice, and the settling of estates from 1867 to 
1885. lie was town clerk, 1861-67 and 1875; town treas- 
urer, 1861-66 and 1872, and member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention, 1876. 

In 1885 he was elected treasurer of the Loan and Trust 
Savings Bank, and so continued till 1897, when he became 
president, and held the otrice till his death. He was also 
treasurer of Merrimack County; park commissioner of Con- 
cord ; director of the National State Capital Bank of Concord, 
1881-1905; trustee of the Loan and Trust Savings Bank, 
1874-1905; treasurer of the New Hampshire Antiquarian 
Societv, 1872-97, and two years its president; treasurer of 


the AYoodsum Steamboat Co., and Manufacturers' and Mer- 
chants' Mutual Insurance Co. 

He was a member of Kearsarge Lodge, I. O. 0. F., of Con- 
toocook ; of Blazing Star Lodge of A. & F. M., Concord ; of 
Trinity Chapter, Horace Chase Council, of Mt, IToreb Com- 
mandery of Concord, and its treasurer for many years from 
1891 ; and of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rites Valley of 
Nashua ; New Hampshire Antiquarian Society of Hopkinton, 
and New Hampshire Historical Society, joining the latter 
June 9, 1897. 

He was. a member of the First Baptist Church of Hopkin- 
ton, and the Y. M. C. A. of Concord, and interested in all work 
for the greater welfare of the community. 

He married October 28, 1861, Maria II. Barnard, who sur- 
vives him, as also two sons, John Arthur Jones of Hopkinton, 
born April 8, 18G4, and Charles Currier Jones of Concord, 
born 31 arch 23, 1871. 


Mrs. Mary O. (Oilman) Long was the daughter of Col. 
Nathaniel and Dorothy (Folsom) Oilman, and granddaughter 
of Gen. Nathaniel Folsom of Exeter, who achieved distinction 
in the French and Indian and Revolutionary wars, and was 
four times delegate to the Continental Congress. Her father 
was the son of Nicholas Oilman, New Hampshire treasurer in 
the Revolution, and was a man of more than ordinary ability 
and promise, eight years state treasurer and repeatedly state 
senator, and otherwise influential in public life. 

Mrs. Long was born in Exeter, March 9, 1810, and, as will 
be seen, to a high social position, which through life she well 
adorned. She married, June 1, 1 829, John Collins Long of Ports- 
mouth, who began his notable naval career of half a century as 
midshipman on the Constitution, and by his superior ability 
and faithful discharge of duty in every position in which he 
found himself, he finally attained the rank of commodore. He 
participated in the engagement of the Constitution with the 

John C. Okdway 


Java, and afterwards saw service in the suppression of piracy 
in the West Indies and a voyage of Antarctic discovery. He 
commanded the frigate detailed to bring Kossuth to this coun- 
try, girdled the globe in command of the Boston, and had 
command of the Pacific squadron, and died September 2, 1865, 
in Exeter, lamented by all who knew him. 

Mrs. Long was probably the last surviving widow of a naval 
officer of the War of 1812. A few years of her early married 
life was spent at the Portsmouth Navy Yard and old Rocking- 
ham House, in Portsmouth, but she subsequently became a per- 
manent resident of Exeter, endearing herself there to all who 
knew her. She was a woman of exceptional charm, cultured 
and accomplished, dignified but affable, "the impersonation of 
hospitality," and generous m her charities to those less favored. 
"She never was so happy as in giving, and her pensioners 
were a numerous band." Christmas was to her a day of lov- 
ing remembrance. She was interested in every good work, as 
also in historical matters, becoming a member of the Xew 
Hampshire Historical Society June 8, 1881. She lived to a 
ripe and serene old age, dying childless and the last of her 
family, October 14, 1904, but leaving a very large circle of 
relatives to mourn her departure. 


The Xew Hampshire Historical Society never had a better 
friend nor more efficient officer than John Chandler Ordway, 
who died at his home after a brief illness with pneumonia, 
April 23, 1905, greatly lamented by his host of friends and 
the general public. He was born in Concord, June 30, 1839, 
the son of Capt. John C. and Louise W. Ordway ; was edu- 
cated in the schools of the city and Hopkinton Academy, 
1853-55; became a telegrapher in 1856, and served as such 
at St. Albans, Yt, Montreal and other points till the fall of 
1859, when he entered the counting-room of Lewis Downing 
& Sons, continuing a couple of years. At the breaking out of 
the Civil War in 1861 he again became a telegrapher, and 


was soon promoted to manager of the Northern Hue of tele- 
graph in Boston, and so continued till the lease of the com- 
pany's interests to the Western Union in I860, but remained 
at his former charge in the employ of the latter company till 
1870, when he accepted a position as chief of the motive power 
and rolling stock department of the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern Railway Company, at Cleveland, O., where he 
remained till failing health compelled him to resign and retire 
from active business in 1887. lie then returned to his native 
city and there made his permanent home. 

He served the city as alderman, 1887-90, and as a member 
of the board of education from March, 1888, to April, 1908, 
and was president of the board from November, 1895, to 
April, 1900. He was a member of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, and its state registrar for some years : was secretary of 
the Commercial Club, 1891-93; and for many years one of 
the trustees of the New Hampshire Savings Bank, and mem- 
ber of its executive committee, 1891-1905. He became a 
member of the New Hampshire Historical Society, October 6, 
1885, and was its very efficient secretary, 1891-1905. 

He was a man of sterling common sense and sound judg- 
ment in matters of education and finance. With painstaking- 
care he prepared and contributed to the new History of Con- 
cord the three chapter^ on schools and academies. 

He married in 1871, Sarah J., daughter of Rev. Elisha 
Adams, D.I)., who survives him, as also two daughters, Mrs. 
Mary A. Morton and Louise A. Ordway, both of Concord, and 
a sister, Miss Harriet S. Ordway. 


Joseph 0. A. Wingate was born in Stratham, November 10, 
1830, the son of Dea. John and Sally (Piper) Wingate, and 
orandson of Rev. Paine Wincrate who represented NewHamp- 
shire in the first Congress under the confederation and in the 
first Congress under the federal Constitution. He fitted for 
college at Phillips Exeter Academy, and graduated at Bowdoin 


College in 1851. lie afterwards studied law in the office of 
Stickney and Tuck, Exeter, 1851-54, and practised a few 
years in Chester and Concord. In 1858 he became cashier of 
the Merrimack County Bank in Concord, removing to the lat- 
ter place and remaining till 18G:2, when he was com- 
pelled to resign on account of failing health. He was 
appointed United States consul to Swatow, China, April 6, 
1863, holding the position until 3875. ' He was appointed con- 
sul to Foochow, China, March 31, 1880, and so continued till 
1889, when his health again compelled his resignation. On 
the latter occasion he received from the United States govern- 
ment a letter of high commendation for his faithful services, 
and from the diplomatic corps at Foochow a magnificent 
inscribed silver service. The Chinese residents also presented- 
him with an oriental testimonial. lie was for the same time, 
also, acting consul of the German empire, and for some time 
had in charge Eussian and Japanese interests. 

During the Franco-Chinese crisis he looked after the inter- 
ests of the Portugese, whose diplomatic matters had previ- 
ously been in charge of the French consul, and afterwards 
received formally from the Portugese residents a silver gift as 
a testimonial of their appreciation of his service, and also 
received the thanks of the German Imperial Government. 
lie served as consul under eight presidents. 

After returning from China to his native town he lived on 
the farm of his grandfather, served as representative, and del- 
egate to the constitutional convention, and as moderator till 
his death. He was a devoted member of the Congregational 
Church, and had served it and also the parish many times in 
various capacities. 

He was a man of high character and fine endowments. As 
said one who had known him many years, "He was the most 
cosmopolitan man among us, the richest in the fruit of travel 
and foreign residence. He was singularly equipped for profit- 
taking in three journeys round the world. Alert, intellectually 
inquisitive, sympathetic, interested in all conditions and move- 
ments, he went through strange lands with open eyes and 
a memory which held everything. Ready of speech and 



superbly unconscious that others could not meet him as equals, 
his conversation poured out the treasures of his mind. . . 

"He was one of our most vital links with the Puritan past. 
He inherited the Puritan blood and the Puritan tradition. 
His vivacity, his versatility, his eager and ardent nature, his 
friendliness, were his own ; but his high idealism, his uncom- 
promising justice, his indomitable spirit, his spiritual vision, 
his concern for the betterment of the world, were an inherit- 
ance from the best life of early New England. . . . lie 
was a fine illustration of the manner in which Christianity 
takes possession of a man." 

He was historical in his tastes, as might be naturally 
inferred, and a member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, from June 1 1, 1890. 

He married Mary, daughter of William and Harriet (Kim- 
ball) Green, October 19, 1SG0, but his wife died several years 
prior to his own death. He is survived by two sisters, Mrs. 
Sarah Parkman of Palmyra, Me., and Sirs. .Anna H. Gilbert of 
Essex, Mass., and a brother, Henry P. Wingate of Hampton. 


Concord, X. H., June 13, 1906. 

The eighty-fourth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society in 
Concord, Wednesday, June 13, at 11 o'clock in the forenoon. 
About thirty members were in attendance, President Roberts 
in the chair. 

The secretary read the call for the meeting; also the report 
of the last annual meeting, June 14, 1905, and the record of 
the last adjourned annual meeting. 

The president spoke of Hanover as a place suggested by 
some members for the annual Field Day, and, accordingly, 
named the Rev. Lucius Waterman, D. I)., of Hanover, as 
chairman, with the Rev. Marvin D. Bisbee, Hanover, William 
P. Fiske, Col. J. Eastman Pecker and the Secretary, Concord, 
as members of the committee. 

The treasurer, Mr. William P. Fiske, read his report, which 
was accepted and placed on file. 


Receipts Credited to General Income: 

Income from permanent fund, $581.07 

New members. 90.00 

Assessments, 441.00 

Life membership, 50.00 

Books sold, 276.72 

Receipts from librarian, 25.77 

State appropriation, 500.00 

Income from Todd fund, 249.73 



Expenditures Charged to General Income: 

and binding, 

Vol. of Proceedings, 

Printing and binding, 


Ke pairs, 

Salary of librarian, 

Incidental expenses at library, 

Labor of assistants, 

Library supplies, 

Stamps and envelopes, 

Books purchased, 

Tappan fund, 

Permanent fund, 
Current funds, 

"I o new account 
Permanent fund, 
Current funds, 

The William 0. Todd Fund. 

To investments, $6,500.00 

income, '2 It). 7 3 

. §6,749.73 

By paid for books of genealogy, 249.73 























The Charles L. Tappan fund, 8566.00 


List of Securities in the Rands of the Treasurer : 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s debentures, $1,000.00 
Bal. due on Johnson Loan & Tr. 

Co.'s debenture, 250.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rd. 

bonds, 8500 each, 1,000.00 
2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rd. 

bonds, 2,000.00 . 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co.'s bonds, 2,000.00 
13 shares Concord & Montreal Rd., 2,268.50 

5 shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

Rd., 500.00 

3 shares Concord Electric Co., 300.00 
Deposit in Kew Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 3,163.47 

Deposit in National Bank, 507.13 


The William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great Northern 

Rd. bond, $1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co.'s bonds, 2,000.00 
1 City of Laconia bond, 1,000.00 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, ■ 2,500.00 


Building Fund. 

As per report of last year, $16,478.71 

Income from same, 605.12 


On deposit, $16,983.83 

Note, 100 00 


We have this day examined the account of William P. 
Fiske, treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society for 
the year ending June 12, 1906, and find the same correctly 



cast and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We have also 
examined the securities constituting the funds of the Society 
and find them correct. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 

Standing Committee. 
Concord, N. EL, June 12, 1906. 

Rev. X. F. Carter, librarian, read his report, which was 
accepted and placed on tile. 


In completing the annual report of the condition of the 
library for the year just ending, it can be said with congratu- 
lations that for the last two months it has been happily 
equipped in the addition to its working force of an accom- 
plished assistant, Miss Edith Freeman, who has very quietly and 
industriously made a most satisfactory beginning in cataloguing 
genealogies and histories. This is as it should be, and we 
trust that the good work may go on to the finish. It behooves 
the Society, therefore, to provide for its continuance, and elect 
a competent male librarian to attend to the general manage- 
ment of the library in such careful and economic way ns shall 
best subserve its interests along the special lines for which it 
was instituted. 

Accessions the past year have been 272 bound volumes and 
Too pamphlets, a notable falling off, as for the two previous 
years, from the average of former years. The reason can only 
be surmised. During the year ninety-three volumes have been 
bound, and seventy-four bound volumes and forty-seven 
pamphlets purchased. 

Individual donors have contributed as follows: 

Abbott, Frances M. 
Adams, George H. 
Aiken, Rev. E. J. 
Amen, Harlan P. 
Anderson, Rev. Asher 



1 2 

Andrews, C. C. 



Armstrong, Esther A. 



Ayres, Rev. Samuel G. 



Bachelder, Nahmn J. 



Bacon, John L. 


Balch, William L. 
Barnwell, James G. 
Barret, Mary E. 
Bartlett, R. F. 
Bascom, Robert O. 
Batchellor, Albert S. 
Bates, George W. 
Baxter, Charles J. 
Benton, Joseph 
Bogert, Henry L. 
Bolt-wood, Mrs. L. M. 
Brientnall, R. H. 
Brownell, C. W, 
Buckshorn, Rev. L. H. 
Caldwell, William H. 
Capen, Samuel B. 
Carter, Rev. Clark 
Carter, Rev. N. F. 
Carter, Mrs. N. F. 
Carver, W. L. 

Chandler, William D. 

Clark, Harrison 

Cobb, Rev. Levi H. 

Comstock, John M. 

Congdon, George F. 
• Conn, Dr. Granville P. 

Cousins, Rev. E. M. 

Daniels, A. H. 


Doremus, S. D. 

Dye, Franklin 

Eastman, Charles F. 

Eastman, Samuel C. 

Edgerly, Henry D. 

Emerson. Charles F. 

Evans, J. D. 

Ferriee, Francis 

Fitts, Mrs. James H. 

Folger, Allen 

Folsom, Capt. A. A. 

Galliuger. Jacob II. 

Gardner, Rev. Rufus P. 

Garrison, Winton C. 

Geronld, E. P. 



i. Pam. 




Gibbs, William D. 



Gillett, Frederick H. 


1 1 

Ginn & Co. 



Gonld, Sylvester C. 

3 4 


Green, Dr. Samuel A. 



Hardy, Rev. W. A. W. 



Harris, Mary B. 


1 1 

Hayward, Rev. Silvanus 



Hazelton, George C. 



Hedges, Sidney M. 



Henry, Rev. George A. 



Hewett, Alfred 



Holmes, Clay W. 



Howe, Miss Salina A. 



Hutchinson, E. C. 



Jenks, Alfred E. 

4 1 


Kummell, Henry B. 



Ladd, Miss Maria F. 



Lane, E. F. 



Lane, Thomas W. 

V 1 


Larkin, Miss Josephine C. 



Leahy, William A. 



Lee, Guy L. 



Linehan, John C. 



Little, George T. 



Maguire, Irving E. 



Mat lies, Miss M. P. 



McAleer, George, M. D. 



McDonald, John R. 



McGann, Edward W. 



McGlenen, E. W. 

2 1 


Means, Emily A. 


1 1 

Meier, Jennie II . 



Miller, Kent 



Miller, Morton L. 



Minot, Mrs. James 



Mitchell, Henry 


18 1 

Mitchell. I. Alfred 



Mitchell, Mrs. W. B. 


3 6 

Morris & Co., John D. 



Moore, Willis L. 



Murray, E. W. 



Musgrove, R. W. 


7 7 

Nelson, William 




Vols. Pam. 

Newcomb, H. T. 

Nichols, John H. 
Nims, Mrs. Alice 


Olin, William N. 


Page, Elwin L. 
Page, Frank E. 
Palmer, Lowell M. 
Patterson, Samuel F. 
Phillips, H. C. 
Pidgeon, Charles F. 
Powers, Mary A. 
Prescott, Mrs. B. F. 



Root, Azariali S. 
Sanborn, Frank B. 
Sanborn, M. x Ray 
Sanford, Rev. Erias S. 
Sargent, Rev. 0. C. 
Schiff, Jacob H. 




Searight, T. B. 
Sherman, Charles E. 
Sise, Frederic 


Smiley, Albert K. 


Swan, Robert T. 


Thayer, Miss Kate M. 
Thomas, Mrs. A. P. 
Thorn e, John C. 
Thwaite, R. G. 


Tibbetts, Charles W. 


Tittmann, 0. H. 


Tufts, James A. 
Waldron, Rev. D. W. 
Walker, Isaac 



Walker, Joseph B. 
Watkins, David 0. 



Watson, Irving A., M. D. 


Wells, Benjamin W. 
Wheeler, Giles 
Whitcomb, Frank H. 
White, Almira L. 


White, J. DuPratt 


Wiggin, Frank H. 
Wilder, Frank A. 


Woodbury, Ernest R. 
Woodbury, Frank D. 


Vols. Pam. 
Woodbury, John l 

Wood worth, Mrs. A. B. 1 

Wolcott, Charles D. 31 110 

Wortele, F. E. i 

From Historical Societies : 

American Antiquarian 

American Catholic 

American Philosophical 





Historical and Philosophical 

Historical Department of 

Iowa State 1 

Kentucky State 



Massachusetts 5 


Minnesota 3 

Missouri 8 

New England Hist, and Gen. 

New Haven Colony 

New Jersey 

New York & 

Ohio Archaeological & Hist. 




Quebec Literary and Histori- 


Royal Academy of Antiquity 

Southern California 

Texas Association 


West Virginia 

Wisconsin 1 

Worcester Society of An- 



Vols. Pam. 
Wyoming Commemorative 

Association 1 

Libraries have contributed as 
follows : 

Congress 2 
Department of State 1 
Los Angeles Public 2 
Mercantile Library Associa- 
tion 1 
Newberry 1 
New Hampsliire State 7 1 
New York Public • 12 
New York State 8 
Osaka 1 
Peoria 1 
St. Louis Public 1 
Syracuse Public 2 

Received from educational 
institutions as follows : 

Andover Theological Semi- 
nary 1 
Augustana College 2 
Bangor Theological Semi- 
nary 1 
Bowdoin College 8 
Brown University 2 
.Chadron Academy 1 
Colby College 2 
Colorado College 1 
Drew Theological Seminary 39 
Hartford Theological Semi- 
nary 1 
Harvard University 1 1 
Johns Hopkins University 11 
Lombard College 1 
Mass. Institute of Technol- 
ogy 2 
Mount Holyoke College 1 
North Carolina University 1 
Ohio State University 1 
Smith College 1 
St. Paul's School 2 

Vols. Pam. 

Trinity College 3 

Tufts College l 

University of California 2 
University of Cincinnati 2G 

LMversity of Iowa 1 

LTiiiversity of Michigan 4 

University of Toronto 2 

University of Toulouse 12 

U. S. Naval Academy 1 

Yoorhees Industrial School 1 

Wellesley College 2 

"Wesleyan University 4 

Yale University 3 

The following are from other 
sources : 

Adams Nervine Asylum 1 

American Board 2 

Appalachian Club 3 

Associated Charities 1 
Bank Commissioners 1 

Barnard Memorial 1 
Benevolent Fraternity of 

Churches 1 
Boston & Maine Railroad 1 
Boston City Hospital 1 
Boston Library Company 1 
Boston Provident Associa- 
tion 1 
Boston Y. M. C. Union 1 
Bureau of Education 1 
Bureau of Ethnology 1 1 
Bureau of Labor 6 
Butler Hospital for Insane 2 
California Sons of Am. Rev. 1 
Census Bureau 7 10 
Chicago & Rock Island R. R. 1 
Children's Aid Society 1 
Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion 1 
Congregational Association 1 
Department of State 1 
Elliot City Hospital ; 1 
Hartford Retreat 1 







Home of Little Wanderers 


Perkins Institute for Blind 


Hospital for Epileptics 


Prison Discipline Society 


Industrial Aid Society 


School for Feeble-Minded 


Interstate Commerce Com- 






11 10 

License Commissioners 


State Farm 


Maine General Hospital 


Supt. of Documents 


Mass. Eye and Ear Infirm- 

Taunton Insane Hospital 




Towle Manufacturing Com- 

Mass. General Hospital 


■ pany 


Mass. Infant Asylum 


Union League 


Mich. Political Science As- 

University Club 




U. S. Government 


Moody's Bible Institute 


Vermont Insurance 


N. E. Hospital for "Women 


War Department 


N. J. State Hospital 


Woman's Hospital 


N. Y. State Reformatory 


The following publications come regularly to the library 

Boston Advertiser. 
Boston Journal. 


Nashua Telegraph. 


Bristol Enterprise . 
Canaan Reporter. 
E. ceter Ne > us - Le tte r. 
Kearsarge Independent. 
Littleton Courier. 
Meredith News, 

American Missionary. 
Atlantic Monthly. 
Bible Society Record. 
Granite Monthly. 
Home Missionary. 
Life and Light. 

Milford Cabinet. 
Netu Hampshire Patriot. 
New Hampshire Statesman. 
Plymouth Record. 
Somersworih Free Press. 
Woodsville Neivs, 


Miss iona ry He m Id . 
New Hampshire Issue. 
North American Review. 
Sailor's Magazine. 
Sunday School Missionary. 





American Catholic Historical Record. 

American Historical Review. 

Annals of Iowa. 

A nth ropologist. 

Dedham Historical Register. 

Essex Antiquarian. 

Historic Quarterly. 

Iowa Historical Register. 

Iowa Journal of History and Politics. 

Kentuchy Historical Register. 

Maryland Historical Magazine. 

Mayflower Descendant. 

Medjield Historical Register. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register. 

New Hampshire Genealogical Record. 

Pennsylvania Magazine. 

Presbyterian Historical Journal . 

Texas State Association Quarterly. 

Transallegheny Magazine. 

West Virginia Historical Magazine. 

William and Mary Quarterly. 

In response to a circular of request a copy of the records of 
the Congregational Church of Gilsiim has been received dur- 
ing the year. Also two volumes of the oldest records of the 
Congregational Church of llopkinton. The Societv has also 
receive'! through Rev. Samuel Rose, by vote of the ETollis 
Association four volumes of its official records. Also from 
Maj. Henry McFarland a fine copy of the portrait of his grand- 
father, Rev. Asa McFarland, long pastor of the First Church, 
Concord; a bronze medal commemorative of the 200th anni- 
versary of the Chateau De Ramezy, Montreal, Canada, from 
the curator; and from Capt. A. A. Folsom of Brookline, 
Mass., twelve volumes of the Virginia Magazine. From John 
E. Davis of Warren an old-time tin sand box used for blotting 
purposes ; and from Mrs. Sarah J. Baker photographs of Syl- 
vester S. Felch and John Boyd, late of Sutton, respectively 
collectors of eggs and mounted birds. 

In the joy of a great deliverance, 

Cheerfully submitted, 

N. F. Carter, 




Dr. Eli E. Graves, necrologist, reported there had been five 
deaths within the Society during the year. 

Isaac B. Dodge, Amherst, August 24, 1905. 
John S. II. Frink, Greenland, August 30, 1905. 
John C, Linehan, Penacook, September 19, 1905. 
James Aver, Salem, November 23, 1905. 
Mrs. Maria L. Gove, Concord, February 24, 190G. 

Mr. John C. Thorne, for the standing committee, made a 
verbal report, which was approved. 

The library committee, the committee on publications and 
the committee on the disposal of books made no reports. 

Rev. X. F. Carter, for the committee on new members, re- 
ported the names of the following persons for membership: 

Mr. Henry K. W. Scott, Concord. 
Miss Edith S. Freeman, Concord. 

Two thirds of the members present voting in the affirma- 
tive, the above were declared elected. 

Mr. W. P. Fiske reported the resignation of Joseph D. Bart- 
ley, Burlington, Vt., and of William Yeaton of Concord, which 
were accepted. 

The report of the building committee was made by Hon. 
S. C. Eastman. Progress was noted, and expectation was that 
the report could be made at the "meeting" in the fall. 

On motion of Mr. Eastman, the request of Prof. John K. 
Lord of Dartmouth College for the privilege of the loan of the 
Farrar papers, so called, was denied. 

The date of the next meeting was determined upon as the 
second Wednesday in November — November 14. 

The election of officers was then proceeded with. 


Rev. Daxiel C. Roberts, D. D. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Hon. Henry M. Baker. 

Col. Daxiel Hall. 


Recording Secretary. 
Henry A. Kimball. 

Co rrespon ding Secreta ry . 
Hex. Charles R. Corning. 

I \\ ILLIAM P. Fiske, Esq. 


These gentlemen, receiving the majority of the votes cast, 
1, were declared elected. 

Hon. S. C. Eastman and Rev. X. F. Carter were placed in 
nomination for librarian. As a result of the ballot, Mr. East-. 

fman was declared elected, 
lion. Joseph JL>. Walker, chairman, committee on speakers, 
reported at the close of the business meeting, a " paper " on 
Col. Israel Morey, pioneer, active patriot, and citizen of Orford 
and of Fairlee, Vt., by F. P. Wells of Newbury, Vt., would 
be read. 

On motion of Mr. William P. Fiske, the annual assessment 
of three dollars was voted. 

Mr, Jonathan E. Pecker moved a list of the officers and 
members for the ensuing year be printed under the supervi- 
sion of the president, secretary and treasurer. 

Dr. Eli E. Graves was elected necrologist by ballot. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Mrs. John C. Ordway for 
her gift of flowers. 

On motion of Mr. John C. Tborne, it was voted three hun- 
dred copies of the Constitution and By-Laws be printed in 
connection with the list of officers and members, as called for 
in Mr. Pecker's motion. 

The following standing committee was elected by ballot: 

JoilX C. TilORXE. 

Eds ox C. Eastman. 
Giles Wheeler. 


On motion of Mr. S. C. Eastman, it was voted the secretary 
should notify every member of the Society of its meetings. 
The following library committee was duly elected by ballot: 

Rev. George H. Reed. 
. Mrs. Frances C. Stevens. 
Ma j. Arthur II. Chase. 

Judge Sylvester Dana made a motion, that the librarian- 
elected at this meeting, should receive no salary for the ensuing 
year, and it was so voted. 

The recording secretary took the oath of office before Sam- 
uel C. Eastman, justice of the peace. 

The following were named a publishing committee : 

John Dowst. 
John R. Eastman. 
Rev. X. F. Carter. 

A vim voce vote was taken in relation to the following: 
Committee on New Members. 

Rev. X. F. Carter. 
Dr. J. Elizabeth IIoyt. 
Howard M. Cook. 

Committee on Speakers. 

Joseph B. Walker. 
Lyman T). Stevens. 
Rev. Howard F. Hill, D. D. 

Committee on Naval History of New Hampshire. 

John R. Eastman. R. Corning. 


Rev. iS T . F. Carter then read the " paper " prepared by Mr. 
F. P. Wells of Newbury, Vt, on Col. Israel Morey of Orford 
and Fairlee, Vt. 


Israel Morey, a pioneer in the early settlement of the upper 
portion of the Connecticut Valley, and a man of business and 
military affairs, was born in Lebanon, Conn., May 27, 1735, 
and died at Orford, X. IT., August 10, 1809. His name con- 
tinually recurs in the annals of his time and locality, and it is 
the object of this paper to consider the services rendered by. 
him, and how far he was a representative of that sturdy and 
faithful class of men who stood behind the leaders in the great 
struggle for American liberty, anil kept them supplied with. 
the men and means through which they won their indepen- 

The services rendered by him, and. by hundreds like him, 
although of the utmost importance, were, from the nature of 
them, so devoid of the brilliant features which captivate the 
mind, that they have been neglected by history, and the. very 
names of these sturdy patriots are almost forgotten. Let it be 
remembered that Israel Morey contributed, in no small degree, 
toward the defeat of General Burgoyne, and that his hand 
was in many of the public measures of his time. 

It is not possible to trace his ancestry beyond the fourth 
generation. George Morey, one of the first settlers of Bris- 
tol, R. I., married Hannah Lewis in 16S3. Their old- 
est son, John, married Margaret Linsford in 1707. They 
lived at Point Shirley, and their eldest son, named Linsford, 
became one of the first settlers of Lebanon, Conn. His wife 
was Sarah Dewey, and Israel was their third son. 

Lebanon was in the time of Israel's youth already a place 
of considerable importance, and the birthplace or residence of 
several men destined to confer enduring fame upon the town. 
Jonathan Trumbull, statesman and soldier, was, during Morey's 
youth, a rising young lawyer, and in the year of his birth Rev. 
Eleazer Wheelock became the minister of thetown. In order 


to help out his meager salary, he opened a school, which he 
conducted until his removal to Hanover in 1769, to become- 
the founder of Dartmouth College. It is probable that Israel 
was a pupil of Wheelock's, for he obtained a fair education, 
wrote an excellent hand, and acquired a considerable knowl- 
edge of surveying and bookkeeping. In 1757, he married 
Martha Palmer, and they settled on a farm, where they re- 
mained eight years and where four children were born to 
them. In the year 1765, having purchased certain rights of 
land in the township of Orford, X. II., they sold their posses- 
sions in Lebanon, and in January, 1766, became the third fam- 
ily of settlers in Orford. 

The close of the French and Indian War in 1760 opened to 
settlement a large portion of Xew England, which had hith- 
erto been forbidden land, but whose value as a desirable sec- 
tion for residence and trade had become generally known. 
Peace was no sooner declared when a large emigration from 
the older portions of the colonies set in for the new land. 

In the fall of 1761, Col. Jacob Bayley, Col. John Ilazen, Lieut. 
Timothy Bedel and Lieut. Jacob Kent, who had passed through 
the valley the year before on their return from the surrender 
of Montreal, took possession of the great meadows of the Lower 
Coos, and obtained charters for themselves and their associate 
settlers, of the towns of Xewbury and Haverhill, on opposite 
sides of the Connecticut River. This settlement was unique in 
that the grantees of these two towns, or the majority of them, 
became actual settlers. The emigration which set in for these 
towns was mainly from a section which lay within a radius of 
twenty miles of Haverhill, Mass., and the colonists were, gen- 
erally, well known to each other, and related by birth or mar- 
riage. With these advantages, and the further circumstance 
that large portions of the great intervale were already cleared 
and had long been cultivated by the Indians, these settlements 
became, in a very few years, a sturdy community, with a 
church, schools, and a form of local government suited to their 
needs. It was a vigorous colony, and by the time of the set- 
tlement of Orford the pioneers at Coos had begun to colonize 
the Connecticut vallev as far north as Northumberland. 


The people who settled Newbury and Haverhill were nearly 
all from the lower part of the Merrimack valley, but below 
them the valley was mainly peopled from Connecticut. 

From some cause, not now quite clear, the attention of peo- 
ple in the vicinity of Lebanon, Hebron, Haddam and other 
towns had been directed toward the part of valley lying imme- 
diately south of the Coos country, and Lebanon, Hanover, 
Lyme, Orford and Piermont, with the towns opposite to them 
on the Vermont side, were settled mainly from Hartford and Tol- 
land counties in Connecticut. The stream of emigration from 
the lower valley of the Merrimack took a more northerly course, 
and did not mingle with that which originated near Longr Island 
Sound. In the twelve years preceding the outbreak of the 
Revolutionary War, hundreds of families from Connecticut 
had made new homes in the towns we have mentioned. But 
at the date of Israel Morey's settlement in Orford the valley 
from Haverhill to Charlestown was almost an unbroken wil- 

Whether he had by previous exploration satisfied him<elf of 
the value of these new lands is not now known, but in the 
autumn of 1765, with their three surviving children, the young- 
est being but six weeks old, Israel and Martha Morey began 
their long and toilsome journey. They travelled with an ox 
team, which bore the necessaries for their journey and their 
primitive housekeeping. 

It is difficult for us to comprehend the hardships of the 
adventure, common as such were in those days. The young 
man and his wife, with three young children, set out on their 
journey of 20U miles into the wilderness with the certainty 
that winter must come upon them long before they could reach 
its end. It is not known how many were in the party. Nathan 
Caswell and wife, who became later the first settlers of Lit- 
tleton, were of the party, and there were probably others. 
North of Fort Dummer there was only an occasional clearing, 
but a rude path lay along the river bank as far as Charlestown. 
Beyond that point was, not a road, but a line of spotted trees 
which marked a course along which an ox team like theirs 


might pass. There were no bridges, and the ingenuity of the 
party was fully taxed to convey the load in safety across rapid 
streams and over precipices. Winter had set in before the 
party had left Massachusetts, and it was January before the 
end of the journey was reached. 

Only a few miles could be made in a day. The unbroken 
forest; the long reaches of the river; the slow movements of 
the oxen ; the fires around which the weary travelers gathered 
for the night; the hours of darkness and increasing cold ; the 
stealthy movements of the wild beasts that prowled in the 
forests, were the daily and nightly experiences of our adven- 
turers. It is probable that the last part of the journey was 
made upon the ice of the river. 

Between Charlestown and Orford at that time there had 
been few attempts at settlement. In Lebanon there were two 
families, in Hanover two, and in Lyme three young men were 
clearing land. Arriving in Orford, they found John Mann 
and wife and Richard Cross, who had established themselves 
near the river. 

The land selected by Morey embraced a large part of the 
fertile plain upon which the village of Orford stands, and here 
he built' his first rude habitation. In the summer the set- 
tlement was augmented by the arrival of several families from 
the region whence Mann and Morey had come. Four years 
later the colony numbered 125 persons, a hardy, vigorous 

The natural abilities of Israel Morey easily made him the 
most prominent man in the new settlement. He was active, 
far-seeing, and possessed that honesty and tact which win con- 
fidence. He built the first gristmill, and was one of the first 
selectmen. He was the first justice of the peace, and one of the 
original members of the church. Within a year after his 
arrival lie began the purchase of land, and acquired suMicient 
influence to cause himself to be entered as a proprietor in the 
charters of several newly-granted towns. By this means and 
by the purchase of "rights," he became the owner of thou- 
sands of acres of wild lands. These transactions, extending 
over a wide territory, conducted with prudence and good judg- 


meat, made him favorably known to all the prominent men 
along both sides of the river. 

He also became agent for land proprietors on the seaboard 
who had purchased large tracts of wild land in the new coun- 
try, and were interested in their development. We find him 
engaged in transactions of many different kinds. 

Thus in 1766 he became the agent for the ninety-one orio-i- 
nal proprietors of the township of Ryegate, Vt, and sold the 
land the next year to John Church and Rev. Dr. Witherspoon. 
In 1771 we find his name, as justice of the peace, appended 
to a call authorizing the inhabitants of Piermont to assemble 
and form a town government. 

Israel Morey first came into general notice in his attempt to 
secure the establishment of Dartmouth College at Orford or 
Haverhill. It would seem that, on learning of the intention 
of Doctor Wheelock to remove his Indian school, his previous 
acquaintance with Wheelock induced Morey to use his influ- 
ence with the principal men in the valley toward that end. 
We find him writing to Doctor Wheelock as early as 1767 
setting forth the advantages of either town. It is probable 
that their confidence in Morey's opinion of the value that the 
college and its founder would be to the country induced the 
leading men in the valley to offer their solicitations and their 
proffers of land and money. He was deputed by them to go to 
Connecticut and wait upon Doctor Wheelock with the sub- 
scription papers. 

It was the hope and desire of the principal men in the Coos 
country that the college should be located at Haverhill or 
Orford, either location being acceptable to Governor Went- 
worth and the English supporters of the proposed institution. 
These negotiations, in which several parties took, a hand, and 
in which many conflicting interests were displayed, extended 
through nearly three years, toward the end of which the 
Orford interest was thrown in favor of Haverhill as the site. 
-It does not appear, however, that Morey was offended at the 
final selection of Hanover. He is known to have remained a 
friend of the college and its president. 

J Jut it is as a military man that Israel Morey is remembered, 


and that, without ever having seen service in the field. Mil- 
itary organization kept pace with settlements in New England, 
from the first. The frequent wars with the Indians, and the 
fear of them which was constant even in the times of peace, 
rendered military discipline necessary. The farms of a new 
settlement had hardly begun to emerge from the forest before 
the men organized themselves into a military company. Thus 
in Haverhill and Newbury in 1764, while there could hardly 
have been forty able-bodied men in both towns, which had 
been settled but two years, they were organized into a com- 
pany, whereof Jacob Kent was commissioned a captain by- 
Governor "Went worth. This company was the nucleus of a 
regiment on the west side of the river which was long com- 
manded by three Jacob Kents jn succession, father, son and 
grandson. The first military company organized in Orford 
was commanded by Israel Morey. It formed a part of the 
"Twelfth Regiment of Foot," whose first colonel was John 
Hurd of Haverhill. The companies of this regiment were 
drilled at stated times, and had acquired a considerable degree 
of military discipline at the breaking out of the Revolutionary 

Before considering the phases of that struggle in the Coos 
country, we will do well to glance at the state of that part of 
New England, and the character of its leading men. Thirteen 
years had now passed since settlements began at Haverhill 
and Newbury, and they had been, in the main, prosperous 
ones. Hundreds of farms in the valley had been cleared for 
cultivation. The people were growing rich in flocks and 
herds, the ground brought forth plenteously, the country was 
rapidly filling up with settlers, and there was a ready market 
for all the farmers could raise. Not only was there a constant 
immigration from the older settlements along the coast, but 
colonies from Scotland, a hardy, sterling stock, had begun to 
settle Ryegate and Barnet under the leadership of James 
Whitelaw and Alexander Harvey. Dartmouth College had 
been established at Hanover, and around it had gathered a 
group of remarkable men. Indeed, along both sides of the 
river, the average of wealth and intelligence was very high. 

F. p. wells' paper. 65 

Several graduates of Harvard and Yale had settled in the 
valley. Many of the most prominent citizens had seen service 
in the French and Indian War. The chief of these was Col. 
Jacob Bayley of Newbury, the value of whose service in the 
Revolutionary War can hardly be overestimated. Others were 
Timothy Bedel and John Hazen of Haverhill, Charles Johns- 
ton of the latter town and his brother Robert of Newbury, 
and Jacob Kent. These were men of wide influence. Col. 
John Hurd of Haverhill and Col. Asa Porter were men of 
eminent ability. Of the latter Arthur Livermore says: "It 
would not be easy to find his equal among his numerous 
descendants." Rev. Peter Powers of Newbury was eminent 
for his ability and his piety. It was among these men that 
the emergencies of the time called Israel Morey to take a 

His first public service outside of the Connecticut Yaliey 
was as the representative from several towns in the congress 
which met at Exeter, December 21, 1775, and he was one of 
the committee of thirteen appointed on the 26th of the same 
month, "to draw up a plan of government during the contest 
with Great Britain." On this committee he was associated 
with such men as Matthew Thornton and Meshech Weare, 
and they framed the first form of civil constitution for the 
government of New Hampshire, By the same congress he 
was chosen as an associate justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas for .Grafton County. This position upon the committee 
shows the estimation in which he was held by the principal 
men in the state. 

He was also chosen, with Colonel Hurd, to enlist companies, 
muster soldiers and pay them ; deliver commissions, and give 
orders to the several companies of rangers. Previous to this 
date he was appointed colonel of the regiment which had 
before been commanded by Col. John Hurd. 

The dangers which threatened the Coos country were many 
and great. It lay in the direct road from Canada to the sea 
coast So prosperous a community could not escape the keen 
observation of the Canadian authorities. Should New Eng- 



3and be invaded, it would be seized upon, and made the base 
of operations, and its stores of grain, its cattle and sheep 
would become the prey of the enemy, and the labor of years 
would be destroyed in a day. The peril was great, but the 
people met the danger with prudence and resolution. 

It is not the intention of this paper to relate the military 
Tiistory of the Coos country during the war. While the eyes 
of all men were turned toward Gen. Jacob Bayley of New- 
bury,- Col. Charles Johnston of Haverhill and Col. Peter Olcott 
of Norwich, as the men to conduct military operations, Bayley, 
.Johnston and Olcott recognized the business experience, hon- 
•esty and popularity of Israel Morey as fitting him for an 
obscure but necessary task. To him was committed the rais- 
ing and drilling of men ; the collection of horses, grain and 
food for the campaigns ; the disbursement of money, and the 
thousand details of war. He kept his regiment in readiness 
for the field, and we constantly read of details fi*om it for 
active service; of men, at one time forty-three ; at another, 
sixteen ; at another, twenty-eight ; and so on. At the time of 
J3urgoyne's expedition he seems to have been everywhere, 
recruiting men, forwarding supplies, and keeping up the lines 
of communication. It is not believed that he visited the field 
of conflict in person, although he must have followed close 
behind the last levies which were sent to overthrow Burgoyne. 

His service during the later years of the war was mainly 
confined to the equipment and drilling of men, and the patrol- 
ing of the wilderness between the Coos country and Canada. 
The military road, commonly known as the Hazen Road, from 
"Newbury to Canada line afforded a means by which scouting 
parties could be sent northward. By means of scouts the 
authorities of the Coos country were kept informed of all that 
went on along the frontier, and a second expedition from Can- 
ada to overthrow New England, though often threatened, was 
never begun. The frontier was so closely watched that no 
expedition strong enough to do much harm ever penetrated to 
the settlements. 

It is with Israel Morey's connection with the Vermont con- 
troversv that we have lastly to deal. So much has been written 

F. P. wells' paper. 67 

upon the subject that we need not go into details. It is only 
necessary to present the case as it appeared to the residents of 
the Connecticut Valley. 

In 1764 New York asserted its claim to all the territory 
between Connecticut River and Lake Champlain, and its inhab- 
itants, who had hitherto considered themselves as a part of the 
Province of New Hampshire, found themselves transferred to 
the jurisdiction of another province, whose seat of government 
lay upon the Hudson. The residents of the western part of 
the Grants rose in rebellion. But the residents of the Con- 
necticut Valley were not molested by the New York authori- 
ties, and while dissatisfied were quietly awaiting the outcome. 
The proprietors of Newbury secured themselves from all 
molestation from that quarter by taking out a new charter from 
New York, which confirmed to them all the privileges granted 
by the charter of Wentworth. What Newbury had done other 
towns might do, and matters on the west bank of the river 
went on very much as they had done before. 

But on the east side of the river the dissatisfaction with their 
situation was great and increasing. It was the policy of the 
ruling powers in New Hampshire to keep the state under the 
central body of politicians known as the Exeter party. They 
viewed with apprehension the rapid growth of the settlements 
along the Connecticut, which threatened to become more popu- 
lous than the eastern part of the state. Several actions of the 
Legislature had tended to keep the representation of the west- 
ern counties as small as possible. ' 

The dissatisfaction was greatest among those settlers who 
had come from Connecticut, and had distributed themselves 
about equally along both banks of the river. The inhabitants 
of the valley had common interest, knowing and caring little 
for the plans of the Exeter party. The river was hardly a 
boundary between them, and they felt that the common interest 
demanded that these communities should be kept together 
under one government. The constitution adopted by the new 
Ntate of Vermont was so much more liberal, that the majority of 
the settlers in sixteen towns on the east side of the river were 
- '■. persuaded to elect representation to the convention which met 


at Windsor, March 13, 1778, and ask for the admission of their 
towns to the new state. Colonel Morey was one of the leaders 
in this enterprise, and broke completely from his old associates 
of the Exeter party. 

The majority of the inhabitants of the valley favored any 
reasonable proposal which should keep them all under one gov- 
ernment. So many conflicting interests influenced the leaders, 
and the changes of the times were so rapid that it is not possi- 
ble at this lapse of time to state everything with precision. 
The distrust which in 1778 Gen. Jacob Bayley felt for the 
Aliens and their associates, led him and his followers to favor 
the admission of towns enough on the east side of the river to 
counterbalance the influence and numerical strength of the 
Bennington party in the new state- 
It is remarkable how many interests the people in the valley 
had at stake. They were engaged in making homes for them- 
selves in the wilderness ; they were protecting the frontier 
from invasion ; they were constantly sending men to the seat 
of actual war, and at the same time were engaged in political 
strife. But when danger threatened, politics were laid aside. 
Morey retained his command of the twelfth regiment, his 
services being too valuable to be dispensed with, and he was 
marked out by the Canadian authorities as one of the men who 
were especially to be feared. There were leading men in the 
valley at that time whom the British could depend upon to desert 
the American cause the moment success seemed hopeless, but 
Morey was not one of them. His energetic leadership in mili- 
tary affairs caused his retention of command during several 
years, after he had adopted the views of the "college party." 
This party favored the erection of a new state in the valley of 
the Connecticut, north of .Massachusetts, which should embrace 
all the towns who^e waters drained into that river, whose politi- 
cal and geograpical center would be near Dartmouth College. 

We can hardly suppose that the leaders in this scheme really 
expected that Congress would permit the admission of such a 
state against the protests of the commonwealth from which it 
had been carved. We find it easier to believe that their 
scheme was tentative in the direction of securing better terms 

F. P. wells' paper. G9 

for the river towns from both New Hampshire and Vermont. 
This plan of a new state was short lived, and what is known 
as the # Second Union" had a lease of life almost as brief. 

When the state of Vermont actually took possession of a 
portion of the state of New Hampshire by holding a session 
of its General Assembly at Charlestown, one of the first acts 
of the New Hampshire authorities was to dismiss Colonel 
Morey from the command of the twelfth regiment. 

He was so much wounded with the treatment he had received 
from the state in return for his distinguished services, that he 
could not bring himself to remain longer a resident of New 
Hampshire. He removed at once, and permanently, to Fairlee, 
on the west side of the river, where he had large interests, 
having built the first mills, and had conducted a ferry between 
Fairlee and Orford ever since the settlement of the towns. His 
services in civil and military affairs in Vermont were many and 
valuable. He was assistant judge of the County Court for four 
years, and a member of the General Assembly for nine years. 
The value of his military experience was recognized by his 
appointment in 1787 to- the command of the fifth brigade of 
militia, and lie held the command till 1794, when he withdrew 
from military life by the following dignified letter of resigna- 
tion : 

"Sir: I have fur nearly twenty years served my Country 
in the military department. I am now so far advanced in life 
that I wish for leave to resign my ofiice as Brigadier General 
in the Second Brigade and Fourth Division of the Militia. I 
think, Sir, it would be for the interest of the Brigade which I 
have the honor to command that I should resign at this time. 
I therefore request from your Excellency that you would 
be pleased to accept it. I have the honor to be your Excel- 
lency's most obedient and humble servant, 

" Israel Morey. 

"Butland, October 18, 1794. 

" His Excellency, Thomas Chittenden." 


More fortunate than many of his contemporaries, Gen. 
Morey lived to enjoy the reward of his labors. Blessed with 
a competence, his children settled around him, his old age was 
singularly happy. Men who were old thirty years ago re- 
membered him, riding about the peaceful lanes and roads of 
Orford and Fairlee, mounted on a white horse, dressed in a 
red military cloak, his white hair falling down upon his 
shoulders, pausing for a leisurely conversation with his friends. 
A curious controversy which arose between him and the cele- 
brated Xatbaniel Niles who settled not far from him in Fairlee 
was the cause of considerable amusement at the time, and the 
memory of it survived long after both men were dead. He 
retained to the last his love of the House of God. Although 
living at some distance from the church, he was seldom absent, 
whatever the weather, declaring that " no man was ever made 
sick by going to meeting." 

He died at the house of one of his sons in Orford, and a 
plain slab of slate from which time and storm have partly oblit- 
erated the inscription, marks his grave. 

Israel and Martha Morey had five sons and two daughters, 
all superior people, to one of whom pertains a remarkable 
interest. The sons were — Israel, who served in the Revolu- 
tionary War, and rose to a high position in the militia; 
Samuel; Moulton, who graduated at Dartmouth College, and 
became an associate justice of the supreme court; William 
and Darius. Of three of his children no descendants are known 
to be living, while one lady now in Fairlee and one in Orford are 
the only representatives of the lineage of General Morey in 
this part of the country. 

The sons of Israel Morey inherited not only the sterling 
qualities of their father, but a certain genius which was a com- 
mon inheritance in the families of both their parents. Samuel, 
the second son, was one to whom fate has been unkind. He 
was by nature an inventor; while yet a young man he began 
experiments upon the expansion of steam, and set his mind upon 
the problem of steam navigation. He had long operated his 
father's ferry between Fairlee and Orford, and sought in some 
way to harness the power of steam to the task. The result of 

j • 

F. p. wells' paper. 71 

a series of experiments was communicated by him to Professor 
Silliman, who encouraged his genius. In 1793 he constructed 
a small engine which propelled a boat by means of a paddle 
wheel, on the river, between Fairlee and Orford. The model 
of the engine and boat he sent to New York, and among those 
who saw the invention were Robert Fulton and Chance'lor 

In Morey's original boat the paddle wheel was placed in 
the prow, and drew the boat instead of propelling it. At the 
suggestion of Fulton the wheel was placed in the stern and 
other changes were made. According to the repeated state- 
ments of Samuel and his brother Israel, Fulton went to Fairlee 
and acquainted himself with the manner of propulsion adopted 
by Morey, in the boat which the brothers bad constructed. 
Samuel Morey applied for and received a patent for his steam- 
boat, and the Letters Patent, dated March 25, 1795, signed by 
George Washington, are now in possession of tbe New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society. He also published a philosophical 
pamphlet, now very rare. 

According to the statement of Captain Morey, he went to 
Xew York with an improved model of his invention but was. 
treated by Fulton and Livingston with coldness and neglect, 
the former having, on a previous occasion, acquired from him 
all they desired to know. This treatment and the theft of his 
idea, cast a shadow of bitterness over a most genial tempera- 
ment. He believed that the honors and emolument which 
were heaped upon Fulton should have been his. It is certain 
that the idea of steam navigation was then at work in several 
minds both in America and Europe. But it is also certain that 
Samuel Morey propelled a boat by steam on the Connecticut 
river between Fairlee and Orford in 1798, years before Fulton's 
successful experiment. 

Had he comprehended, the value of his own invention, and 
had lie found such a wealthy and powerful -patron as Fulton 
found in Chancellor Livingston, Samuel Morey and not Robert 
Fulton would be hailed as the father of steam navigation. 

By the gift of Mrs. Amelia S. Kibbey of Fairlee, a grand 
niece of the inventor, the Vermont Historical Society is now 


the possessor of the original model of the engine which Mosey 
invented to more his boat. " It is a mechanical curiosity, which 
in the absence of illustrations, defies intelligent description. 
It is a rotary engine, the cylinder being balanced on a standard 
above the boiler, and revolving horizontally. From the disc 
upon which the engine is attached to the standard, the power is 
communicated. The ingenuity of this device for doing in a 
roundabout way what was subsequently done through a station- 
ary cylinder and a piston rod connecting with a crank or walk- 
ing beam, commands the admiration of the observer." 

When we consider that it was the work of a young man 
in the backwoods of North America, in 1793, who had never 
seen a steam engine or the model of one, we marvel at his 
genius, and lament that his ingenuity was not rewarded by 
fame and fortune. 

A beautiful lake in the town of Fairlee is called after the 
inventor, and the traveler upon a small steamboat of modern 
construction which plies upon its waters, is told that beneath 
its waves rests a boat built by Samuel Morey which contains 
the first engine ever employed in steam navigation. 

Judge Dana moved a vote of thanks be extended to Mr. 
Wells for the valuable paper just read and to Mr. Carter for his 
kindness in reading it ; also made- the motion, that a copy be 
furnished this Society to be preserved in its archives, and it 
was voted. 

Adjournment was had at 1.30 p. m. 

Hexry A. Kimball, Secretary. 

The annual Field Day of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in Hanover, Tuesday, October 16, 1906. 

The attendance of members and friends was large. At the 
meeting in the afternoon, held in Dartmouth Hall, the address 
of welcome was delivered by President Tucker of Dartmouth 
College, and was "responded to by the president of the Society, 
Dr. Roberts. 

Prof, Marvin D. Bisbee, librarian of the college, delivered 
an able address on " Some Historical Sources of Dartmouth 



The evening session was marked by an exceedingly interest- 
ing paper by Franklin Benjamin Sanborn of Concord, Mass., on 


Gentlemen of the Historical Society; Members of Dartmouth 
College : 

Called upon to address you by the partiality of associates 
and friends in my native state, I speak with diffidence on sub- 
jects of which some of you must be much more cognizant than 
I can be, — the graduate of another college, and bred in the 
political opinions of those who, nearly a century ago, endeav- 
ored to turn your College, then small and struggling, into a 
New Hampshire State University, with the resources of a 
proud commonwealth to support its expenses and extend its 
influence. But, on the other hand, I am by heredity a distant 
cousin of that persuasive orator, Daniel Webster, who success- 
fully resisted the movement for a State University; and I mar- 
ried into the family of Judge Smith of Peterborough ami 
Exeter, who was Webster's most effective ally in securing the 
decision of Chief -Justice Marshall, Bushrod Washington and 
the majority of the United States Supreme Court, against the 
power of this state to adopt the plans, of William Plumer, 
Thomas Jefferson and the younger Wheeloek, which would 
have made your College a Slate University. I may therefore 
claim to be reasonably impartial as between the two parties to 
that ancient but well-remembered controversy, in which much 
more was involved than your form of college government and 
the control of trusts. 

Although much of the early history of the English, Scotch 
and provincial funds which gave Dartmouth College its origin 
i.> now generally forgotten, your local chroniclers have taken 
pains to preserve the record of its ups and downs, its begin- 
ning, middle and ending. It is a long, winding, animated and 
controversial story of religious enthusiasm, philanthropic zeal. 
theological rancor, political convulsion and diverted purposes. 
The germ of what became Dartmouth College was planted in 


the warm soil of that religious revival of 1740-45, in which 
Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards were leaders, each in his 
own way, and in which Doctor Wheelock, the first founder of 
this college, joined as a young pastor in Lebanon, Ct., who for a 
time was an itinerant preacher of the " New Light." It was the 
early friendship between Whitefield and Wheelock which 
made it so easy for Wheelock to raise a large fund in Great 
Britain for Ms Indian School. 

Doctor Wheelock was well fitted for his first great work, 
the promotion of knowledge and Christianity among the 
Indians of Xew England and Xew York. Handsome, elo- 
quent, cheerful in temper, with no little of the Connecticut 
shrewdness, which his enemies said might sometimes appear as 
craft and self seeking, he was also, according to the standards 
of the eighteenth century in Xew England, a man of real 
scholarship. Born in 1711, at Windham in Connecticut, he 
was the great-grandson of an expelled Puritan minister in 
England, who came to Boston in 1637 and was one of the 
founders of the first Calvinist Church at Dedham in 1638. 
His son, Doctor Wheelock *s grandfather, for whom he was 
named, was a resident of Medfield and Mendon in Massachu- 
setts, a captain and Indian fighter in time of war, but a good 
friend of the Indians in peace. A legacy from Capt. Eleazar 
paid his grandson's modest expenses at Yale, where he gradu- 
ated in 1733, as one of the two best classical scholars. He 
married in 1735 the widow Malthy, a sister of the erratic 
James Davenport of Long Island, and of Mrs. Stephen Wil- 
liams of Longmeadow; she was eight years older than himself, 
and died in 1746, leaving him three children out of six; to whom, 
by a second good Connecticut marriage, live more were added, 
so that he was the founder of families as well as of missions 
and schools. He was settled over a small parish in what is 
now Columbia, but then Lebanon, and soon became a popular 
preacher in the "Great Awakening" of 1740. This trait drew 
him to Boston and Cambridge in 1741, and he spoke so accept- 
ably at the North End, then a genteel quarter of Boston, 
Nov ember 6, 1741, that he was urged to preach again three 

f. b. sanborn's paper. 75- 

days after. He declined at first, but soon consented. Then 
occurs this entry in his diary : 

"A scholar from Cambridge being present (who came to get 
rae to go to Cambridge) he hastened to Cambridge, and, by a 
little after 6 a great part of the scholars had got to Boston. 
Preached to a very thronged assembly (many more than could 
get into the house) with very great freedom and enlargement. 
I believe the children of God were very much refreshed. 
They told me afterward they believed that Mather Byles* was 
never so lashed in his life. This morning (Rev.) Mr*. Cooper 
came to me, in the name of the Hon. Jacob Wendell, Esq., 
and earnestly desired a copy of my sermon, preached in the 
forenoon of the Lord's day, for the press. O, that God would 
make and keep me humble! " 

Evidently the witty Doctor Byles was not one of the " chil- 
dren of God," though a good friend and correspondent of 
Doctor Watts in England. 'Squire Wendell was one of the 
Boston magnates, and Samuel Cooper his minister. 

In the spring of 1744, when the excitement over the "Great 
Awakening " was at its height, and Rev. James Davenport, 
Wheelock's brother-in-law, had not yet published his " Retrac- 
tations " of July '2$, 1744, there set forth from Annapolis in 
Maryland one Alexander Hamilton, a Scotch doctor of med- 
icine, practising there under a degree from Leyden, where he 
heard and followed the famous Boerhaave, — on a journey for 
his health through the northern colonies, which took him as. 
far north and east as to Albany and York in Maine. He kept 
a copious diary, very unlike Wheeloek's, in which is depicted 
and commented much of the social custom and general char- 
acter of the colonists in Maryland, Philadelphia, New Jersey^ 
New York and New England, with personal descriptions of 
men and women whom he met, travelled with, dined with or 
heard talk at taverns. Being a mm of learning and social 
ease, travelling with letters of credit and introduction, he saw 
much of what was esteemed the best company, — the governors 
of colonies, clergymen of the Anglican Church, rich merchants* 
great landholders, etc, lie dined with the Bayards of New 



York, the Van Rensselaers and Schuylers of Albany, the 
Wantons of Newport (where he examined the great new 
house of Malbone the merchant), the Wendells, Parkers, etc., 
of Boston, and Governor Shirley and Governor Wentworth of 
New Hampshire. He called at Mount Burnet, near Salem* 
where Colonel Browne, who had married Governor Burnet's 
daughter (grandchild of Bishop Burnet, the famous historian), 
had built the finest house in Massachusetts ; and he quarreled 
in Boston with Doctor Douglas, a brother Scot, of an opposite 
school in medicine. This diary, now printing in Boston, and 
soon to be issued privately by its purchaser, Mr. Bixby of St. 
Louis, has much to say of the "New Light" movement, which 
he could not abide, but found it everywhere in New England 
the subject of controversy. He was particularly severe upon 
the fantastic conduct of James Davenport, and describes at 
some length his burning of " idols" at New London, with its 
ludicrous incident of Davenport's plush breeches, offered by 
the enthusiast for the sacrificial pile, but reclaimed by some 
friend as being, like Tarn O'Shanter's poet's, — 

' ' His only pair, 
That once were plush, of good blue hair.'' 

This incident, described by a not unfriendly hand, Rev. Joseph 
Tracy, occurred March 6, 1743, as follows: 

"Immediately on his arrival, Davenport began to purify his 
followers in New London from evils which prevailed there, — 
in obedience to messages he said he had received from God, 
in dreams and otherwise. To cure them of their idolatrous 
love of worldly things he ordered wigs, cloaks and breeches, 
hoods, gowns, rings, jewels and necklaces to be brought 
together into his room and laid in a heap, that they might by 
his solemn decree be committed to the flames. To this heap 
he added the pair of plush breeches which he wore into the 
place, and which he seems to have put off on being confined 
to his bed by the increased violence of a complicated disease. 
He next gave out a catalogue of religious books which must 
be brought together and burned, as unsafe in the hands of the 



people. All things being ready, bis followers carried a qua 
tity of books to the wharf and burned them, — singing around 
the pile " Hallelujah " and "Glory to God" and declaring that, 
as the smoke ascended up in their presence, so the smoke of 
the torment of those authors who died in the same belief was 
now ascending in hell. Among the authors were Beyeridge, 
Flavel, Increase Mather, Drs. Coleman and Sewall of Boston, 
and Jonathan Parsons of Lyme. The next day more books 
were burned ; but one of the party (John Lee of Lyme) per- 
suaded the others to save their clothes." 

This well indicates the fanaticism of Davenport, and also 
the native and persistent intolerance of the New England 
Puritanic mind, from which New Hampshire has suffered not 
a little, and which is not quite unknown in the annals of Dart- 
mouth College. Davenport himself, who was a little crazy, 
called the matter in his palinode, "that awful affair of the 
books and clothes at New London, which affords grounds of 
deep and lasting humiliation." " I was," he adds, "the ring- 
leader in that horrid action, under the powerful influence of 
the false Spirit, — almost one whole day and parts of several 
days ; my body, and especially my leg much disordered at the 
same time, — which Satan and my evil heart might make some 
handle of," 

Wheelock, of course, suffered from these aberrations of his 
brother-in-law, with whom he had called on Whitefield in 
New York in 1740, and there formed that close friendship 
with the English pulpit-orator, which was so serviceable to 
him in Great Britian long afterward. But Wheelock not only 
stood apart from Davenport's delusions, but was a chief instru- 
ment in bringing him to retract them. He was open, however, 
to some of the uncharitable remarks of Doctor Chauiny of 
Boston, who coupled him with Davenport, Pomeroy (another 
brother-in-law), Daniel Bliss of Concord (ancestor of R. W. 
Emerson), and one Allen, as "all of them of one soul, and the 
chief hands in raising the commotions in Connecticut, where 
sudden impulses and extraordinary pretences to the Spirit 
have been more general and extravagant than in any of the 


other governments." Chauncy ascribed their impulse for this 
enthusiasm to a college-mate, one Ferris," from a nest of 
Quakers in New Mil ford." 

This animosity of Doctor Charm cy was afterward the occa- 
sion of much opposition in Boston to Wheelock's Indian 
School at Lebanon. Like many New England parsons, Wheel- 
ock, before 1740, was receiving pupils into his family for their 
college preparation; and, in December, 1743, while still in- 
volved in the "New Light" controversy, he took into his 
family his first Indian scholar, Sampson Occom, a Mohican 
Indian from l!sew London, child of parents who, he said, "led a 
wandering life up and down the wilderness, for my father was 
a great hunter." At the age of seventeen he had been con- 
verted to Christianity in the "Great Awakening," and remained 
true to his profession ever after, as many of these converts and 
scholars did not. lie was nineteen when Wheelock undertook 
his instruction, and was Wheelock's pupil for four years. Yet it 
was six long years more before Wheelock seriously took up the 
general subject of Indian education and conversion by means 
of white and Indian missionaries. Something had been done 
earlier in tins line by John Eliot, the Mayhews, the Brainerds, 
Sergeant, etc. ; and it was from John Brainerd's ^\ew Jersey 
mission, among the Delaware?, that his first pair of students 
came after Occom's graduation. Colonel More, in Mansfield, 
an aged farmer, in the summer of 1755 purchased and deeded 
to Wheelock land and buildings in Lebanon, Conn., to the 
value of some 11,500, and in a few years more Wheelock had 
live or six Indian pupils, while Occom, his first graduate, had 
become a missionary pastor at Montauk, on Long Island. 
Good people in several colonics had been induced to give a 
thousand or two dollars for this charity, and the scheme was 
struggling along when Sir William Johnson, the powerful 
patron of the Six Nations in New York, and Whitefield, John 
Thornton and others in England, gave it their strong support, 
from 1760 to 17 GO. Johnson sent Joseph Brant, brother of 
his left-handed spouse, Mary Brant, as a pupil in 1761 ; while 
Scotch and English gentlemen sent over many gifts in pounds 

P. B. SAJSBOltx's PAPER. 79 

New Hampshire, as a province, bad its attention called to 
AYheelock in 1761-62, by an appeal from him to his " New 
Light" friend, Henry Sherburne of Portsmouth, an important 
political person, who introduced a memorial for a grant of 
money in the Assembly of which he was speaker A com- 
mittee of the leading members, headed by Sherburne and 
including Colonel Weare of Hampton Falls, Clement March of 
Greenland, Major Oilman of Exeter, Capt. John Wentworth 
of Somersworth, and Thomas Westbrook Waldron of Dover, 
reported in favor of giving Wheeiock £50 sterling a year for 
five years, from the provincial treasury. The bill passed both 
houses, but was defeated by Gov. Benning Wentworth and 
Parson Arthur Browne, unwilling to have the money go to 
dissenters,, when the bishop of Loudon could look after mis- 
sions so much better. I make this suggestion the more conti- 
<lentlv from what Chief -Justice William Smith of New York 
wrote in 1768 to Doctor Wheeiock, who by that time had a 
large fund raised in Britain, which the Clapham Methodists 
wished to control by a trust in England. Smith, who was 
afterward a conspicuous Loyalist, said (Jan. 80, 1768): 

" Now we see why our English friends opposed our Incor- 
poration ; they have no confidence in us on this side of the 
water, because we are Presbyterians ; and they will not apply 
to the Government, lest power be given to persons not Metho- 
dists. Hence their plan for throwing the fund and school into 
the hands of a pious junto, to whom ice are heterodox in disci- 
pline and worship, on the one hand, and the body of Church 
of England clergy in doctrine on the other. . . . Your 
power amounts to very little more than that of a mere peti- 
tioner, and, however great as a man of piety, will be but 
trilling as a non-Episcopalian minister. However, exert what 
you have ; make no surrender. . . . Have you seen Chand- 
ler's pamphlet in favor of the introduction of American 
bishops? AVe are told that prelacy is become quite generous 
and inoffensive; but a late instance should put our churches 
on their guard. Our church at New York lately asked the 
king for a charter, to save our estate from falling into private 


hands ; and yet it svas denied in Privy Council last August ; 
the Archbishop of Canterbury being present, — and the ghostly 
Father of London was an open solicitor against us at the 
Board of Trade. In a word, the decree says it is not expe- 
dient that we should have greater immunities than we enjoy 
by the laws of toleration. Will your churches admit that 
they hold their privileges by that base tenure? If this is the 
spirit of the hierarchy, how cogent the reason for our bearing 
the most public testimony against the introduction of a power- 
ful order of men, who may drive us far to the westward from 
our present habitation, as they once drove our fathers!" 

However, Wheelock went forward in his persistent, diplo- 
matic way, but, as he went on lie became satisfied that he 
must have a collegiate, branch to his Indian school, and must 
educate more white youths, — the results of Indian education 
not being wholly satisfactory. Many locations were offered 
him, — for instance, at Albany, Saratoga, Pittsfield, Pittsburg 
and Wyoming, but these, ^or various reasons, could not be 
accepted. Finally, from Gov. John Wentworth of Xew 
Hampshire, who had succeeded his selfish, bigoted old uncle, 
Wheelock received a long letter, March 21, 17G8, offering a 
township of land and practically offering a royal charter, 
which, up to that time, had been unattainable. This was the 
beginning of the end, for, although the diplomacy of Wheel- 
ock and some hast}- impressions derived from his marplot son, 
Palph, checked a little the good intentions of Governor Went- 
worth, yet the steadfast and honorable good nature of this 
worthiest of the Loyalists combined with the good sense of 
Wheelock to carry through the New Hampshire Charter, late 
in the year 17 09. Doctor Langdon of Portsmouth, afterward 
president of Harvard College, added the weight of his influ- 
ence and generosity to the force of the considerations favoring 
Xew Hampshire, and that munificent patron of education, 
John Phillips of Exeter, proved a very friend in need ; as Gov- 
ernor Wentworth ever was, so long as the progress of the 
American Revolution left him any power (beyond his good 
wishes) to benefit the college for which he had preferred Lord 

f. b. sanbokn's paper. 81 

Dartmouth's name to his own. As an Indian charity, Eleazar 
Wheelock must be regarded as the founder of this New Hamp- 
shire College ; but, as a college for the Province and State, 
fjohn Wentworth was its prompt and magnanimous founder. 
But the granting of the long withheld charter was but the 
beginning of a new series of hindrances. The struggle of rival 
towns for the final location of the new college, the political 
and semi-political intrigues which began and nourished to an 
extent almost inconceivable, in view of the very small journal- 
istic and post-office facilities then afforded, make the years 
from 17G9 to the death of Doctor Wheelock, in April, 1779, a 
puzzle and a mixture of cross -purposes, comedy and tragedy, 
in which the character of the excellent Wheelock suffers con- 
siderable abatement from the praise one would like to give 
him. It was a difficult part lie had to play, and the final result 
of all this cat's-cradle of strategy and stratagem was, on the 
whole, good ; but truth and veracity, public spirit and patriot- 
ism had to put up with nearly as much discount as the Conti- 
nental currency, in which business was conducted, had to 
endure in that ten or twelve years. And an incidental result 
was to throw the immediate government of the college into 
hands accustomed to crooked paths and underhand work, — 
very unlike the Wentworth and Langdon and Phillips and 
Weare type of public men. 

Xor can Wheelock himself, with all his zeal, energy, diplo- 
macy "and attractiveness, be excused from appearing at times 
as less the founder than the hinderer of Dartmouth College. 
If there was any corporate body or association of men to 
whom he was specially indebted for the very existence and 
location of his institution, it was the Province and the State of 
Xew Hampshire. To that small republic and its government, 
whether called royal Province or free Commonwealth, was due 
the establishment of it, under favorable conditions, which 
Wheelock himself had done something to dispel by his singu- 
lar substitution of Hanover for Haverhill in its location Its 
governor and council had been for years friendly and liberal 
towards his enterprise, yet at two or three points in its history 




Wheelock had been either passively willing or actively anxious 
to detach the college from New Hampshire and put it upon 
the charity list of another state — either the inchoate, hybrid 
commonwealth in the Connecticut Valley, for which the Paines, 
Olcotts, Woodwards, etc., had intrigued more than a dozen 
years, but which never materialized ; or else Vermont, as it 
finally emerged ; or, finally, Xew York, with the rulers of 
which. Doctor AYheeiock intrigued in 1777, to get his school 
and college transferred to the confiscated estates of the John- 
sons in the Mohawk Valley. This last intrigue, of which too 
little historical notice has been taken, was introduced by 
Wheelock in a letter to John Taylor of Xew York (February 
18, 1777), very characteristic of the writer. It was answered 
by two abler and more straightforward men — Chancellor Liv- 
ingston and Gouverneur Morris, — who, writing from Kingston 
in New York (February -7, 1777), said : 

"We fear that no measures can be taken to preserve to your 
college, (in event of your removal) the estate which it pos- 
sesses in New Hampshire ; since we cannot conceive that such 
a step will meet with the approbation of that State. As to 
the idea of a joint corporation, composed of members from 
different States, it is too repugnant to the independence of 
each to be reduced to practice ; and were it otherwise, it must 
terminate in the ruin of the College, by the continued differ- 
ence among the trustee*. 11 

Doctor "Y\ neelock had a solution of his own for this dilemma. 
It was to take action himself, with as little interference as pos- 
sible by his trustees, and to hold, for that purpose, all availa- 
ble power in his own hands. His charter was obtained from 
New Hampshire with nit the knowledge of his English trus- 
tees, who were much displeased when they heard of it long 

Doctor Wheelock was a mixed, though strong character; 
hi:-, son, who succeeded him in the .presidency, had the mix- 
ture without the strength. 

The best brief character of the father which I have happened 


to see is that of President Stiles of Yale, who had known him 
well in New Hampshire, had aided his plans, and long pre- 
sided over the college where YTheelock and most of his Con- 
necticut friends were educated. He wrote in his diary: 

" Dr. Wheelock had a tolerable acquaintance with the clas- 
sics, Watts's Logic and Pobault's Philosophy. It was a singu- 
lar event, his rising to the figure he did with such a small lit- 
erary furniture, lie had much of the religious politician in 
his make. It is said that, amidst a great zeal and show of 
piety, he was very ambitious tfc haughty. And yet there was 
something piously sweet, amiable and engaging in his manner. 
By a persevering importunity and address he caught the atten- 
tion of the public to his favorite plan of an Indian School and 
an English College, and solicited benefactions in Britain, to be 
deposited with a board. From this board lie has had the 
address to draw ten or twelve thousand pounds sterling into 
America. It is all expended, and, excepting new lands, Dart- 
mouth College is without funds. It was intended that only 
the interest should be annually spent; but the fund itself is 
consumed. . . . Such apparent piety and eminent holi- 
ness, together with a mixture of the love of riches, 
dominion and family aggrandizement is seldom seen. lie was 
certainly as singular a character as that of Ignatius Loyola. 
I was personally acquainted with him, and thought him a sin- 
cere friend of the divine Emanuel." 

The inconsistencies in this account were in the original 
character itself. 

The second president, though zealous, active and accom- 
plished, must be classed as a hinderer of Dartmouth, since he 
gave occasion for the bitter feud leading to the attempt to 
change the college into a State University; but probably it 
would have been difficult for his father to get along smoothly 
with the board of trustees, who finally, in 1815, turned out the 
son. contrary to the sound advice of Mason of Portsmouth, and 
against the protest of Governor Oilman, the political partisan 
«>f the majority of the college authorities. This act changed 


the political control of the state, and made William Plumer 
governor, the friend of Jefferson, and a sharer of Jefferson's 
enlightened views about university education. These views 
have since been quite generally adopted, but were then in 
advance of American opinion. Webster himself felt their 
weight in 1816, and suggested that the Federalists could break 
the force of Plumer's plan by proposing a kind of straw uni- 
versity for the Democratic Legislature to consider. Webster 
suggested to vYheelock's successor in the presidency that it 
should be called "the University of New Hampshire," should 
have two boards, trustees and overseers, and should grant (in 
his own words) u an unlimited right of conscience in officers 
and students ; no test, creed or confession to be required of 
either, nor any preference, direct or indirect, of one religion 
over another." This was what Plumer and the Democrats 
desired, and what the college authorities narrowly and inflexi- 
bly refused ; so that Mr. Shirley, whose " Dartmouth College 
Causes" is an invaluable book, pointedly says: 

"Air. Webster seems to have thought that a board of over- 
seers numbering nineteen, and religious toleration were adapted 
to every institution but Dartmouth College." 

Without assuming to call in question either the eloquence 
and legal knowledge, of Webster, or the profound judicial 
.mind of Marshall, or the. learning and fluency of Story, — 
these three persons being jointly and personally responsible for 
the famous decision in the Dartmouth College case, — I hope 
it may be allowed me, as a historian, to point out how Time, 
that ecumenical chief-justice who overrules all legal opinions 
of all courts, has been practically setting aside the decision of 
Marshall and Story, almost ever since it was rendered. The 
error, if error it were, in their interpretation of the constitu- 
tional provision bearing on the college case, was in ignoring 
the distinction between public and private corporations; and 
in attempting vainly to restrict the scope of that most funda- 
mental of all legal principles— that the safety of the sovereign 
people is the supreme law. 


Our Supreme Court is a noble and venerable institution, 
worthy of all the praise that has been bestowed on it by 
serious-minded men. But it is not an end in itself, — only an 
admirable means towards the great end of good government 
for the benefit of the American people. Like all the other 
departments of government, its proper function may be per- 
verted — consciously or unconsciously, innocently or wickedly — 
to the destruction of the very object for which it properly 
exists. As the president in our system may become usurper 
and despot, like the two Napoleons in the two French repub- 
lics; as the Senate may, like the Roman Senate become the 
mere tool of executive power, or may itself usurp executive 
or judicial functions ; as the House may cease to represent the 
popular will, and become the noisy mouthpiece of a plutoc- 
racy, so the Supreme Court, instead of interpreting laws and 
charters, may take upon itself to make that law which the 
sovereign people have determined not to be their will. This 
is the temptation of higher courts in all ages; it led the Eng- 
lish judges under Charles I to sustain the illegal ship money, 
and under Charles 11 to annul the charters of corporations and 
uphold the usurpations of the king. 

Our Supreme Court, under the domination of the slave 
power, gave, through that able and usually upright judge, 
Chief- Justice Taney, the infamous and invalid Dred Scott 
decision, intended, had the xVmerican people not thwarted it, 
to fasten negro slavery upon this republic beyond the power 
of the people or the courts to destroy that evil institution. 
The question then became this, " Shall Slavery destroy the 
Nation, or shall the Nation destroy Slavery ?" Salus Popidi 
suprema Lex soon answered that conundrum, — but at what a 
cost of life and treasure! In a similar way, though with 
issues less momentous depending on it, the court under Mar- 
shall practically said to Xew Hampshire and other states, 
"There is a force in private property, given by royal charters, 
which forever will prevent the people from correcting errors 
of management in institutions created for the public benefit, 
and which exist only by the public will." 

I take it no one will deny that New Hampshire had the 



power and the right, had its people seen fit, to say to Dart- 
mouth College, as it said to the loyalist who chartered it, 
"Take your charter and leave the State; exercise your pri- 
vate rights, such as they are, in another jurisdiction." It not 
only did this to Wentworth and other loyalists, but it took 
their New Hampshire property and gave some of it to this very 
college. As the greater includes the less,— as the right to tax is- 
the right to destroy, — so, conversely, the right to destroy is the 
right to tax ; and the right to banish for good cause, is the 
right to alter and control for good cause. That was what 
Plumer and the state, including its highest court, by the voice 
of its most learned and renowned judges, undertook to do ; that 
was what Webster and Mason and Marshall and Story undertook 
to prevent, and did for a time prevent. But Time, C. J., has. 
clearly shown, by a series of cases since adjudicated in his. 
court of perpetual session, that private property rights, whether 
actual, as with salable possessions, or merely technical and fan- 
ciful, like those which Webster and Mason assigned to the 
Federalist trustees, whom they meant to maintain in power, 
are not to control or long impede the exercise of eminent 
domain in the commonwealth of free citizens. 

The decision in the Dartmouth College case has been found 
so much to impede the course of natural justice, that the court 
which gave it has been trying to mitigate and draw away from 
it at intervals almost ever since. And that for the very rea- 
sons, and in view of the very contingencies, given or antici- 
pated in the remarkably clear and sound decision of our New 
Hampshire Chief-Justice Richardson on this very case. Per- 
mit me to quote it : 

i4 If the charter of a public institution is to be construed as 
a contract, within the intent of the United States Constitution. 
it will be difficult to say what powers, if any. in relation to 
their public institutions, are left to the States. It is a construc- 
tion repugnant to the very principles of all government, be- 
cause it places all the public institutions of all the States beyond 
legislative control. For it is clear that congress possesses no 
powers on the subject. ... I cannot bring myself to 
believe that it would be consistent with sound policy to place 

F. I). SANBORx's PAPER. 87 

the great public institutions within the absolute control of a 
few individuals, and out of the control of the sovereign power. 
A trust will be faithfully executed so long as it is recollected 
to be a mere public trust, and that there is a superintending 
power. But make the trustees independent, and they will 
ultimately forget that their office is a public trust; will at 
length consider these institutions as their own, and will exer- 
cise their powers only to gratify their own private views and 
wishes, or to promote the narrow purposes of a sect or party. 
. . . These institutions must stand in constant need of the 
aid and patronage of the Legislature and the public. Their 
prosperity depends entirely upon the public estimation in which 
they are held. It is of the highest importance that they 
should be fondly cherished by the best affections of the peo- 
ple. Those who should dispute and resist the public will 
would become at once the object of popular jealousy and dis- 
trust ; their motives, however pure, would be called in ques- 
tion, and their resistance would be ascribed to private and 
interested views, and not to a regard for the public welfare. 
The last misfortune which can befall one of these institutions 
is, to become the subject of popular contention." 

Now can any one honestly say that Judge Richardson's 
apprehensions were not fulfilled to the very letter? Time, my 
admirable chief-justice, has furnished me from the records of 
his sessions of Oyer and Terminer, ample evidence that, from 
the year 1820, when the political and theological opinions of 
Mason, Smith,. Webster and Marshall took full effect, the peo- 
ple of New Hampshire as a political entity, withdrew their 
confidence and affection from this college and its political 
advocates, for the space of thirty years. Neither the genius of 
Webster nor the wisdom of Mason, nor the wit and learning of 
Smith, — all for a time the darlings of New Hampshire, known 
in every county, trusted in their professional relations, — 
henceforth availed to carry measures or to triumph at elec- 
tions. There never was a year after 18*20 when Webster, 
thirsting for the presidency of the nation, and abundantly 
qualified, intellectually if not morally, to till that high station 


with honor, could have carried the popular vote of his native 
state. I therefore rank him and his associates in the great 
lawsuit which he so brilliantly won, as the chief hinderer of 
this college, of which he has been for more than a century the 
ornament and the pride. 

Had the wise plans of Piuraer and Jefferson been allowed 
to take effect, and had Dartmouth become a real State Univer- 
sity, it would have led the way in that great educational move- 
ment in which the twenty or thirty existing State Universities 
are now so conspicuous. It has of late years become in fact what 
it should have become in name fourscore years ago, the College 
of all Xew Hampshire. Brilliant and useful as its career has been, 
illustrious as its alumni are, and ample as its endowments have 
become, it has suffered for the greatest part of the 19th cen- 
tury from the needless and hurtful estrangement of the mass of 
the people. They saw the courts and legislature of their 
choice contradicted and despised by the creature of their own 
fostering care ; they heard it announced from \Yashington that 
they had violated contracts and were not intelligent enough to 
know and provide for their own educational needs. Gentle- 
men, our ancestors and compatriots of this old Commonwealth 
were a proud and masterful people, who never failed to distin- 
guish their friends from their foes, never deserted a cause they 
had once taken up, nor abandoned a friend or a public ser- 
vant so long as he stood by them. 

They loved and honored John Wentwortli and were loath 
to let him become a public enemy, — a generous one, to be sure, 
but necessarily hostile. They accepted his College, and from 
their dire poverty at the close of the Revolution they gave it 
what aid they could. It was not the College but the people of 
Xew Hampshire that had to say to their most trusted sons, Et 
tu, Brute. I am glad that the people of this state have forgiven 
that improvident child who cast off his allegiance in 1816, and 
that they are now providing for his growing needs. But they 
would have done it as cheerfully and more effectively had the 
college', in the long controversy, fallen into the strong current 
of state education, instead of wading and swimming for so 
many years against wind and tide. 

• f. b. sanborn's paper. 89 

A banquet, given by the president and trustees of the col- 
lege, followed. 

Prof. Edwin J. Bartiett presided over the exercises after the 
eoffee was served, and the toasts and speakers were as follows : 

Dartmouth College, Pros. William J. Tucker. 

Doruus esto perpetua scientiae perseverantis. 

The New Hampshire Historical Society, The Hon. S. C. Eastman. 
While she collects the epitaphs of distinguished people may 
she always keep upon her shelves a supply of antidotes. 

Ancient History, Prof. C. D. Adams. 

Made interesting by the " Father of Lies," 
May her shadow never grow less. 

Modern History, Prof. H. D. Foster. 

Truth undiluted and undrowned, 
" Let knowledge grow from more to more." 

Biography, The Rev. H. F. Hill, Ph. D. 

Dartmouth men of forty years ago, 
" Thine own friend and thy father's friend, forsake not." 

Geography, The Rev. L. L. Swain, D. D. 

May all lands furnish subjects for our Hanoverian Dynasty. 

Travels and Traveling Men, The Rt. Rev. E. M. Parker, D. D- 

May a good employer "far o'er-pay the hardest labors of the 

Lords and Ladies, Prof. John K. Lord. 

May Dartmouth reign without a peer, but never lack noble 
men and noble women to match. 

At the end of the addresses a vote of thanks was passed to 
the officers of Dartmouth College for the reception and enter- 
tainment of the Society. 

Henry A. Kimball, 


Concord, N. II., April 17, 1907. 

A meeting of the Society was held this day in its rooms at 
two o'clock p. m. Seventeen members were in attendance. 

In the absence of the president in the south the secretary 
called the meeting to order. 


Hon. J. B. Walker moved that Hon. John Kimball serve as 
president pro tempore. 

A vote was taken and Mr. Kimball was unanimously chosen. 

Rev. N. F. Carter for the committee on new members 
offered the names of the following persons for membership : 

The Rt. Rev. Edwin M. Parker, Bishop Coadjutor of Xew 

Charles P. Chase, Esq., treasurer, Dartmouth College. 
Miss Maude B. Binet, Concord. 
Mr. Kimball Webster, Hudson. 

The above were unanimously elected to membership. 

A letter from Ex-Gov. X. G. Ordway of Warner asking to- 
be dismissed from membership on account of illness was read 
by .Mr. Carter. The request was granted. 

Mr. Carter queried if the proceedings of the society should 
be published at this time. The president pro tempore sug- 
gested that this matter go over to the annual meeting in June, 
which was so voted. 

Mr. Fred W. Lamb of Manchester, the speaker of the meet- 
ing, was introduced by the president in a few words. 

Mr. Lamb spoke on the great tornado of 1821. His valuable 
paper was heard with deep interest and appreciation. 


Mr. President, Members of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

The early part of the month of September, 1821, was noted 
for being very stormy. On the third of the month a violent storm 
prevailed on the whole Atlantic coast in which many lives were 
lost and a great deal of property was destroyed. 

On the afternoon of Sunday, September 9, 18*21, occurred 
the famous "tornado" in central New Hampshire. The day 
before had been very warm and Sunday was very warm and 
sultry, although the sun shone brightly. The wind blew from 
about the southwest until about six o'clock when a very black 
cloud was seen to rise in the north and the northwest, and as 
it passed in a southeasterly direction the lightning was inces- 
sant. About half past six, the wind suddenly changing to 
north, a peculiar looking, brassy cloud was seen in the north- 
west. As it came nearer it was noted that a cylinder or 
inverted cone of vapor seemed to be suspended from it. It 
did not seem to have any very destructive force until reaching 
Cornish and Croydon. Tt passed from Croydon to Wendell or 
Sunapee, then into New London, Sutton, over Kearsarge 
Mountain into Warner, finally ending its course in the edge of 
Boscawen. It was felt and is said to have commenced near 
Take Ohamplain. One observer, a woman in Warner, stated 
that its appearance was that of a trumpet, the small end down- 
wards ; also like a great elephant's trunk let down out of 
heaven and moving slowly along. She stated that its appear- 
ance and motion gave her a strong impression of life. When 
it had reached the easterly part of the town, she said the lower 
end appeared to be taken up from the earth and to bend around 
in a serpentine form until it passed behind a black cloud and 
disappeared. This view was from a distance of three miles- 
It was attended with but little rain in parts of its course, more 
in others. It lowered the water in a pond in Warner three 


feet. The width of its track was from six rods to half a mile, 
changing with the height of the cloud which rose and fell. It. 
was the widest on the higher grounds. Its force was the 
greatest when it was most compact. In Croydon, besides other 
damage, the house of Deacon Cooper was shattered, his barn 
and its contents entirely swept away. 

Xo other buildings were directly in its narrow path until it 
nearly reached Sunapee Lake. Here it came in contact with 
the buildings of John Harvey Huntoon of Wendell, now 
Sunapee. The house contained eight persons. The tornado, 
after a brief warning, was upon them, and the house and two 
barns were instantly thrown to the ground. One side of the 
house fell upon Mr. Huntoon and his wife, who were standing 
in the kitchen. The next moment it was blown away and 
dashed to pieces. Mrs. Huntoon was carried at least ten rods 
from the house. A child of eleven months was sleeping on a 
bed in one room ; the dress it wore was soon after found in the 
lake one hundred and fifty rods from the house, but the child 
could not be found. The next Wednesday its mangled body 
was picked up on the shore of the lake where it had been car- 
ried by the waves. The bedstead on which the child was 
sleeping was found in the woods eighty rods from the house, 
northerly and clear out of the track of the tornado. The other 
seven persons were injured but none fatally. Every tree in a 
forty acre lot of woodland was leveled with the ground. A 
bureau was blown across the lake two miles and with the excep- 
tion of the drawers was found half a mile beyond the water. 
A horse was dashed against a rock and killed. The feather 
bed upon which the child had been sleeping was carried to the 
town of Andover. A Mrs. Wheeler was living in another part 
of the house and when the cloud approached she took a child 
that was with her and tied to the cellar for protection, but was 
somewhat injured by falling bricks and timbers. Bricks were 
carried more than a hundred rods and pieces of the frame 
of the house, seven or eight inches square and twelve feet long. 
were carried eighty rods. Other pieces of furniture, casks and 
dead fowls were carried to a much greater distance and a large 
iron pot was found seven rods away. A pair of wheels was 


separated from the body of a cart, carried sixty rods and 
dashed to pieces, one of them having only two spokes left in 
it. The only furniture found in the house was a kitchen chair. 
From the buildings the land rises about one hundred feet in a 
distance of fifty rods and then descends on the other side of 
the hill to the lake. A horse was blown up this rise a distance 
of forty rods and was so much injured that he had to be killed. 
A doorpost made of beech, from Mr. Huntoon's burn, measur- 
ing eight by twelve inches and thirteen feet in length, was 
carried up the hill forty-four rods. A hemlock log, sixty feet 
long, three feet in diameter at the butt and nearly two feet at the 
top, was removed from its bed where it had been for years and 
carried by the wind six rods up the hill, passing on the way 
over two rocks, which were only six feet from the place where 
the log was taken, each being seventeen inches high. It then 
struck a rock and was broken into two parts. The rise of land 
in the six rods was ten and one half feet. Xot only were or- 
chards destroyed but some of the larger trees were torn up 
by the roots and carried from seventy to a hundred rods. 
After leaving Mr. Iluntooivs farm the tornado proceeded a 
hundred rods further and blew down every tree in a tract of 
timber land of forty acres in area. A house and barn belong- 
ing to Isaac Eastman were much shattered but not entirely 

In 1869 Gen. Walter llarriman of Warner addressed a 
mass meeting in Painesville, O. At its close, an old gentle- 
man, his form bent with age, came forward and made himself 
known as Mr. Huntoon, the father of the child destroyed in 
Wendell, lie had left the shores of Sunapec Lake and the 
track of the tornado fifty years before and made his home in 
Ohio ISoon after this meeting with General llarriman he 
passed away. 

The incident of Mr. Iluntoon's family was ma<Ie the basis of 
a story entitled "The Fisherman of Lake Sunapee," claimed by 
some to have been written by Charles Dickens and published in 
Once a Week, a London, ^n^^ magazine for August 22, 1^03, 
and reprinted in LitteVs Living Age, September 20, 1863. The 


following query appeared in the Boston Transcript, a few 
months ago, in regard to it : 

"In the Boston Herald of August 16, 1903, appeared an ar- 
ticle on Lake Sunapee, N. II. In this article and also in the 
booklet descriptive of a resort on this lake is the statement that 
Charles Dickens wrote a story, ; The Fisherman of Lake Suna- 
pee.' The tale had for its foundation a memorable cyclone 
which visited the lake in 1821. The incidents Mere related to 
Dickens on his visit to this country in 1842, and his story is 
said to have appeared in contemporaneous English and Ameri- 
can periodicals. Can some reader inform me where this story 
may be found ? p. x. s " 

This query! answered a* follows . 4; A query appeared in 
JVofes and Queries some weeks ago inquiring about the storv 
entitled 'The Fisherman of Lake Sunapee,' said to have been 
written by Charles Dickens. The question was asked where 
said story might be found and whether or not he wrote it. I 
have located the story in a publication entitled Once a Week, 
published in London, England, in 1863, and also in the Living 
Age, but Dickens' name does not appear with it as the author, 
no name being given in either case. I have examined several 
editions of Dickens" works put out as complete editions, but 
find no such story included and no reference made to it in a 
Dickens dictionary which I hn\e examined. Now will you 
please inform me what edition of Dickens it may be found in? 
I wish to know positively that it was written by him." 

Then the Transcript editor answered us both as follows: 

"The above communication was referred to AI r. Edwin Fay 
Rice, the Boston collector of Dickensiana, who sends the fol- 
lowing letter : 

'•'Did Charles Dickens write "The Fisherman of Lake Sun- 
apee " ? I have been asked this question three times within the 
year. In a thin pamphlet entitled "Soo-nipi [Indian for 
Sunapee] Lark Lodge. Lake Sunapee, X. II.," 1 find the follow- 
ing : 

41 'In September, 1821, Lake Sunapee was the scene of a his- 


torical cyclone. Starting on the south side of Grantham 
Mountain, it suddenly struck the east shore near Hastings, de- 
molished the house of Harvey Hnntoon, who, with his wife, on 
the way home from a walk, had taken shelter in a neighboring 
barn, whirled their infant into the lake, and strewed the frag- 
ments of their household goods in its swath on the way to 
Kearsarge. A feather bed was recovered over seventeen miles 
distant; and the body of the babe, crushed beyond recognition? 
was taken a few days after from Job's Creek. This pathetic 
incident reached the ears of Dickens while on his visit to the 
United States in 1842, and furnished the subject of a tale, 
*' The Fisherman of Lake Sunapee," which appeared in a num- 
ber of contemporaneous English and American periodicals, and 
first gave fame to the TToricon of Xew Hampshire.' 

"With the above in mind, I have examined every American 
and English periodical in the Boston Public Library bearing 
date of 1842 and after, and find, as did your correspondent, 
the story in Once a WeeJc for August 22, 1863, and in the Liv- 
ing Age for September 2G, 1863. If written by Dickens in 
1842, and printed at that time, it is not probable, twenty-one 
years later, owing to the strained relations between Dickens 
and Bradbury and Evans, the proprietors of Once a Week, that 
the ' Fisherman ' would have been republished in their jour- 
nal bad they known it to have been written by Dickens. It 
Mas owing to him that Household Words, jointly owned by 
Dickens, Bradbury, Evans, Wills and Forster, was discontinued 
in 1859. The trouble was due to the refusal of Punch, owned 
by Bradbury and Evans, to print certain statements concerning 
J ) i c k e n s ' d omesti c a i fa i rs . 

'•Frederick G. Kitton, in his '.Minor Writings of Charles 
Dickens, a Bibliography,' 1900, and his -Old Lamps for Xew 
Ones, and other sketches and essays hitherto uncollected,' 
181)7, makes no mention of the 'Fisherman,' neither can it be 
found in the Gadshill, considered the most complete and final 
edition. A number of bibliographies, two quite recent, fail to 
give it. 

" With regard to the story. It was written by an English- 
man. It has the earmarks. It is based on the incidents given 


in the Soo-nipi Park Lodge pamphlet. But to one familiar 
with the writings of Dickens it certainly lacks the Dickensian 
touch. I shall want something more definite than the state- 
ment of the compiler of the aforesaid pamphlet that Dickens 
wrote the story, and I will he glad if any one will tell me in 
which American or English periodical it was first published. I 
doubt if he was the author, and think it first appeared in Once 
a Week in 1863." 

To return to the tornado. Prom Wendell or Sunapee the 
tornado passed across Sunapee Lake in an inverted pyramidal 
column, drawing up vast quantities of water. Its appearance 
at this time was sublime. It seemed to be about twenty rods 
in diameter at the surface of the water, expanding on each 
side towards the heavens, its body very dark, with a great 
deal of lightning. Along the shore of the lake was a stone 
wall which the tornado struck, scattering the stones at various 
places. Some which weighed seventy pounds were carried 
more than two rods up a rise of at least four feet in that dis- 
tance. The shore of the lake was all covered over with tim- 
bers, boards, shingles, broken furniture and demolished build- 
ings, thai had fallen from the cloud into the water and then 
been washed ashore. 

It next readied New London, the loss of property in this 
town being estimated at *9,000. Xo persons, however, lost 
their lives. John Davis 1 house and other buildings were en- 
tirely demolished, not a piece of timber or a board being left 
on the around where the house stood, nor a brick remaining 
in its original place in the chimney. A hearthstone which 
weighed seven or eight hundred pounds was removed from its 
bed and turned up on edge. All the furniture was swept 
awav and destroyed and very little of it was ever found. The 
family were all away at the time. Josiah Davis had three 
barns blown awav and his house much damaged. From a 
bureau standing in the corner of a room one drawer was taken 
and carried out of the window, with all it contained, and it 
was never found. 

Jonathan Derrick's house was unroofed, the windows were 


broken and much of the furniture and clothing was blown 
away. Xathan Herrick had a new two-story house frame 
nearly covered. This was blown down, with two barns. Asa 
Gage's house was unroofed and two sheds carried away. 
Anthony Sargent had one barn torn to pieces, another unroofed 
and two sheds blown away. Dea„ Peter Sargent had a barn 
blown down, one unroofed and a shed torn to pieces. The 
Widow Harvey also had her house unroofed and a barn torn 
down. J. P. Sabin's barn was torn down. Levi Harvey's 
barn was blown to pieces, and lie also had a sawmill torn 
down and 12,000 feet of boards in the mill yard carried away, 
a few of them being found in the Shaker Village in Canter- 
bury, thirty miles away. A gristmill was moved for some dis- 
tance and a hoghouse, containing a hog that weighed between 
three and four hundred pounds, was carried two rods and 
thrown upon the top of a stone wall, when it fell to pieces 
and the hog walked away unhurt. 

The extent of the tornado in Xew London was about four 
miles, varying in width as the column rose and fell. In that 
area the timber on 330 acres of woodland was blown down. 
A pair of cart wheels, strongly bound with iron and nearly 
new, together with the tongue and axle to which they were 
attached, were carried ten rods, the tongue being broken off in 
the middle and all the spokes but two taken from one wheel 
and more than half knocked out from the other. 

One writer says that two more houses were destroyed and 
two others injured, that a cider mill was demolished and three 
sheds damaged. One cow was killed and several injured. 
Eight orchards were utterly swept away, most of the trees 
being torn up by the roots.. The trunk of one of these, 
divested of all its principal branches, was found a half mile 
away at the top of a long hill. A piece of timber, apparently 
part of a beam of a barn, ten inches square and ten or twelve 
feet lung, was carried up the same hill for a distance of a quar- 
ter of a mile. Xear the top of the hill was found an excava- 
tion some forty feet in length and in places from two to three 
feet deep partly tilled with broken boards and timbers, having 



apparently been made by the fall of a side of a barn that must 
have been blown whole at least a quarter of a mile. A birch 
tree, whose trunk was ten inches in diameter, was blown across 
the lake, which at that place was nearly two miles wide, to a 
point ten or twelve rods beyond. The most amazing feat of 
the wind, however, was the rending of a large rock one hun- 
dred feet long, fifty feet wide and twenty feet high, into two 
pieces, which were thrown twenty feet apart. 

The tornado then swept through Sutton, doing considerable 
injury, though few houses were in its path. It then passed over 
Kearsarge Mountain at a point about two miles south of the high- 
est peak and swept down the other side into the valley, known 
as Kearsarge Gore at that time, in the town of Warner. It 
seemed to split into two columns in passing over the mountain, 
the columns again joining into one as it reached the descent 
into the Gore. There were seven dwelling houses in this val- 
ley. The cloud could not be seen until it was driving down 
upon them with great speed. The first building struck was 
the barn of William llanvood, which was instantly carried 
away. Then the wind .injured the houses of M. F. Goodwin, 
James Ferrin and Abner Watkins, completely destroying Mr. 
Ferrin's barn and unroofing that of Mr. Watkins. Five barns 
were entirely destroyed. The late Stephen X. Ferrin of 
Warner said that on a fence were perched a ilock of turkeys 
more than half grown, about fifteen in number. These were 
caught up and whirled away and no trace of any one of them 
could ever be found afterwards. 

Daniel Savory's house stood right in the path of the tornado. 
Hearing a fearful rumbling in the heavens, Samuel Savory (the 
"writer's great-great-grandfather and father of Daniel, who was 
away), aged 7'2, hastened upstairs to close the windows. The 
women of the household started to his assistance, when the 
house whirled above their heads and instantly rose into theair^ 
while that which was left behind, timber, bricks, etc., literally 
buried six of the family in the ruins. The body of the aged 
father, Samuel Savory, was found at a distance of six rods 
from the -house, where his head had been dashed against a 
stone and he had been instantly killed. Mrs. Elizabeth Savory, 


his wife, was very much injured by the timbers which fell upon 
her. Mrs. Daniel Savory was fearfully bruised. She had just 
taken an infant, Emily B., out of a cradle and the child was 
killed in her arms. The writer now owns this cradle which is 
In his possession. The family was extricated by the assistance 
of the elder Mrs. Savory, who though very considerably injured 
had the most surprising strength in removing timbers and 
bricks, beneath which could be faintly heard the cries and 
moans of the sufferers. The other children, Laura Little, 
Leonard X. and Jesse, escaped without much injury. 

Daniel Savory's buildings were not only leveled, but the 
materials and contents were dashed into ten thousand pieces 
and scattered in every direction. Carts, wagons, sleighs, sleds, 
plows were carried a considerable distance and were so broken 
and shattered as to be fit only for fuel. Stone walls were lev- 
eled and rocks weighing four or five hundred pounds were 
taken up out of their beds by the force of the wind. An elm 
tree, near where old Mr. Savory fell, that measured from a foot 
to eighteen inches in diameter and was too strongly rooted to 
yield, was twisted like a withe to the ground and lay prostrate 
like a wilted weed. Logs that were bedded in the ground, 
fifty to sixty-live feet long, were not heavy enough to retain 
their places. Not an apple or forest tree was left standing. 
Only a part of the floor and some bricks remained to mark 
the site. 

The house of Robert Savory, brother of Daniel, stood very 
near this place and that was also utterly demolished, Mrs. 
Robert Savory said that she anticipated a shower and went into 
a bedroom to take up a child and was conscious of nothing 
more till she found herself, among timbers and ruins, greatly 
bruised but the child unhurt, her husband buried altogether in 
in the bricks with the exception of his head, and two children 
completely covered by the splinters and rubbish. This family 
of eight persons were all hurt but none dangerously. Two 
girls, Charlotte and Ruth Goodwin, were in the house at the 
time and were severely hurt. 

There were twenty-four hives of bees at the Robert Savory 


place, probably the property of both families. The ground 
was sweetened with honey for half a mile, but no hive nor 
sign of a bee was ever seen afterwards. Furniture and crock- 
ery were smashed and scattered about everywhere, as were 
also the wings, legs and heads of fowls. Several acres of corn 
and potatoes were swept off clean, not leaving an ear, save at 
some distance a few in heaps. One barn was taken up whole 
and after being carried several rods, went to pieces and flew 
like feathers in every direction. The Savory B and Abner 
Watkins had captured a bear and chained him to a sill of Rob- 
ert Savory's barn. Though the barn was entirely destroyed 
to its foundation, the sill to which the bear was chained, being 
a cross sill and bedded into the ground, remained in its place 
and the bear was unhurt. 

" No person could conceive, without visiting the spot, the 
hoiTors of that instant— it was but an instant — when houses, 
barns, trees, fences, fowls, etc., were all lifted from the earth 
into the bosom of the whirlwind, and anon dashed into a thou- 
sand pieces; a few large stones remaining in their places, and 
others strewed on each side for several feet, indicated where a * 
stone wall had stood ; a few fragments of timber and a small 
quantity of hay, which had since been gathered together, denoted 
the place where stood the barns; a few timbers and bricks and 
at one place the floor remained of what composed the dwellings 
of the r two Savorys; and the feathers here and there discov- 
ered in the dust showed that the very fowls of heaven that 
had often sported with the clouds could not fly the swift 

About a half mile from the Savory houses, up a rise of the 
hill, lived John Palmer. He had stepped out of his door when 
the cloud came over the mountain, filling the air full of trees, 
branches, etc. He started to enter the house but the wind 
forced the'door t<>. catching his arm, and at the same minute 
the house was caught in the tornado. The chimney gave way, 
a part of the frame of the house burying Mrs. Phebe Palmer, 
the owner's wife, under the bricks and timbers as she was trying 
to force open -the door which held her husband. She was 
quite severely injured, but the rest of the family escaped with 



slight injuries. Bridges in this vicinity made of logs were 
scattered in every direction. Rocks, some of which weighed 
five hundred pounds or over, were moved several feet and 
a hemlock log sixty feet in length, half buried in the earth, 
was taken from its bed and carried six rods forward, while a 
knot from the same log was carried fifteen paces back and 
driven with great force two feet under the turf. 

The tornado then passed over a spur of the mountain about 
two miles from the Palmer house and swept down on the other 
side about a hundred feet, violently striking the house and other 
buildings of Peter Flanders. The house was so located that the 
family had no warning of the terrible event until it was upon 
them. All of the family, seven in number, were more or less 
injured. Ml*. Flanders was dangerously hurt and his wife 
almost as severely. For several days he was not expected to 
live, but he finally recovered- Their daughter Mary had one 
of her arms broken and was somewhat bruised. The widow 
Colby, who was in the house, was somewhat injured. Mr. 
Flanders' daughter Phebe, only three years old, was carried 
from the house on her bed asleep, but was badly hurt, and 
another child by the name of True was slightly injured. Lorn 
Hannah, a girl who lived with the family, was severely hurt. 
Mr. Flanders' infant child and a Miss Anna Richardson were 
killed. Everything belonging to Mr. Flanders, his buildings, 
furniture, crops, etc., was destroyed. Mr. Flanders stated that 
the family had been baking and the bricks were hot; the 
chimney falling on three of the children so injured one of them 
that she died that night, and so burned another, a boy of live 
years, about the legs that the wounds did not fully heal for seven 
years and he was made a cripple through life. At the time the 
tornado struck Mr. Flanders' house he was standing at the 
west of the chimney by the jamb and close to the cellar door. 
His son True was standing in. front of the fireplace. The child 
Phebe was asleep on the bed and Mrs. Flanders and Miss Rich- 
ardson were east of the chimney. The buildings being borne 
completely away, Mr. Flanders was found with his feet partly 
down the cellar stairs, partially paralyzed, from which shock he 
did not recover for some six months. The girl, Phebe, was 



carried with the feather bed and dropped some rods from the 
house and one arm was broken. Mrs. Flanders was thrown to 
the rloor with Miss Richardson on top of her and a large stick 
of timber on top of Miss Richardson, whose arms and legs were 
broken and who received other injuries from which she died in 
half an hour. Miss Richardson resided over a mile away on the 
road to the Kearsarge Gore and was at Mr. Flanders' to get 
some milk. 

A few rods from the Flanders house, over the town line in 
Salisbury, lived Joseph True. Seven persons were in this 
house when it was struck by the tornado, and all of them,, 
except two children, were wonderfully preserved. Mrs. True's 
parents, of the name of Jones, who lived about half a mile 
away, were there on a visit, and the family had just left the 
tea-table. Mr. True and Mr. Jones were at the door, and see- 
ing the cloud approaching, were soon convinced that it meant 
disaster. Mr. True gave the alarm to his family, and then ran 
under one end of his shop, which stood a short distance from: 
the door of the house, on one side of the path of the tornado, 
and he was therefore saved. Mr. Jones stood still till the 
wind struck the barn, a few rods northwest of him, and he 
saw the fragments of it Hying thick in the air above him, then 
threw himself upon the ground by a pile of heavy wood. A 
moment later a rafter fell endwise close to him, entering the 
ground to the depth of one or two feet, the other end falling 
on the pile of wood and protecting him from a beam that 
grazed down upon the rafter immediately after and lay at 
his feet, but he was unhurt. 

Of the house, which was new, not a timber remained upon 
the foundation. It was blown into fragments and scattered 
to the winds. The cellar stairs even were carried away, and 
the hearth, which, was made of the brick tiles of the time, eight 
inches square, was removed. The bricks of the chimney were 
scattered along tlie ground for some distance, partially cover- 
ing Mrs. True a foot in depth. The oven in the chimney had 
been heated, and some brown bread was being baked when 
the tornado struck the house. The bricks were hot, and Mrs- 
True was badlv burned bv them. Mrs. Jones was also burned. 



Of the children, Caleb and Joseph were badly hurt and Mary 
Sally was greatly bruised and burned. Piercing shrieks and 
cries from two others, who were ten or twelve years old, called 
their father to a pile of hot bricks, which he removed as quickly 
as possible, burning his lingers to the bone in doing so, and 
they were taken out alive, but suffering intensely from burns 
and bruises. One of them was so disfigured as hardly to be 
known, and after suffering extremely for several weeks, died. 
The baby was found lying safe upon the ground underneath a 
sleigh bottom, about ten rods from the site of the house. 

When the wind struck the buildings the sleigh was in the 
barn, which stood six or eight rods north from the house, and 
it is interesting to note that the child and the sleigh should 
meet at exactly the same place. The top of the sleigh could 
not be found. The materials of the buildings were not simply 
separated, but were broken, splintered and reduced to kindling 
and scattered like chaff over the region. It was the same 
with beds and bedding, bureaus, chairs, tables, etc. A loom 
was, to all appearances, carried whole about forty rods, and 
then dashed into pieces. Xearly all of Mr. True's property 
was destroyed. One or two other occupied buildings in the 
neighborhood were somewhat injured. 

In one place, near Deacon True's, a hemlock log, 2$, feet 
through and 36 feet long and nearly half buried in the earth, 
was moved one or two rods. At another place, two hemlock 
logs of the same size with the other, one 65 feet long and the 
other about forty, were removed about, twelve ieet and left in 
the same situation as before. The entire top of one of the 
chimneys was carried 10 rods and the bricks left together on 
one spot. The width of the desolation here was about twenty 
or twenty-five rods. On the higher grounds over which it 
passed it was 40, 50, or 60 rods. The deeper the valley, the 
narrower and more violent was the current of the wind. 

The tornado then passed into Warner again, tearing down 
a, barn. It went over Bagley's Pond, the waters of which 
seemed to be drawn up into the center of the cloud. It 
destroyed the house of a Mr. Morrill, near the Boscawen 
line. When the tornado reached the woods of Boscawen, the 


terrible arm that bad readied down to the earth was lifted up 
and did no further damage, passing out of sight behind a black 

As a contribution for the relief of the sufferers, sundry arti- 
cles were sent from the Shakers to Benjamin Evans, Esq., and 
by him divided. The value of these Shaker goods was esti- 
mated to be $134.72. Various other sums were received and 
divided by the committee from time to time, amounting alto- 
gether to the sum of $501.04. 

The amount of damage suffered by this tornado was ap- 
praised to each in Warner and Salisbury and a subscription in 
the several towns was raised for their relief, Salisbury giving 
the sum of $174.54. The following are the names of the 
sufferers by the tornado b Warner and Salisbury, with the 
amounts lost as appraised in dollars by the committee: 

Foster Goodwin, 143; William Harwood, $75 : James Fer- 
rin, $194; Samuel Tiller, $5; Lorra Little, $20; Ruth Good- 
win, $6; Charlotte Goodwin, 16; Abner Watkin, Jr., $350; 
Widow Savory, $100; Daniel Savory, $675; Robert Savory, 
$775; John J. Palmer, $100; Joseph True, $800; Peter Flan- 
ders, $758; Jonathan Morrill, $85; Ezekiel Flanders, $30; 
Benjamin and Jesse Little, $200; James B. Straw, $50;. 
Nathaniel Greeley, $100; Moses Stevens, $10; Jabez True, 
$100; Enoch Morrill, $20; Michael Bartlett, $10; W.Hunt- 
ington, $20. 

My authorities for the account of the tornado are found in 
the following list : 

" Historic Storms of New England," by Sidney Perley. 

"Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society," 

Vol. I. 

"History of Warner, X. H.," by Walter Hamman. 

"The New England Gazetteer," by John llayward. 

"The History of Salisbury, N. II.," by John J. Dearborn. 

"The History of the Town of Ilenniker," by Leander W. 

"The Granite Monthly," Vol. 15. Article by Howard M. 


"A History of the Town of New London, 1779-1890," by 
M. B. Lord. 

-" Collections of the Xew Hampshire Historical Society," 
VoL 3. Article on Warner, X. H., by Dr. Moses Long. 

" History of Xew Hampshire," by John X. McClintock. 

Also some traditionary accounts from private sources. 

On motion of Mr. Walker, the thanks of the Society were 
voted, and a copy was requested for publication. 

A motion was made to adjourn, and it was so voted. 

Hexuy A. Kimball, 






James Aver was the son of James and Joanna (Wheeler) 
Ayer, and was horn in Haverhill, Mass., Jan. 26, 1830. His 
parents removing to Boston in 1837, he attended school there 
till he was twelve years of age, and then went to Salem, X. 
If., to live with his brother John. In 1843 he entered Tay- 
lor's mill to learn the trade of a woolen manufacturer, but the 
next year became an apprentice with X. 11. Paul to learn the 
shoe business, which he afterwards followed in its various 
branches till about IS 85. 

In the earlier years of his mature manhood he affiliated 
politically with the Democrats, then for a time voted with the 
Whigs, but later became a member of the Democratic state 
committee, and was candidate for senator in 1873. He was 
prominent in town affairs for many years, postmaster under 
President Cleveland, and town clerk several years. He was 
f^'catlv interested in historical matters, and well posted in the 
genealogies of many families of the town. He was a member 
of the history committee fur the town till his death Nov. 23, 
1905. He was also contributor to various newspapers and 
periodicals, furnishing interesting sketches of Salem and its 
people. He became a member of the X. IT. Historical Society 
Dec. 17, 1902. 

He was a charter member of the Spicket Lodge of Masons 
and Granite Colony of Pilgrim Fathers, and was also a mem- 
ber of the Provident Mutual Relief Association" of Concord. 

He married in 1852 Laura Ann, daughter of John A. 



Isaac Brooks Dodge was the son of Xmian Clarke and Abi- 
gail (Brooks) Dodge, born in Amherst, October 19, 1828, and 
made his home there through life. lie was educated in the 
schools of his native town. 

He served as selectman, 1876-78, and was representative to- 
the Legislature, 1883. He also held the onice of census 
enumerator of the tenth census, 1880. He was greatly inter- 
ested in genealogical and historical matters, and in 189-1 pub- 
lished the Historic Genealogy of the Kenrick, Brooks and 
Dodge Families. 

He became an active member of the Xew Hampshire His- 
torical Society, October 27, 1887, and a life member in 1893. 

He was a descendant of the seventh generation from Richard 
Dodge who came to this country from East Coker, Somerset 
County, England, in 1638. • He died at Amherst, August 24,, 


John S. H. Frink was born in Xewington, November 9,1831,. 
and died at Greenland of valvular heart disease August 30,. 
1905. He was the son of Simes and Sarah Pickering (Hatch) 

His preparatory studies were partly at Hampton Academy.. 
He graduated atBowdoin College in 1851 with Phi Beta Kappa 
rank. Immediately after he began the study of law in the 
office of Hon. Albert R. Hatch at Portsmouth, and spent the 
earlier years of his practice in Epping. In 1870 he opened an 
office in Portsmouth and continued in practice there through 
life, associated during the last sixteen years with Mayor Wil- 
liam E. Marvin, lie was a recognized leader of the Rocking- 
ham bar, and had no superior in the state. Devoting himself 
zealously to his profession he never sought public prominence, 
but was county solicitor, 1867-71, and United States district 
attorney, 1885-90. He twice declined the offer of a seat on the 
supreme bench. He had been president of the Xew Hamp- 


shire Bar, and at his death was president of the Rockingham 
Bar Association. He was senior counsel for the Boston and 
Maine Railroad, president of the Portsmouth Savings Bank, 
director of the Rockingham Xational Bank, the Portsmouth 
Bridge Company, and Portsmouth Electric Road. 

He affiliated with the Democrats, but never took an active 
part in party politics. He joined the Xew Hampshire Histori- 
cal Society June 11, 1871. 

He was a man of distinguished presence, courtly manners and 
lovable qualities, and a fine type of the old school lawyer, and 
his death was a distinct loss to the state, and an irreparable loss 
to Greenland where he had his charming home. 

He married Lucretia Morse Pickering, daughter of William 
and Susan Burbeen (Walker) Pickering, and had William 
Pickering Frink, who was educated at the Institute of Tech- 
nology, Boston. 


Mrs. Maria Louisa (Sherburne) Gove, widow of Col. Jesse 
Augustus Gove, and daughter of Robert II. and Ruth Kimball 
(Eaton) Sherburne, died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. ' 
James M. Killeen, in Concord, February 24, 1906. She was 
bom in Concord, December 17, 1830, and married Colonel 
Gove October 6, 1852. 

Her husband was born in Weare, December 5, 1824 ; gradu- 
ated at Norwich (Vt.) Military Academy in 1847, and served 
as lieutenant in the Ninth United States Infantry. He was on 
the staff of Gen. Frank Pierce in the Mexican -war. He after- 
wards studied in the office of Pierce & Minot at Concord ; 
served as deputy secretary of state, 1850-55; appointed cap- 
tain of Company I, Tenth Regiment of United States Infantry, 
and ordered to Foil Snelling, Minn., serving there till the Mor- 
mon rebellion broke out. At the beginning of the civil war he 
was appointed colonel of the Twenty- Second Massachusetts 
Infantry, participated in the battles before Richmond, and fell 
while gallantly leading his command at Gaines Mill, Va., June 
22, 1862. 

•Jul IX ( '. L IX EH AX. 


In consideration of his services Mrs. Gove was honored by 
the general government with a handsome pension. 

She was a woman of great public spirit intensely patriotic, 
and interested in everything pertaining to the welfare of the 
veterans of the civil war and their families, social in her nature, 
sympathetic, charitable and full of kindly ministries, her very 
presence a symbol of good cheer. She greatly enjoyed the 
society of the young and entered heartily into their pastimes. 
| < The circle of her acquaintances was large, and her death awak- 

ened a deep sense of personal loss. 

She was also interested in historical matters, and had been 
a member of the i\ew Hampshire Historical Society since April 
24, 1888. 

Tn her religious affiliation she was a devoted Episcopalian, 
and ever active in the service of the church. 

Mrs. Gove is survived by her son Charles A. Gove, of the 
United States Navy, her daughter, Mrs. James M. Killeen of 
Concord, and two brothers, Joseph Sherburne of Warner and 
Robert II. Sherburne of McIIenrv, 111. 


John C. Linehan died at his home in Penacook after a pro- 
longed illness September 10, 1905. He was born the son of 
John and Margaret (Foley) Linehan at Macroon, County of 
Cork, Ireland, February 9, 1840. He came to New Hampshire 
with his mother, a brother and two sisters in October, 1849, 
joining his father who had previously come and .located at D an- 
bury, but in 1852 settled permanently at Penacook. Young 
Linehan was limited in his opportunities for securing a good 
education, but by dint of hard study laid the foundation emi- 
nently fitting him for the practical business of life. At the age 
of. twelve he entered the Penacook cotton factory as a "doffer" 
in the spinning - room, and after five years ending as loom 
fixer in the weaving room. 

He became a member of the Penacook band in 1800, and at 
the breaking out of the civil war he enlisted with six associates 
August 15, 1861, in the Third New Hampshire Volunteers. 


After serving a year he was discharged August 31, 186*2, and 
returned to Penacook, engaging briefly in various occupations 
till 1806, when with one of his tent mates, Henry F. Brown, 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits under the firm name of 
Brown & Linehan till May, 1809, when he bought out his partner 
and carried on the business alone for nearly twenty-two years. 
For nearly twenty years he was located in Exchange Block, 
Washington Square, acquiring a reputation for honesty and 
integrity which found a far wider range than his home 

In religious belief he was a zealous Catholic, and through 
life loyal to his church, of which he was a liberal supporter. 
For twenty-five years he was the efficient superintendent of 
the Sunday School connected with the parish, and by his pains- 
taking effort secured the attendance of every Catholic child 
when able. lie was foremost in the movement to secure a 
house of worship, and in making addition of land for Wood- 
lawn Cemetery by his appeal, as one of the trustees, securing 
the setting aside of a part for the Catholics of Penacook. 

In politics he affiliated with the Republican party from his 
early manhood, and held various offices of honor and trust; 
was member of the governor's council, 1872-73; of the board 
of aldermen, L877-78; and of the executive council of the 
state under Gov. Charles II. Sawyer, 1887-88, and chairman of 
the committee on the state prison. lie was appointed by Gov. 
S. W. Hale in 1884 trustee of the State Industrial School and 
served almost continuously till his death, was secretary of the 
board several years, and president after 1897. 

lie was appointed insurance commissioner by Gov. I). II. 
Goodell September '28, 1890, and so continued till his death, 
' establishing a record of fearless and conscientious performance 
of his duties which commended itself to officials and the gen- 
eral public. 

lie was a charter member of Willi am # I. Brown post, 
G. A. R., and first commander; represented the department of 
New Hampshire at the National Encampment at Albany, X. Y., 
1870, and member of the council of administration. ls8Uaud 
1881; department commander of Xew Hampshire, 1883-84, 



and appointed member of the national pension committee, 
serving till 1887 ; president of the New Hampshire Veterans' 
Association, 1885-86, ami its musical director; was trustee of 
the Loan and Trust Savings Bank; member of the Knights of 
Columbus Charitable Irish Society of Boston, and American 
Irish Historical Society, of which he was one of the founders 
and treasurer-general ; also of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society after June 8, 1876. 
* Jointly with his life-long friend D. Arthur Brown, he wrote 

a "Memorial History of Penacook in the Civil War," contrib- 
uted the article on " The Irish in New Hampshire," in McClin- 
tock's History of New Hampshire. " The Irish in New Hamp- 
shire in the Civil War " for the Seventeenth New Hampshire 
Volunteer Regiment. He received the degree of A. M. from 
Dartmouth College in 1887. 

He was a gentleman whom it was a pleasure to meet, social, 
affable, and a most genial companion. 

He married at Nashua, January 2, 1864, Mary E., daughter 
of Kieran Pendergast, who survives him, as do four children : 
^Margaret Ann, born October 2, 1864 ; John Joseph, born October 
ft, 1S66; Timothy Patrick, born December 7, 1869; and Henry 
Francis, born June 28, 1877. 













Eighty-Fifth Annual Meeting. 

The eighty-fifth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society in 
Concord on Wednesday, June 12, 1907, at eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon, about twenty-six members being in 

In the absence of the President, Dr. Roberts, Col. Daniel 
Hall, the Second Vice-President, called the meeting to- 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last annual meet- 
ing, the account of the field day in Hanover, and the record 
of a meeting of the Society held April 27 of this year, 
which were approved. 

The report of the Treasurer was read, accepted, and 
ordered placed on file. 

■treasurer's report. 

Receipts Credited to General Income: 

Income from Permanent Fund, 

New members, 

Life membership, 


Books sold, 


State appropriation, 

Income from Todd Fund, 



















Expenditures Charged to General Income: 

Salary of Assistant Librarian, . 








Books purchased, 

Stamps and envelopes, 


Permanent Fund, 
Current funds, 

To new account: 
Permanent Fund, 
Current funds, 

William C. Todd Fund. 
To investments, $6,500 . 00 

























By paid for books of genealogy, 



Charles L. Tappan Fund, 



List of Securities in the Hands of the Treasurer. 
1 2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s deben- 
tures, $1,000.00 

2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe* Rd. 

bonds, S500 . 00 each, 1,000 . 00 

2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

Rd. bonds, 2,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. bonds, 2,000.00 

13 shares Concord & Montreal Rd., 2,268 . 50 

5 shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

Fe Rd., 500.00 

4 shares Concord Electric Co., 400.00 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 3,557.78 

Deposit in national bank, 507 . 33 


William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great North- 

ern Rd. bond, $1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. bonds, 2,000.00 
1 City of Laconia bond, 1,000.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 2,699.05 

__ §6,699.05 

Building Fund. 

As per report of last year, $17,0S3.83 

Income from same, 679.32 

— $17,703.15 

On deposit, $17,663.15 

Note, 100.00 


We have this day examined the account of William P. 
Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 


for the year ending June 11, 1907, and find the same cor- 
rectly cast and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We 
have also examined the securities constituting the funds of 
the Society and find them correct. 

John C. Thorne, 
Giles Wheeler, 
Standing Committee. 
Concord, N. II., June 12, 1907. 

The report of the Librarian was read, accepted, and 
ordered placed on file. 

During the year past the Society has received numerous 
relics and miscellaneous gifts as follows: 

From Mrs. Agnes G. Coburn of Claremont, thirty-three 
numbers of Leslie's Pictorial History of the War of 1S61; 
W. A. Connor, church clerk, early records of the Congrega- 
tional Church in Henniker, N. EL; Milton C. Foss of New- 
port, through Hon. Henry M. Baker, badge worn during 
the Fremont and Dayton campaign, 1856; New Hampshire 
Board of Underwriters, maps of New Hampshire towns; 
Mrs. A. G. Griffin of Maiden. Mass., a loan to the Society 
of the camp chest of Gen. Joseph Cilley, and miniature of 
Gen. Enoch Poor by Kosciuszko; J. E. Davis, old fashioned 
bread-toaster of iron, 100 years old; Miss Almira M. 
Fletcher, box of manuscript consisting of deeds, wills, notes, 
etc.; Rev, John Thorpes of Centre Harbor, newspaper 
clippings relating to New Hampshire; Connecticut Histori- 
cal Society and Mr. Gherardi Davis, two photographs of 
the flag of the 2nd Battalion, 3d Conn. Rcgt; Gherardi 
Davis of New York City, photograph of flag of the 3d 
N. Y. Regt, 1778; Col. J. E. Pecker, views of "Elmeroft" 
and East Concord; Abbot-Downing Co., framed photograph 
of thirty coaches shipped by them in April, 1868, to be 
used by the Overland Mail Coach Line; Dana W. Baker of 
Exeter, various old papers bearing signatures of Governors 


Langdon, Bartlett, Pierce, Thornton, also Meshech Weare; 
Rev. George W. W. Thompson's record book of marriages 
performed by him in Stratham; account books of John 
Wingate, 1819-1832; documents and manuscripts of Paine 
Wingate and J. C. A. Wingate; Henry C. Quinby, New 
York City, chart covering genealogies of several well- 
known families of New England; Dr. John Sullivan, Togus, 
Me., badge of the Order of the Cincinnati; letter to Gen. 
Sullivan from the officers in his command; commission 
appointing him Judge of the District Court of New Hamp- 
shire dated November, 1789, and accompanying letter 
signed by Washington; letter written by Gen. Sullivan 
Aug. 9, 1790; scarf and gold band ring of the wife of Gen. 
Sullivan; fine linen handkerchief of Margery, mother of 
Gen. Sullivan; silver snuff box, silver spurs, and silk vest 
of Gen. Sullivan, the vest being a gift to him from Lafayette; 
two crayon-needlework pictures; a painting on ivory of the 
wife of Hon. George Sullivan; part of a set of china originally 
belonging to the Rundlett family of Portsmouth about 
1760; through Leonard Wellington, executor, in accordance 
with the will of Mrs. Julius N. Morse, late of Keene, a large 
.covered willow basket from Cuba, an old fashioned side 
saddle, a cane made from the sugar cane with deer's horn 
handle, box of old coins. 

The following is a summary of the library accessions for 
the year ending June 1, 1907: 

Books by purchase 73 

" by exchange 44 

" by gift 206 

Total 323 

Pamphlets purchased 


" by exchange 


by gift 


Town reports 


Total 687 


Forty books, chiefly periodicals for the year previous, have 
been bound. 

Ten copies of Maj. McFarland's "Kearsarge Mt. and the 
Corvette Named for It" were deposited here by the author, 
as were also twenty copies of Leavitt's Almanac by E. C. 

The books on genealogy, United States, State, and town 
history have been catalogued, making about 3,000 volumes. 
The books upstairs have been rearranged and sorted, pre- 
liminary to the actual cataloging, which has been begun. 
The cards made for the Bell and Sabine libraries have 
been arranged alphabetically, making the books in each 

Samuel C. Eastman,' 


The Necrologist reported there had been four deaths 
I during the year: , 

Albert S. Wait, Newport, October 7, 1906. 
Arthur W. Walker, Portsmouth, November 19, 1906. 
John L. Farwell, Giaremont, December 15, 1906. 
Enoch Gerrish, Concord, January 29, 1907. 

Mr. John C. Thorne made a verbal report for the Stand- 
ing Commitee, which was accepted. 

The report of the Library Committee was presented by 
Arthur H. Chase, and was accepted. 

Rev. N. F. Carter, for the Committee on New Members, 
proposed the following names for resident membership: 

Josiah E. Fernald, Concord. 
Augustus Hunt Shearer, Hanover. 
Mary B. Willson, Manchester. 

and they were duly elected. 

On motion of John C. Thorne, the proceedings of the 
Society were ordered printed under the supervision of the 
Publishing Committee. 



Samuel C. Eastman, in the absence of the chairman of 
the Building Committee, suggested an adjournment of two 
weeks, when a report of the committee would be given. 

On motion of William P. Fiske the annual assessment of 
three dollars on each member was voted. 

On motion of Otis G. Hammond it was voted that the 
chair appoint a committee of three to bring in a list of 
officers for the ensuing year. 
| The chair appointed Otis G. Hammond, John C. Thorne, 

and Arthur G. Whittemore. 

Joseph B. Walker offered the following resolution, which 
was read and unanimously adopted: 

Resolved that our thanks are due and are hereby tendered 
to the Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, for the valuable portrait 
of our late associate, William G. Todd of Atkinson, this 
day presented to this Society, and that the Secretary be 
hereby requested to transmit to Mr. Eastman an attested 
copy of this resolution. 

The committee appointed to submit nominations for 
officers of the Society for the ensuing year reported as 

President, Henry M. Baker. 

Daniel Hall. 

Vice-Presidents . , 

1 Frank w . Hackett. 

Recording Secretary, Henry A. Kimball. 
Corresponding Secretary, Charles R. Corning. 
Treasurer, William P. Fiskm. 
Librarian, Edith S. Freeman. 
Necrologist, Eli E. Graves. 
Standing Committee — John C. Thorne, Edson C: East- 
man, Giles Wheeler. 

Library Committee — Rev. George H. Reed, Mrs. 
Frances C. Stevens, Arthur H. Chase. 

Publishing Committee — John Dowst, John R. Eastman, 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter. 


Committee on New Members — Rev. Nathan F. Carter, 
Dr. Jane Elizabeth Hoyt. 

Committee on Speakers — Joseph B. Walker, Lyman D. 
Stevens, Rev. Howard F. Hill. 

Committee on Naval History of New Hampshire — John R. 
Eastman, Charles R. Corning. 

The Secretary was authorized to cast one ballot for the 
list as reported by the committee, which was accordingly 
done, and they were declared elected. 

The Recording Secretary took the oath of office before 
Samuel C. Eastman, Justice of the Peace. 

Mr. Arthur H. Chase spoke of the excellent work Miss 
Freeman had done as Assistant Librarian, and moved that 
her salary for the ensuing year be fixed at fifty dollars per 
month, which was voted. 

On motion of Joseph B. Walker the following gentlemen 
were named as a Committee on Field Day: John C. Thorne, 
Edson C. Eastman, Giles Wheeler. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman spoke of the extension of mem- 
bership in the Society in other parts of the State. 

On motion of Arthur LI. Chase it was voted that the 
names of three persons be added to the Committee on New 
Members. The chair appointed Arthur II. Chase, Arthur 
G. Whittemore, and Edith S. Freeman. 

Mr. Joseph B. Walker remarked that there had been no 
publication of the Collections of the Society since "1888. He 
accordingly moved, and it was voted, that the Publishing 
Committee examine all the original matter in the possession 
of the Society, and arrange it in order for publication. 

On motion of Arthur H. Chase, the meeting was adjourned 
until Wednesday, June 26, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 



June 26, 1907. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society on Wednesday, 
June 26, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 

In accordance with the call the meeting was adjourned 
to the Saturday following, without transacting any business. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


I June 29, 1907. 

An adjourned meeting of' the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society on Saturday, 
June 29, 1907, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 

[In the absence of the President and the Vice-Presidents, 
the Secretary, called the meeting to order. 

Judge Corning was chosen to serve as President pro 

Mr. Benjamin A. "Kimball, for the Building Committee, 
made a verbal report, with accompanying sketches and 

!The first Vice-President, Daniel Hall, coming in, Judge 
Corning resigned the chair to him. 

Mr. John C. Thome offered the following resolution, 
which was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved that Benjamin A. Kimball, Samuel C. Eastman, 
Henry W. Stevens, Frank N. Parsons, and Frank W. 
Hackett be appointed a Building Committee, with full 
power to raise such sums of money as may be necessary, in 
addition to the funds of the Society now especially pledged 
and available therefor, to purchase the land on the corner 
of North State and Park Streets in Concord, and to erect 
thereon a new library building, on the plan submitted to 
the Society at this meeting, subject to such modifications 
as may be found expedient or necessary. 


Said committee shall have full power to make all con- 
tracts required for the carrying out of the plan in the name 
of the Society. 

Said committee may appoint its own chairman, treasurer, 
and agents, and shall have charge of the disbursement of all 
funds raised or hereby appropriated for the building or land. 

Said committee may provide for any memorials that in 
their judgment may be deemed proper. 

On motion of Lyman D. Stevens it was voted that the 
Building Committee this clay appointed is hereby authorized 
to fill any vacancy that may occur in its membership, the 
person so appointed to serve until the next meeting of the 
Society, when the vacancy may be permanently filled. 

Mr. John C. TLorne resigned as chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Field Day. 

Mr. Joseph B. Walker suggested Henry M. Baker of Bow 
to fill the vacancy, which was voted. 

The resignation of James C. Fassett of Nashua was read 
and accepted. 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter, for the Committee on New 
Members, proposed the names of the following for resident 

John P. George, Concord. 
John H. Bartlett, Concord. 

On motion of Mr. Eastman they were elected. 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter, as chairman of the Committee on 
New Members, made a report, which suggested means of 
enlarging the membership. 

On motion of Otis G. Hammond the committee was 
continued, and the report ordered placed on file. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that 
when the meeting is adjourned it shall be to meet at the 
call of the President. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 



April 16, 1908. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 

Society was held at its rooms on Thursday, April 16, 1908, 

at two-thirty o'clock in the afternoon, at the call of the 


In the absence of the President, the first Vice-President, 
Daniel Hall, presided. 

In the absence of the Secretary, John C. Thorne was 
chosen Secretary pro tern. 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter, chairman of the Committee on 
New Members, presented the names of Dr. Irving A. 
Watson, Isaac Hill, and John S. Blanchard, all of Concord, 
and they were duly elected. 

The Chairman presented Charles R. Corning, who gave 
an address upon "New Hampshire, Past and Present." 

The Vice-President being obliged to leave, Samuel C. 
Eastman was called to the chair. 

At the close of Judge Coming's address Joseph B. 
Walker spoke briefly,, and presented the following resolu- 
tion : 

-Resolved that our thanks are due and are hereby ten- 
dered to the Hon. Charles R. Corning for his important 
and able address on this occasion, and that he be invited 
to furnish a copy of the same for preservation in the archives 
of this Society. 

Mr. Lyman D. Stevens made a few remarks and seconded 
the resolution, which was adopted. 

Voted that the meeting be adjourned to meet at the call 
of the President. 

John C. Thorne, 
Secretary pro tern. 
A true record, attest 

Henry A. Kimball, Recording Secretary. 

Eighty-Sixth Annual Meeting. 

The eighty-sixth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society in 
Concord on Wednesday June 10, 1908, at eleven o'clock in 
the forenoon, twenty-three members being in attendance. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last annual meet- 
ing and the adjourned meetings, which were approved. 

The report of the Treasurer was read, accepted, and 
ordered placed on file. 

treasurer's report. 
Receipts Credited to General Income: 
Income from investments, $601 . 19 

New members, 25 . 00 

i Assessments, 399.00 

State appropriation, 500.00 

Income from Todd Fund, 94.87 


Expenditures Charged to General I) 


Salary of Librarian, 

$600 . 00 

Incidentals of Librarian, 






Printing Proceedings, 


Printing, &c., 





75 . 62. 



Genealogies and town histories, 

Todd Fund, 






Permanent Fund, $11,600.00 

Current funds, 1,633 . 59 


To new account: 
Permanent Fund, $11,600 . 00 

Current funds, 1 ,61 1 . 04 

* $13,211.04 

William C. Todd Fund. 
To investments, $6,699 . 05 

Income, 276 . 80 


By paid for books of genealogy, 94.87 


Charles L. Tappan Fund. 
To investment, $577.32 

Income, 23.08 

List of Securities in the Hands of the Treasurer. 
2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s deben- 
tures, $500.00 each, $1,000.00 
2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rd. 

bonds, 8500.00 each, 
2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

bonds, 81,000.00 each, 
2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. 

bonds, $1,000.00 each, 
13 shares Concord & Montreal Rd. 

5 shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

Fe Rd., 
4 shares Concord Electric Co., 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Deposit in First National Bank, 











William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great North- 

ern Rd. bond, $1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. bond, 

81,000.00 each, 2,000.00 

1 City of Laconia bond, 1,000.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 2,880.98 

$6,880.9 8 

Building Fund. 

As per report of last year, $17,763 . 15 

Income from same, 731 .52 

■ $18,494.67 

On deposit, 818,49 4.67 

We have this day examined the account of William P. 
Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
for the year ending June 9, 190S, and find the same correctly 
cast and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We have also 
examined the securities constituting the funds of the Society, 
and find them correct. 

John C. Thorne, 
Giles Wheeler, 
E. C. Eastman. 
Standing Committee. 
Concord, N. H., June 10, 1908. 

The report of the Librarian was read, accepted, and 
ordered placed on file. 

librarian's report. 

The Society has received during the past year the follow- 
ing gifts, exclusive of the library accessions: a portrait in 
oil of William C Todd, the gift of Hon. S. C Eastman; 
record books of the Hillsborough County Conference of 
Congregational Churches from Rev. Tyler E. Gale; musket 


carried in the Battle of Bunker Hill, box- and urn made 
from wood taken from the frigate Constitution, uniform 
of Capt. Thomas White Wyman, several swords, knife 
box, and gold watch by the will of Florence M. Wyman; 
a thermometer in mahogany case, once the property of Gov. 
John Wentworth, from Mrs. N. S. Shaw of Pittsfield; box 
of old deeds, receipts, and other manuscripts from Dana W. 
Baker; photographs of the paintings of Gen. Joseph Cilley 
and Brig. Gen. Enoch Poor, the gift of Mrs. Arthur E. 
Clarke; maps and plans of New Hampshire towns from the 
New Hampshire Board of Underwriters; Mrs. Mary E. 
Chapman of Exeter gave the Society the Lane, Chapman, 
and Weeks genealogies, written by her husband, and con- 
taining his manuscript notes and corrections. 

The library accessions for the year are as follows: 

Number of books by purchase 50 

" " " exchange 11 

" " " gift 166 



Number of pamphlets by purchase 


" exchange 


" gift 


Total 951 

The cataloging of the library has progressed, though of 
necessity slowly. The greater part of the work has been 
on the pamphlets; these have been taken from the boxes on 
the third floor, and by putting them into pamphlet binders 
they take their places on the shelves as bound volumes, at 
a very slight expense. About six hundred pamphlets have 
been treated in this manner, thus enabling them to be re- 
ferred to with much more readiness than formerly. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edith S. Freeman, 



Dr. Eli E. Graves, Necrologist, reported the deaths of the 
following members of the Society: — 

Rev. Daniel Crane Roberts, D.D., Concord, October 31, 

Charles H. Sawyer, Dover, January 18, 1908. Governor 
of New Hampshire, 1887-1889. 

James M. Killeen, Concord, February 3, 1908. 

George P. Little, Pembroke, April 15, 1908. 

Amos Hadley, Concord, May 6, 1908. 

Horace E. Chamberlin, Concord, June 4, 1908. 

Mr. Arthur H. Chase read the report of the Library 
Committee, which was accepted and ordered placed on 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter made a verbal report for the 
Publishing Committee. 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter, for the Committee on New 
Members, proposed the following persons for membership: 

Eugene P.. Nute, Farmington. 
Louis C. Merrill, Concord. 
Harry M. Cavis, Concord. 

and they were duly elected. 

Mr. Lyman D. Stevens, for the Committee on Speakers, 
made a verbal report. 

Voted that the Building Committee, as appointed at the 
last annual meeting, be continued until the completion of 
the new building and its formal acceptance. 

Mr. William P.> Fiske offered the following motion, which 
( . was adopted: 

Voted that the Society accept the bequest of ten thou- 
sand dollars ($10,000.00) given by William C. Todd by his 
will, in accordance with the terms thereof, and that the 
Treasurer be authorized to receive and receipt for said 
bequest, and to execute in behalf of the Society any bond 
or agreement that may be desired, to the executor and to 
Mount Holyoke College, to secure compliance with the 
terms of the will. > 


An assessment of three dollars on each member for the 
ensuing year was voted. 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond moved that the chair appoint a 
committee of three to nominate officers for the ensuing year. 

The chair appointed Otis G. Hammond, Fred W. Lamb, 
and John S. Blanchard as such committee. 

Mr. John C. Thorne made a verbal report for the Stand- 
ing Committee. 

Dr. J. Elizabeth Hoyt Stevens asked the Society to make 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter a life member of the Society from 
the time he retired as Librarian, with the refunding to him 
of his dues paid since, all this in view of his long and faithful 
service to the Society. 

The President called the attention of the members to 
section two of the constitution, whereby a life member 
must pay to the Society the sum of fifty dollars. 

Mr, Henry M. Baker called the attention of the Society 
to the condition of the pencil sketch of Josiah Bartlett, 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, by Jonathan 

No action was taken. 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond reported, for the Committee on 
Nominations, the following names for officers for the ensu- 
ing year: 

President, Henry M. Baker. 

T , . „ . , • f Daniel Hall. 
Vice-Presidents, < _, , T , TT 

^ Frank \\ . Hackett. 

Recording Secretary, Henry A. Kimball. 
Corresponding Secretary, Charles R. Corning. 
Treasurer, William P. Fiske. 
Librarian, Edith S. Freeman. 
Necrologist, Dr. Eli E. Graves. 
Standing Committee — John C. Thorne, Edson C. East- 
man, Giles Wheeler. 

Library Committee — Rev. George PI. Reed, Frances C. 
Stevens, Arthur H. Chase. 


Publishing Committee — John R, Eastman, Otis G. 
Hammond, Edith S. Freeman. 

Committee on New Members — Rev. Nathan F. Carter, 
Dr. J. Elizabeth Hoyt Stevens. 

Committee on Speakers — Joseph B. Walker, Lyman D. 
Stevens, Rev. Howard F. Hill. 

Committee on Naval History of New Hampshire — John R. 
Eastman, Charles R. Corning. 

The President then introduced John Scales of Dover, who 
gave an address on General Thomas Bartlett of Nottingham, 
patriot of the Revolution. 

At the close of the address Samuel C. Eastman moved, 
and it was voted, that the thanks of the Society be 
extended to Mr. Scales for ins valuable and very interest- 
ing address, and that a copy be requested for publication 
in the Proceedings of the Society. 

The thanks of the Society were extended to the President 
for his gift of Ethan Allen's pistol. 

The chair named Edson C. Eastman, Daniel Hall, and 
Fred W. Lamb a Committee on Field Day. 

The meeting was. then adjourned, to meet at the call of 
the President. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
^Recording Secretary. 

By John Scales. 

General Thoma3 Bartlett was born in Newbury, Massa- 
chusetts, October 22, 1745. He died in Nottingham, 
N. H., June 30, 1805; while sitting in his chair reading 
the Bible he suddenly expired of heart failure, without any 
warning to his family that he felt unwell; he had previously 
been in apparently good health. He was of medium height 
and quite heavy, weighing about two hundred pounds. He 
had dark hair and dark eyes, a fine head and face with a 
high forehead. His manners were kind and courteous to 
his family and his friends, but rather curt towards his 
enemies, or those he did not fancy; and those who opposed 
what he thought was right were speedily informed in 
vigorous language, that was not ambiguous, what he thought 
of them and the measures they advocated. He knew how 
to make himself popular with his neighbors, his townsmen, 
and the citizens of New Hampshire, and he acted according 
to his knowledge. He was popular, and honors came to 
him without anxious seeking on his part. The fact that he 
died while reading the Bible shows that he was a reader of 
good books, though probably he did not have a very exten- 
sive library, nor did he pretend to high scholarship in classi- 
cal literature. 

In early life he was given such education as the public 
schools of Massachusetts and his father's private library 
afforded. He was especially good in mathematics; and this 
led him to learn surveying land, which work he followed 
more or less until the pressure of other business compelled 
him to give up tracing lines and tramping through the 
tangled wood of the forests in Nottingham. He was a good 
surveyor, so that a hundred acres "more or less" with him 
meant a hundred acres in fact, as well as in fancy. He 
believed in honesty and accuracy in all dealings, and acted 
as he believed. He was two-faced with no one; when he 


had formed his opinion on a subject nothing but the strong- 
est evidence could change him, and he never temporized 
for the sake of popularity. 

He was never a student at law, with the intent to practice 
that profession, but after the Revolution he gave much time 
and attention to the drawing of writs and prosecuting them 
before justices, so that he became very familiar with the 
work of courts before he was himself appointed Judge. 
His work on the bench in his later years was clear-headed, 
and thoroughly comprehensive of law and justice, especially 
the latter, so much so that evil doers who were arraigned 
in his court sometimes complained that he was hard on 
them in drawing the line. But before speaking further of 
his characteristics let us look to his antecedents. 

Thomas Bartlett was son of Israel Bartlett and Love 
Hall, his wife, and fifth in descent from Richard Bartlett, 
who came from England in 1634 and settled in Newbury, 
Mass., on land near the Merrimack River, and about three 
miles north of the Boston and Maine depot in Newbury- 
port, which land has remained in possession of his descend- 
ants to this day, never having passed out of the family 
or the name. 

Richard, who settled in Newbury in 1634, was born at 
Stopham, England, about 1590, and was eleventh in descent 
from Adam de Barttelot who came over from Normandy 
with William the Conqueror in 1066, and was granted a 
tract of land which has. remained in possession of the 
Barttelot family to the present time, and is one of the 
finest estates in England. The present owner is Walter 
B. Barttelot, who has been a "Member of Parliament for 
many years. One of his sons was a noted officer in the 
Boer war. In the ancient church at Stopham, along the 
stone floor, are marble slabs with inlaid figures of brass, 
with a regular successions of Barttelots, inscriptions, names, 
and elates, from John Barttelot, who died in 1428, down to 
Col. George B. Barttelot, who died Nov. 28, 1872, aged 84 
years; he was father of the present proprietor, Col. Walter B. 


. The Barttelots have lived on the original grant from 
William the Conqueror for more than 800 years. They 
fought at the battle of Crecy in 1348, and at Poictiers in 
1356. They were a power of great importance in helping 
to defeat the Spanish Armada in 1588. Every generation 
has furnished a Member of Parliament. They have borne 
a conspicuous part in many wars, but it is to their credit 
that not one of them is known to have come over to America 
to help in the attempt to subdue the colonies in the time 
of the Revolution. Such were the English ancestors of Col. 
Thomas Bartlett of Nottingham. 

For some reason not explained Richard the emigrant 
saw fit to shorten his name from Barttelot to Bartlett. The 
generations from Richard to Gen. Thomas are: Richard (2) 

who married Abigail ; Samuel (3) who married 

Elizabeth Titcomb; Thomas (4) who married Sarah Web- 
ster; and Israel (5) who married Love Hall, the daughter 
of Joseph Hall of Exeter. All of these were tanners by trade, 
and were prosperous in business, honorable in their dealings, 
members in good standing in the church, and worthy 
citizens in every way. 

Gen. Bartlett's mother, Love Hall, was granddaughter 
of Joseph Hall, Esq., and his wife, Anne Dudley, who was 
daughter of Rev. Samuel Dudley, pastor of the church at 
Exeter, and Sarah Winthrop, his wife, who was daughter of 
John Winthrop, the first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. Rev. Samuel Dudley was son of Thomas Dudley, 
the second Governor of Massachusetts. Thus we see that 
Gen. Thomas Bartlett came from the very best New Eng- 
land stock, and his career shows he was worthy of his 

Israel Bartlett had two daughters, sisters of Gen. Thomas. 
Sarah, the older, married Col. Winborn Adams of Durham, 
an officer in the Revolutionary war, who was killed in the 
battle at Bemis's Heights, just before the surrender of Gen. 
Burgoyne at Saratoga. At the beginning of the war they 
were keeping a tavern at Durham Falls, on the hill near 
Gen. Sullivan's residence, and opposite where the granite 


monument stands that was erected to the General's memory 
by the State a few years ago. 

Mary Bartlett, the younger sister, married Gen. Henry 
Dearborn, who was a physician on Nottingham Square 
before the Revolution, and who had a very conspicuous 
and honorable career during the war and many years 
following it. 

Israel Bartlett and Love Hall were married May 7, 
1738. He died in May, 1754, at Newbury, Mass. He was 
a tanner, a farmer, a land surveyor and merchant, a man 
of marked ability, and successful in all his affairs. An 
inventory of his estate shows that he possessed ample 
property and was well to do in the world. He possessed 
quite a library of the best books of the period, which indi- 
cates he was a man of literary tastes. His ledger and other 
books of account are still in existence in one branch of the 
family in Newbury. The following was copied in 1904 
from a manuscript copy of those ancient records made by 
Mr. David Laskey Bartlett of Amesbury, who has a part 
of the originals, he being grandson of Gen. Thomas Bartlett. 
He has Israel Bartlett'' s ledger, 'dating from 1733, when 
Israel was 21 years old, to 1754, when he died. The follow- 
ing are excerpts: 

May ye 1st 1735. Lieut. Joseph Hall Dr. by a 

side of Sole leather Curried, wd. 12 lb. £0-14-0 

and two sides upper leather, wd. 53 & 45 0-19-4 
April 1737. A day's work falling timber to 

build my house — 5—0 
Oct. 20, 1737 Rhum & Sugar for Raising my 

house 2—0-0 
May 20, 1753 To 4 Pieces of Paper to cover the 

Parlor walls, Bo't of Capt. Bagley @ 8 s. a Piece 1-12-0 
To Nails and putting on — 8-0 
Nov. 2, 1753 Father Hall Dr. to 3 days work 
about your affairs at New- 
market. 0-12-0 
Nov. 6. To 4 davs service more about Do. 

affairs 0-1Q-0 


An Account of my disbursements about the 
the Meeting House in 1750. 

June 4" 1750 Paid Mr. Lunt 
To 5000 shingles 
To 500 Refuse Boards 
June 12. To 4,000 shingle Nails @ 135/ 

To 300 Board Nails 7/6 
To 500 Double Tens @ 12/ 
June 19 To 1,000 Shingles 

September 21 To 5 Pd. Deck Nails 
Sept, 26 To 5 Pounds of Pitch 

By clabboard Nails 
Paid Joshua Lunt 

Old Tenor 
Lawful Money 

Received of Mr. Plant, Old Tenor, 
" Joseph Coffin 

My own Subscription 

Old Tenor 
Lawful Money 


Repairs of 



i— 5-0 




Israel Bartlett died in May, 1754. His widow, Love 
(Hall) Bartlett, was administrator until their son, Joseph 
Hall Bartlett, came of age, when he was appointed. The 
widow married Joshua Lunt about two years after Israel 
Bartlett died, James Bagley was guardian for "J. H. B.", 
John Burleigh for Sarah, Enoch Bartlett for Thomas and 
Josiah, Thomas Bartlett for Israel and Mary. In the final 
division of the property, to his son, Joseph Hall Bartlett, 
were given his sword, clothes, silver and gold buckles, desk, 
surveying instruments, gauging rod, and seventeen books, 
among which were the Bible, the Spectator, dictionary, etc., 
and numerous other articles. To Sarah were given a pair 
of gold buckles, two gold rings, copy of Paradise Lost, 


Paradise Regained, etc. To Thomas and Josiah a server, 
10 J ounces of silver, fifteen books, etc., etc. 

He had a negro man Cato valued at £46-13-4 

A negro woman 20 — 0-0 

A silver tankard valued at 10 — 0-0 

Nelson's Justice, 2 volumes. 

Household furniture of much value, etc., etc. 

On the 13th clay of January, 1797, Love (Hall) Bartlett 
appears to have been alive, for on that day, in accordance 
with her wish, of course, her sons, Joseph Hall of Newbury, 
Thomas of Nottingham, Israel of Haverhill, and Josiah of 
Lee signed a written agreement that each in turn should 
have her live with them twelve weeks, unless she were sick 
and could not travel, in which case the others should share 
in the expense of her sickness. There is no record of date 
of death. 

In Israel Bartlett's family Bible are the following records. 
Israel Bartlett b. 30 April 1712. 
Love Hall b. 10 June 1716. 

They were married 7 May 


Their children : 

Joseph Hall 


March 7, 1739. 



Nov. 25, 1741. 



Oct. 22, 1745. 



May 8, 1748. 



Aug. 17, 1751 O. S. 



March 13, 1753 N. 


Gen. Thomas Bartlett's family Bible, and the one he 
probably had in his hands when he died, is now, 1904, in 
possession of his great-grandson, Albert Bartlett, in Haver- 
hill, Mass; In it is inscribed the following: 

The Property of Sarah Bartlett, ) Sarah Bartlett owner 
late wife of Thomas Bartlett Esq., I of this book died Dec. 
who deceased, June 30th A. D. | 7th 1833, aged 76. 
1805, aged 59 


Thomas Bartlett was married to Sarah Cillcy Aug. 19, 
1773. The births of their children are as follows:' 

1. Israel, born Jan. 18, 1774. 

2. Joseph, born March 22, 1776. Died at sea Nov., 1806. 

3. Thomas, born April 24, 1778. Died September 29, 

4. Jonathan, born July 2, 1780. Died Oct, 25, 1852. 

5. Bradbury, born Jan. 21, 1783. 

6. Sarah, born July 26, 1785. Died May 30, 1786. 

7. Josiah, born March 31, 1787. 

8. David, born April 29, 1789. 

9. Enoch, born July 6, 1791. Died Dec. 20, 1818, 

10. Betsey, born August 6, 1793. Died Nov. 31, 1845. 

11. Jacob Cilley, born June 16, 1796. Died Feb., 1841. 

12. Patty Cilley, born Nov. 7, 179S. Died July 6, 1803. 

Israel Bartlett was one of the first settlers in Nottingham, 
and divided his time between there and Newbury from 
1733 to 1754, when he died. His name first appears in 
connection with Nottingham in 1733, when he was elected 
town clerk, he then being in his 22d year, which office 
he held for several years. His name does not appear among 
the proprietors, because he was not of age when the town 
was divided, but he became interested soon after he was 
. "out of his time.' 7 His father-in-law, Joseph Hall, and his 
wife's uncle, Capt. Edward Hall, were proprietors and 
large land owners. Moreover Joseph Hall was one of the 
town ' 'lot-lay ers," and chairman of the board of survey. 
As Israel Bartlett had learned surveying in his youth, he 
became engaged with his future father-in-law in laying out 
lots and making a general survey of the town. In this way 
he became acquainted with the most desirable lots in the 
town, and selected one on the north side of the Square for 
his home. It is down the hill about a quarter of a mile, and 
•commands a beautiful and grand view of the north and 
•east. On this spot he built his house in 1737. Near by he 
had a tanyard, for he was a tanner, as his ancestors had 
been for four generations in Newbury. It is probable that 


his family resided in Newbury much of the time, as the 
Indians were quite troublesome in Nottingham, and he 
died in Newbury and was buried in the cemetery where 
rests the dust of so many of the Bartlett family. 

He was town clerk of Nottingham from 1733 to 1741 r 
when he was elected assessor and served one year. In 
1742 he was elected one of the selectmen and served almost 
continuously until his death in 1754. In 1747 he was chair- 
man of the board, and wrote the following appeal to Gov- 
ernor Went worth and his Council for help against the 
Indians : 

"At a meeting of the free holders and inhabitants of 
Nottingham Dec. 8, 1747, Voted that the Selectmen draw 
up a petition to be presented to the General Court to pray 
that there may be suitable provision made for our relief 
under the difficulties of the war." The following is the 

"To his Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq., Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief, in and over his Majesty's Prov- 
ince of New Hampshire and the Hono ble his Majesty's 
Council and House of Representatives for said Province in 
General Assembly convened. 

"The inhabitants of Nottingham in said Province take 
this Opportunity thankfully to acknowledge your Goodness 
in sending and supporting a number of men in years past 
for our Safeguard and Defence in this Time of War. And 
altho' we might from thence Infer your good Disposition 
to Help us for the future, yet m order to your being more 
fully informed of our circumstances w r e would Humbly offer 
to the consideration of this Honorable Court some of the 
Difficulties and Dangers w r e find ourselves exposed to in 
this Time of War. 

"Our settlements are remote one from another, in a 
mountainous and broken country; our fields are generally 
encompassed about with trees and bushes which contin- 
ually expose us to the Danger of being surprised by the 
Enemy while about our Daily Labour; our common Roads 


and High Ways are no less dangerous to pass. We lie open 
to a wide wilderness which surrounds us on all sides, by 
which means the Enemy may come undiscovered very 
near our Garrisons which we have hardly men enough to 
defend, our number being now very small, many having 
already removed out of the Town, and others seem so much 
discouraged that we fear our numbers will be much less in 
the ensuing Summer than they are at present, which has a 
tendency to make our Burden still the heavier, which is 
already almost insupportable. We have never desired 
needlessly to be a Burden to the Government. Neither 
have we ever before in this manner applyed for Relief, but 
being now convinced more than ever of the Danger we are 
likely to be Exposed to, we can but think it needful for us 
to be Importunate with your Excellency and Honours to 
grant us such large assistance as our necessitous circum- 
stances may require, without which we fear we shall be 
obliged to Retreat for the safety of ourselves and our 

S Families tho' it must be with the greatest Regret that we 

leave our Settlements which we have cultivated with much 
Toil and Labour. 

"May it Please your Excellency and Honours to take the 
Premises into your wise consideration and if it be consistent 
with your pleasure and for the Benefit of the Province in 
General, as well as your Petitioners in particular to keep 
this Town, we humbly pray that there ma}' be speedy 
Provision made for the supporting of Forty or Fifty men 
to be sent up early in the Spring, and kept here, for the 
safeguard and Defence of the Inhabitants here, and that 
such Stores as may be needful for them may be conveyed 
up by sleading, the Knowledge of which as it would be 
likely to prevent some from moving out of Town, so it 
would be a means to encourage and strengthen us all who 
are very sensible that we cannot long support ourselves 
here without such assistance from the Government as shall 
enable us to go about our Labour and Business in some 
degree of Safety, which we Hope you will Freely Provide 



for, and your Petitioners shall, as in Duty Bound, ever 
Pray &C. 

" Israel Bartlett \ Selectmen for Nottingham 
Robert Harvey j and by order of the Town 
Nottingham Jan. 21st 1747." 

At the time of his death his son Thomas was nine years 
old, and, of course, had to have a guardian. His uncle, 
Enoch Bartlett of Newbury, was appointed, and appears 
to have performed the duty in the most paternal and 
efficient manner, for the work that Gen. Bartlett did after 
he became of age shows that in his youth he had a good 
elementary training. His penmanship was especially good, 
and his language in his manuscripts clear, crisp, and 
forcible. His orthography is good, showing that he had 
been drilled thoroughly in the spelling book. In mathe- 
matics he was like his father, and he engaged in land sur- 
veying, more or less, until the Revolution began. That he 
was familiar with good books is manifest by the fact that 
his father's library contained Milton's Paradise Lost and 
Paradise Regained, and Addison's Spectator and the Tatler, 
and such other books as were popular at that time. A 
family that had such books was far above the average in 
intelligence and culture. 

It is not known exactly when Gen. Bartlett came to 
Nottingham to reside, but probably in 1765, when he was 
20 years old. He inherited his father's homestead farm, 
among other landed property, and the house which his 
father built in 1737 seems to have gone to decay, so that 
before the Revolution the General built a new one, large,, 
and in the best colonial style. To this house he took 
his young bride, Sarah Cilley, August 19, 1773. There 
all his children were born. There he died. There his widow 
and daughter Betsey resided until their respective deaths, 
the former, Dec. 8, 1833, aged 76, and the latter, Nov. 3, 
1845, aged 52 years. Up to the death of the daughter the 
fine old house was kept in good repair, but after her depar- 
ture those who ought to have kept it up for the family 
name's sake neglected to do so, and it fell into decay. 


Gen. Bartlett was elected chairman of the board of 
selectmen of Nottingham in 1769, when he was 23 years 
old, and he was reelected annually, with the exception of 
the year 1782, until 1802, a period of 34 years. He was 
elected town clerk in 1776, and served continuously until 
1802, a period of 26 years, and no town records in the 
State during that period are the equal of his in beauty of 
penmanship, clearness of statement, and correctness of 
spelling. Bear in mind that Gen. Bartlett did this in years 
when he was one of the busiest and hardest worked men in 
the performance of arduous and important public duties. 
No man in Nottingham was ever more popular with the 
people, or more honored by them, than was Gen. Thomas 
Bartlett, and he never betrayed the confidence placed in 

About the time he commenced building his house, prob- 
ably a little before 1770, he built a store on the northwest 
corner of Nottingham Square, where now stands the house 
built by his son, the late Judge Bradbury Bartlett, in 
1S06. In that store he carried on a general trade, which 
included about everything the people wanted to buy, or 
had to sell, until his death in 1805. When the people of 
Nottingham began to talk about war with England in 
defense of their constitutional rights, they invariably met 
at Gen. Bartlett's store, where they always received a 
warm welcome, regardless of the weather. His brother-in- 
law, Dr. Henry Dearborn, later colonel in the Revolution 
and brigadier-general in the United States Army, lived 
a few rods away, on the northeast corner of the Square, and 
was a frequent visitor at the store when discussions were 
going on. Gen. Bartlett, then only a lieutenant, always had 

(the latest news from Portsmouth and Boston concerning 
the stirring events preceding the actual attack by the 
British forces on the American soldiers at Lexington and 
Concord. It is nowhere recorded that Gen. Bartlett was 
an orator, or much given to public speech making, but 
he was a good talker, and could and did express his views 
in a very forcible manner whenever the occasion demanded. 


His ideas of things were always clear, never befogged or 

Dr. Dearborn had learned something of military drill, as 
well as medicine, before he settled in Nottingham to prac- 
tice his profession. When times began to look squally, 
and it began to be manifest that the Americans would have 
to do something more than talk to convince Great Britain 
they were right in their demands from the British govern- 
ment, Dr. Dearborn began to drill the men of Nottingham 
in military tactics, as they from time to time gathered at 
Gen. Bartlett's store. This drilling was done on the Square 
in front of the store, a large, level space, ample for all 
kinds of maneuvering. The result was that when news of 
the encounter at Lexington and Concord reached Gen. 
Bartlett's store the men who had been drilling speedily 
responded to the call of Dr. Dearborn to muster on the 
Square, prepared to march to the seat of war. 

The fight was on the 19th; they got news of it on the 20th, 
and gathered .at the store on the afternoon of that day; 
they organized with Dr. Dearborn as captain, and before 
sunset started on the march over a rough road for Cam- 
bridge; they marched about sixty miles in fourteen hours, 
arriving in Medford before sunrise on the morning of the 
21st of April, 1775. It is one of the most rapid marches on 
record. The names of the men of this gallant company can 
nowhere be found, but it is known that Henry Dearborn 
was captain, and it is more than probable that Thomas 
Bartlett,. as well as his father-in-law, Gen. Joseph Cilley, 
were members of it. Gen. Bartlett's store remained the 
centre for collecting and distributing news in Nottingham 
all through the war. That town had a large population at 
that time, and there was nothing dull among the people. 

Gen. Bartlett's .Military Record. 

Gen. Bartlett was a private soldier and minor officer in 
the Tenth Company of Foot, in the Fourth Regiment of 
militia in the Province of New Hampshire, from about 
1767 until his appointment as first lieutenant of that com- 


pany January 11, 1771, when he was 25 years old. The 
original commission, signed by Gov. John Wentworth, 
is now in possession of Hon. John C. Bartlett of Lee, who 
is a grandson. The document is well preserved, and is highly 
prized by Mr. Bartlett. It reads as follows: 

"John Wentworth, Esq. 
" Captain-General and Governor in Chief, in and over 
His Majesty's Province of New-Hampshire in New Eng- 
land, &C. 

"To Thomas Bartlett Gentleman, Greeting. 

"By virtue of the Power and Authority, in and by His 
Majesty's Royal Commission to me granted, to be Captain- 
General, &c over this His Majesty's Province of New 
Hampshire, aforesaid; 1 do ( by , these Presents) reposing 
especial Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage 
and good conduct, constitute and appoint You, the said 
Thomas Bartlet to be the First Lieutenant of the Tenth 
Company of Foot, in the Fourth Regiment of Militia in 
the Province aforesaid. 

" You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge 
the Duty of a First Lieutenant in leading, ordering and 
exercising said Company in Arms, both Inferior Officers 
and Soldiers, and to keep them in good Order and Dis- 
cipline; hereby commanding them to obey you as their 
First Lieutenant and yourself to observe and follow such 
Orders and Instructions, as you shall from Time to Time 
receive from me, of the Commander in Chief for the Time 
being, or other your superiour Officers for His Majesty's 
Service, according to Military Rules and Discipline, pur- 
suant to the Trust reposed in You. 

" Given under my Hand and Seal at Arms, at Ports- 
mouth, the 31st Day of January in the Eleventh Year of the 
Reign of His Majesty, King George the Third, Annoque 
Domini, 1771. 

J. Wentworth. 

"By his Excellency's Command 

Theodore Atkinson, Sec ty ." 



The records do not show how long he held this office, but 
the presumption is that he held it until the Provincial Con- 
gress of New Hampshire was held in 1775 and the Royal 
government ceased to rule here. He was the representa- 
tive from Nottingham in the 4th Congress held that year, 
and was called " Lieutenant" Thomas Bartlett. All this 
indicates that he was connected with the provincial militia 
during the seven years preceding the Revolution, and an 
officer four years, so he became perfectly familiar with all 
the military tactics of that period, and was competent to 
enter upon the duties of higher commands when the war 
broke out. He was an intimate friend of Gen. John Sulli- 
van, and was well acquainted with the men who became 
the military leaders at the beginning of- the war. 

It is not known whether or not he was one of Gen. Sulli- 
van's party that went from Durham to Portsmouth Dec. 
14, 1774, and took the powder and cannon from Fort William 
and Mary, but it has always been the tradition in Durham 
that Nottingham men were in the party, and if any one 
from that town was in it, Gen. Bartlett would have been 
one of the first to join Sullivan in one of the boldest and 
most fearless attacks on the power and rule of Great Britain. 
This was the first overt act of war in the struggle for inde- 
pendence, antedating the battle at Lexington and Concord 
by four months. One thing is sure, if Gen. Bartlett did not 
help capture the powder he did help secrete a lot of it on 
Nottingham Square, and it was used in the war later. The 
probability is that Capt. Dearborn's company of minute 
men, already mentioned, had a supply of that identical 
powder in their powder horns when they started on their 
march to Cambridge on the evening of April 20, 1775. 

The reader will remember that Gen. Bartlett was first 
lieutenant in the Tenth Company of the Fourth Regiment 
of the provincial militia four years preceding the beginning 
of the war. When the war began that Regiment did not 
disband. The organization was kept up just the same, 
and the old officers were promoted and new ones appointed 
by the Provincial Congress. So it came to pass that on 


August 24, 1775, the Congress " Voted, That Col. Nicholas 
Gilman be appointed Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of 
militia in this Colony, and Capt. Jeremiah Foisom his 
Lieut. Colonel, and Lieut. Thomas Bartlett his first Major 
and Capt. Stephen Clark his second Major/' 

There you see how easily the old militia regiment was 
changed into the new. Henceforth, till further promotion, 
he is called "Major" Bartlett in the Journals of the Pro- 
vincial Congresses. In October the following was issued: 

"Portsmouth October 13th, 1775. 
"To Major Thomas Bartlett of Nottingham. 
'Sir: — You are desired to bring or send down, as soon as 
possible, all the Town Stock of Powder, Bullets and Flints 
to Head Quarters at, Portsmouth; hereof fail not; by express 
order of General Sullivan, and you are to take exact accompt 
thereof to be a record by you kept. 

''These from your m't Humble Servt. 

Benjamin Butler, Captain.' 7 

Of course Major Bartlett obeyed that order promptly, 
and that powder was the very same article which had been 
captured from Fort William and Mary in the preceding 
December, and had been carted on sleds from Durham to 
Nottingham Square for safe keeping. Gen. Sullivan knew 
where it was and on whom to ealMor it, and he called when 
the proper time came. It would be interesting to know 
where that powder was stored on the Square, but I see no 
way how we ever can find out. It seems very reasonable to 
suppose that the cellar of Major Bartlett's store would be 
regarded as about the safest place, and no doubt it was 
placed there and properly guarded until Gen. Sullivan 
ordered the Major to take it to Portsmouth. 

The first of December, 1775, an express arrived at Exeter 
from Gen. Sullivan, who had been appointed brigadier- 
general by the Continental Congress, and was in command 
at Winter Hill, Charlestown, that the troops from Con- 
necticut refused to tarry longer, and requesting urgently 
that men be sent from New Hampshire to fill their places. 



December 2, 1775, the Committee of Safety determined to 
answer this call for troops, although the State then had in 
active service more than three thousand men. Accordingly 
commissions were sent out to particular men in various 
towns to enlist men for a short term of service of six weeks 
to reinforce Gen. Sullivan, who was weakened by the 
defection of the Connecticut troops, and thirty-one com- 
panies w r ere enlisted within a few days, of sixty-three men 
each, who marched immediately to Medford, and were 
mustered into service by Major Burnham, the mustering 
officer appointed for the occasion by the Committee of 
Safety. From the length of their term of service they were 
called "six weeks men," and were two thousand and fifty- 
eight in number. Thus New Hampshire had in the field in 
December, 1775, more than five thousand men. Thomas 
Bartlett of Nottingham was appointed captain of the fifth 
company, Daniel Page was first lieutenant and Samuel 
Gray second lieutenant. Captain Bartlett had his com- 
pany ready to march within two days after he received his 
commission, and was among the first to reach Winter Hill 
and rejoice his dear friend, Gen. Sullivan, by his cheering 
presence. This was in the famous Siege of Boston, and the 
services of these men were invaluable just at that time, 
when the British were threatening to break through the 
American line and sweep all before them. 

July 4, 1776, Major Thomas Bartlett was appointed 
muster-master for certain sections of the State, for New 
Hampshire had then become a "State," no longer a colony 
or province. Major Bartlett served as muster-master 
several years, performing this duty in connection with the 
multitude of other duties placed upon him by the town 
and State. 

December 5, 1776, the Journal of the House of Represent- 
atives says: 

"Voted, That Col. David Gilman be Colonel of the 
Regiment now to be raised and sent to New York, and 
that Major Thomas Bartlett be Lieut. Colonel, and Major 
Peter Coffin be Major of said Regiment." 


This regiment joined the other New Hampshire regiments 
who had returned from Canada in the summer under 
command of Gen. Sullivan, and were at New York, and all 
soon joined Gen. Washington's army in Pennsylvania, and 
assisted in the glorious capture of the Hessians at Trenton, 
and afterwards in the battle of Princeton. Though worn 
down with fatigue and suffering for lack of clothing suitable 
for the cold and inclement weather, they continued in the 
service till March, several weeks beyond the time limit for 
which they enlisted. This campaign was Gen. Bartlett's 
first taste of actual war on. the battlefield. His father-in- 
law, Col. Joseph Cilley, was in the same campaign and 
experienced the same sufferings as the rest. No officers in 
that campaign were more gallant, sagacious, and fearless in 
the performances of patriotic duty than were Bartlett and 

In the summer of 1777 New Hampshire raised a regiment 
to reinforce the Army of the North, to aid in repulsing the 
British army which was marching down from Canada and 
driving all the American forces before it, as a whirlwind 
drives the dust of a much travelled road on a dry summer 
day. The officers, placed in command of this regiment were 
Stephen Evans, colonel; Thomas Bartlett, lieutenant 
colonel; Joseph Prescott, major; and Jonathan Went worth, 
adjutant. It was organized in August and started on its 
March the first of September. Col. Evans was ordered to 
place his regiment under command of Gen. Stark, if the 
General concluded to remain in the service, otherwise to 
join the Northern Army under Gen. Gates. As it happened, 
Stark had fought and won the glorious battle of Bennington 
before Col. Evans's regiment reached there, and they 
kept on and joined Gates's army in northern New York. 

When they reached the army the regiment was placed in 
Gen. Whipple's brigade of New Hampshire troops, and the 
officers were placed on Gen. Whipple's staff, as follows: 

William Whipple, Brigadier-General. 
George Gains, Brigade-Major. 


Prince, negro servant of Gen. Whipple. 

Stephen Evans, Colonel. 

Thomas Bartlett, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Joseph Prescott, Major. 

Thomas Peabody, Surgeon. 

Jonathan Wentworth, Adjutant. 

Robert Swainson, Quartermaster. 

John Gage, Sergeant-Major. 

John Philpot, Quartermaster-Sergeant. 

In this brigade was Col. Cilley's regiment, which per- 
formed wonderful feats of courage and valor. It is not 
the purpose of this paper to give a history of the battles of 
Stillwater. Bemis's Heights, and the surrender of Gen. Bur- 
goyne and the whole British army at Saratoga. The New 
Hampshire troops under Gen. Whipple were engaged in 
all of those battles, and were the bravest of the brave. 
Lieut. -Col. Bartlett received high praise from his superior 
officers for his bravery and efficiency in the performance 
of his duty in those battles. 

Col. Evans and Lieut. -Col. Bartlett arrived home with 
their command in November. It is worthy of note in 
this connection that Lieut. -CoL Bartlett not only had a 
father-in-law in command of a regiment, but also a brother- 
in-law, Col. Winborn Adams of Durham, who was in 
command of a New Hampshire regiment. Col. Adams 
married Sarah Bartlett, sister of Col. Thomas, and at the 
beginning of the war they were proprietors of a tavern at 
Durham Falls, a short distance from Gen. Sullivan's resi- 
dence. Col. Adams was a brilliant man and a brave officer, 
and was killed in battle at Bemis's Heights. 

From the close of this campaign until June, 1780, Gen. 
Bartlett was busily engaged in civil affairs, of which 1 shall 
speak later. In June of that year the House voted to raise 
two regiments of 945 men, for a term of three months, to 
reinforce the army at West Point. Thomas Bartlett of 
Nottingham was appointed colonel of the First regiment, 
and Moses Nichols of Amherst colonel of the Second. 


In Col. Bartlett's regiment the officers under him were: 
Jonathan Wentworth, major; John Gardner, adjutant; 
Nathaniel Chandler, quartermaster; Mark Howe, surgeon; 
George Keser, surgeon's mate; and Martin Perry, ser- 
geant-major. But why was New Hampshire called upon 
to send regiments to West Point? 

During the winter and spring of 1779-80 Gen. Washing- 
ton had his headquarters at Morristown, N. J. ? and con- 
ducted the campaign against the British army, which had 
about four times as many men as he had in his American 
army in that State. All he could do was to watch and wait; 
he dare not engage in battle when he was so largely out- 
numbered. He feared the British army would go up the 
Hudson, capture West Point, and get control of the whole 
North, which they had lost in the surrender of Burgoyne. 
If they should attempt such a move Washington knew that 
he could not stop them with the force then at his command. 
Hence he called for reinforcements, and Col. Bartlett with 
his regiment answered the call of the great chieftain. 

When Col. Bartlett arrived there with his regiment 
he was ordered to encamp near Gen. Benedict Arnold's 
headquarters, Arnold being in command of the army at 
West Point. The British did not attempt to gu up the 
Hudson past that point, and, as it turned out later, the 
reason they did not attempt it was because Arnold was then 
scheming and planning with the British commander-in- 
chief to betray the whole army at West Point and give it 
over to the British in an easy victory. You all know the 
story of Arnold and Major Andre. I need not repeat it here. 
Had Arnold succeeded in his plans Col. Bartlett and the 
rest would have done some very lively fighting before they 
would have surrendered West Point into the hands of the 
British. The capture of Major Andre and the flight of 
Gen. Arnold prevented bloodshed, but Col. Bartlett and 
his regiment, with the whole army there, were in a very 
wide-awake state of mind for several days, and kept the 
most vigilant guard day and night. Col. Bartlett returned 
home with his regiment in October or November. 


In the Journal of the House for Jan. 11, 1782, appears 
the following, connected with an interesting bit of New 
Hampshire history 7 which is little understood and scarcely 
remembered at this day. The Journal says: 

"Voted that Thomas Bartlett command one of the Regi- 
ments going to the Westward.' 1 

Now what was the call for New Hampshire troops to go 
to the "Westward?" The British Army was already anni- 
hilated, and the war with Great Britain was practically at 
an end. Rev. Dr. Belknap, in his History of New Hamp- 
shire, explains it, and I here give a brief of his admirable 

In 1780 New Hampshire and New York were contending 
before Congress for the control of Vermont, all. of which 
had been claimed for New Hampshire by Gov. Benning 
Wentworth before 1750, and numerous charters had been 
granted by him west of the Connecticut River. Previous to 
1780 Vermont had organized as an independent State, and 
at that date was contending not only for control over all 
territory to the western bank of the Connecticut River, but 
also to the series of towns along the east bank of that river 
in New Hampshire, and was holding courts in various towns. 
Of course this brought the court officers of the two States 
into conflict. 

A constable appointed by the authority of Vermont had 
a writ in an action of debt against a man in company w r ith 
a number of people in his own (New Hampshire) party, 
and attempted to arrest him. The owner of the house 
interposed. The constable produced a book, which he said 
contained the laws of Vermont, and began to read. The 
owner of the house forbade him. Threatening words were 
used, and the officer was compelled to retreat. By a war- 
rant from a Vermont justice the householder and another 
of the company were committed to prison in Charlestown. 
They sent a petition to the Assembly of New Hampshire 
for relief. The Assembly empowered the Committee of 
Safety to direct the sheriff of Cheshire County to release 
the prisoners. They further empowered the Committee to 


cause to be apprehended and committed to prison, in any 
of the counties, all persons acting under the pretended 
authority of the State of Vermont, to be tried by the (New 
Hampshire) courts of those counties where they might be 
confined; and for this purpose the sheriffs were empowered 
to raise a posse co?nitatus. 

In attempting to release the two prisoners from the 
Charlestown jail, the sheriff himself was imprisoned by a 
Vermont sheriff, under the authority of a warrant from 
three Vermont justices. Thereupon the imprisoned sheriff 
applied to a brigadier-general of New Hampshire to raise 
the militia for his liberation. The result w T as that Gen. 
Thomas Bartlett was ordered to march to Charlestown with 
a regiment and take the imprisoned sheriff and the other 
prisoners from jail. Gen. Bartlett acted promptly, and soon 
had his regiment on the road to Charlestown. This alarmed 
the Vermonters, and orders were issued by the Governor of 
Vermont for their militia to oppose Gen. Bartlett's regiment. 
At the same time the Governor sent a committee to Exeter 
to agree on measures to prevent hostilities between Gen. 
Bartlett \s and the Vermont regiment. One of this commit- 
tee was the Vermont sheriff who had imprisoned the New 
Hampshire sheriff. On the arrival of the Vermont sheriff in 
Exeter Gen. Bartlett immediately had him arrested and 
thrown into prison, and there held him as a hostage for the 
release of the New Hampshire sheriff at Charlestown. 
This shrewd move on the part of Gen. Bartlett secured the 
desired result without a clash of arms between the New 
Hampshire and Vermont militia, and actual civil war and 
bloodshed were avoided. 

As soon as all parties were out of prison the Assembly at 
Exeter issued a proclamation allowing forty days for the 
people in the revolted towns to repair to some magistrate 
of New Hampshire and subscribe a declaration that they 
acknowledged the extent of New Hampshire to the Con- 
necticut River, and that they would demean themselves 
peaceably as good citizens of the State. Gen. Bartlett with 
his militia was impowered to see that the proclamation was 


enforced, and it was enforced. At the same time the Na- 
tional Congress took Vermont in hand, and peace between 
the two States was finally restored by the admission of 
Vermont into the Union- as a State, with its boundary line 
on the west shore of the Connecticut River. In conducting 
this affair Gen. Bartlett showed that he was a shrewd 
political manager as well as a fearless military commander, 
when he got the Governor of Vermont to appoint that 
sheriff one of the committee to visit Exeter, and then 
imprisoned the sheriff as soon as he arrived in town, and 
held him until the sheriff and other prisoners were released 
at Charlestown by the Vermont authorities. 

Gen. Bartlett continued to be interested in military affairs 
to the end of his life. In March, 17S0, a new militia law 
was passed by the Assembly, of which he was a member, 
and he was influential in shaping its details, though the 
Journal shows that he did not always carry his points. 
On the 20th of December, 1784, he was appointed colonel 
of the 18th Regiment, and held it until 1786, when the law 
was again revised, with his assistance, and on he 22d of 
June of that year he was appointed brigadier-general of the 
militia, and held that office until 1792, when the militia law 
was again revised under the new constitution. On the 
26th of March, 1793, he was again appointed brigadier- 
general of the First Division, and continued to hold that 
office until the 26th of September, 1798, when he was ap- 
pointed major-general. He continued in this office until his 
death. Thus he was actively connected with the military 
affairs of New Hampshire for nearly forty years continu- 
ously. His military record alone entitles Gen, Bartlett to 
great fame in New Hampshire history, but his civil record 
is fully equal to his military record. He was a strict dis- 
ciplinarian, but was generally popular with his soldiers, 
and his conduct was generally approved. Let us now look 

Gen. BartleiCs Career as a Civilian. 

I have already mentioned that he was bom in Newbury, 
Mass., in 1745; that his father died when he was nine years 


old; that he lived in Newbury with his mother until he was 
about twenty years old; that his uncle Enoch was his guardian 
during that time; that his father left a good library for him 
to read, and he evidently made good use of it; that he was 
well educated and was a fine penman; that he was a good 
land surveyor and practiced that profession in Nottingham, 
more or less, for several years; and that he was not married 
until he was 28 years old, when his wife was 16 years old. 
Supposing he came to Nottingham when he was 21, that 
would make him a resident there in 1766, which, no doubt, 
is very nearly correct. 

The first trace we find of his presence there, in the town 
records, is in 1769, when he was elected one of the selectmen. 
In 1770 he was moderator and selectman. lie was re- 
elected selectman continuously until 1802, a period of 
more than thirty years, and nearly always was chairman of 
the board. In 1776 he was elected town clerk and held 
the office continuously until 1802, a period of twenty-six 
years. Now, for most men this record would suffice to 
make a man famous forever in his own town, especially 
during that most important period in the history of the 
town. In this connection it is a noteworthy fact that 
during the hundred years from 1770 to 1870 Gen. Bartlett, 
his sons and grandsons, held the office of town clerk fifty 
years of that time, and were selectmen almost as long. 

October 31, 1774, "Lieut," Thomas Bartlett was one of 
the committee elected in town meeting to carry into effect 
the vote of the town "to give the industrious poor sufferers 
in the town of Boston twenty pounds, lawful money, to be 
taken out of the town stock by the Selectmen and for- 
warded to Boston as soon as may be.' ; Lieut, Bartlett 
attended to this duty. 

The tax rate for 1774 was ordered not to be paid to the 
provincial Treasurer, but to the selectmen, and to be con- 
verted to the town use, and the selectmen were im powered 
to give the constable (who was collector) a full discharge. 
This was rebellion, and laid the selectmen open to serious 
punishment by Gov. Wentworth and his Council, but Lieut. 

I . 


Bartlett did not flinch in the performance of the duty 
imposed on him by vote of the town. He was ready to lead 
in the resistance if the Governor should show fight. 

May 15, 1775, Joseph Cilley, Jr., and Lieut. Thomas 
Bartlett were chosen deputies to represent the town in the 
Congress to be held Exeter on the 17th of that month, with 
full power to act and adopt everything according to a 
letter from the provincial committee. 

At the same meeting it was " voted that this Town allow 
the several Parsons Something as wages for their good 
service in going to Cambridge, or the Concord Battle, so 
called, & Tarryed until they were Fairly Dismissed by the 
Capt. of said Party." They were allowed three shillings a 
day. Lieut. Thomas Bartlett was one of that company, of 
which Dr. Henry Dearborn was captain. 

In August and September, 1775, the first census of the 
town was taken by the selectmen, and Thomas Bartlett, 
for the board, made the return as follows: 

Males under 16 years of age 2G8 

Males from 16 years of age to 50, not in army 165 

All males above 50 years of age 26 

Persons gone in the army 22 

All females 502 

Negroes and slaves for life 16 

Total 999 

The number of firearms in the Town of Nottingham is 
101. The number wanting to complete one for every 
person fit to bear arms, 68. Powder in the Inhabitants 
hands of their property, 42f lbs. In the inhabitants hands 
of the Colony stock 22\ lbs. Town stock none. 

Per. Tho. Bartlett, Selectmen 
Sept. 6th 1775. 

Lieut. Thomas Bartlett was one of the selectmen of 
Nottingham who interviewed every man in town in July 
and August, 1776, and got them to sign, or refuse to sign, 
the "Association Test," in which the signers "solemnly 


engaged and promised, to the utmost of their power, at the 
risk of their lives and -fortunes, with arms, to oppose the 
hostile proceedings of the British fleets and armies against 
the united American Colonies." One hundred and four 
signed, and twenty-five refused to sign. Some of those who 
refused were not so unpatriotic as they seemed to be, as 
later they became the most ardent supporters of the Ameri- 
can cause. They simply thought the time had not come to 
commence open war, and dared to express their conviction 

Before the Revolution the provincial records had always 
been kept at Portsmouth, but the Fourth Provincial Con- 
gress took steps to have all the records removed from that 
town to Exeter, and appointed Thomas Bartlett one of the 
committee to make the transfer; and they did the work 
promptly, though it was a very bold and hazardous opera- 
tion to take the records from the very door of Gov. Went- 

In 1776 he was again elected representative for Notting- 
ham in the Assembly, and was active ixi work on various 
committees. In March, 1777, in town meeting, his fellow 
citizens unanimously adopted the following: "Voted that 
it is the humble desire of this town that the Honorable 
General Court for the State of New Hampshire would 
allow this town the privilege that has been allowed to a 
number of the neighboring towns, viz; the privilege of 
recommending by vote of the town who they desire to have 
appointed for a Justice of the Peace in said town, and if 
the above should be granted, it is voted unanimously that 
it is the desire of this town that Gen. Thomas Bartlett be 
appointed a Justice of the Peace." This request of the 
town was promptly granted, and he held that office until 
he was appointed judge. 

May 8, 1777, he was appointed one of a committee of 
seven to "Regulate the price of labor and other necessaries 
and conveniences of life, agreeable to a late law of this 
State." They regulated prices, but the prices would not 
stay where the committee recommended, so it was given 


up, and prices were left to take care of themselves. Most 
all of the towns tried the scheme of regulating prices by 
committees, but it failed in every case. 

He was representative in 1777 and served on important 
committees. One was "to consult with the Council in 
regard to giving Colony stores to Colonels or Captains, or 
Selectmen of towns and determine how it shall be given." 

He was representative every year up to 1790, and that 
year he had to resign this office to accept the appointment 
of judge of the Superior Court of Common Pleas. In all 
those years he was continually serving on important com- 

From May 28, 1778, to June 5, 1779, he was a member of 
the Committee of Safety. Perhaps it may be well to state 
here just what this committee was. May 10, 1774, the 
General Assembly of New Hampshire met at Portsmouth 
under the authority of John Wentworth, who was commis- 
sioned as Governor of the Province by His Majesty George 
III of England in 1767. During this session, notwith- 
standing a strong remonstrance by the Governor, the House 
of Representatives, in sympathy with the people generally 
throughout the colonies, appointed a Committee of Cor- 
respondence, for the purpose of interchanging important 
information with committees in other colonies, appointed 
or to be appointed for similar duties. The policy of the 
Governor, of course, was in favor of the Crown; but the 
representatives, jealous of their liberties, thwarted his 
measures. By letters sent to all towns in New Hampshire 
a convention was called, which met at Exeter July 21, 
1774, composed of 85 delegates, who appointed Nathaniel 
Folsom and John Sullivan to attend the Congress that was 
to* meet at Philadelphia in September following. A second 
convention of deputies met in Exeter January 25, 1775; a 
third April 21, 1775, two clays after the battle of Lexington. 

On the 17th of May, 1775, still another convention, the 
fourth, met at Exeter, numbering 151 delegates, from all 
or nearly all the towns in the Province, and, animated with 
one spirit, adopted decisive measures in defence of their 


liberties and their rights. They styled themselves the First 
Provincial Congress of New Hampshire. Lieut. Thomas 
Bartlett was a member of this body; being his first experience 
in legislative work. Matthew Thornton, Esq., was elected 
President, Ebenezer Thompson, Secretary, and the con- 
vention was opened with prayer by Rev. Josiah Stearns of 
Epping. This Congress continued in session till September 
2, when it adjourned to October 31, and then continued till 
Nov. 16, when the time expired for which they were elected. 
In the mean time Gov. Wentworth, attempting in vain 
to control the action of the representatives, had withdrawn, 
first to the fort in the harbor of Portsmouth, and then to 
the Isles of Shoals. In September, 1775, he issued a procla- 
mation adjourning the Assembly to April, 1776. This was 
the last act of his administration and the last time he set 
foot in the Province. 

By this so called First Provincial Congress a Committee 
of Safety was appointed on the 19th of May, 1775, consisting 
of Matthew Thornton, Josiah Bartlett, William Whip- 
ple, Nathaniel Folsom, and Ebenezer Thompson Esq. On 
the 26th of May this Congress gave this Committee the 
following instructions and specified their power. 

"1. That they see to it, that whatever plans have been 
determined upon by Congress, to be immediately carried 
into execution, which have not been entrusted to the man- 
agement of any particular persons or Committee, as the 
Committee shall judge best. 

"2. If any exigence not provided for by the Congress 
requires immediate attention, such as marching troops 
raised to expel an invasion in any part, or directing the 
motions of the militia within the Province, or without the 
Province with their own consent, for the same purpose; or 
make use of any special advantage for securing military 
stores, or secure any important post, or preventing our 
enemies from securing advantageous posts, or from obtain- 
ing military stores, or provisions; they shall immediately 
take the most prudent and effectual methods to accomplish 
the above and similar purposes. 


"3. That they be and are hereby impowered and directed 
to apply to the Committee of Supplies for the necessary 
stores, provision; &c. for the effectual carrying the afore- 
said Instructions into execution." 

The Committee of Safety, thus constituted and instructed, 
was continued in power under the first constitution, which 
was adopted in January, 1776, until the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, or to the 26th of May, 1784. During all this 
period it was in reality, the executive power of the govern- 
ment in relation to the conduct of the war. No higher honor 
could be conferred on a man than to be appointed a member 
of this Committee. Gen. .Thomas Bartlett served nearly a 
year, and then his other duties were so onerous that he 
could not devote time to the duties imposed on the members. 

The following are some of the references to Gen. Bartlett 
in the records of the committee. 

"June 26th 1775, Directed Lieut. (Thomas) Bartlett to 
pick out two of the largest, strongest and best Cannon that 
were taken from Fort William & Mary last winter and 
convey them to Exeter as soon as possible, in order to their 
being sent to the Army at Medford." 

No doubt Lieut. Bartlett did some lively hustling in 
getting those cannon to Exeter. The record does not state 
where the cannon were when he picked them out, but 
probably at Portsmouth; they may have been at Notting- 

"Dec. 2d 1775. Sent enlisting orders to Capt. James Hill 
of Newmarket & to Major Thomas Bartlett of Nottingham." 

"July 15th 1776. Ordered the Receiver General to pay 
Major Bartlett three hundred pounds, L. M. to be by him 
accounted for as Muster Master." 

"August 23d 177G. Also settled with Thomas Bartlett 
Esqr., one of the Muster Masters, and find a balance due 
from him to the Colony 181-8-0 as pr. his acct. filed. 
Which sum he has paid into the Treasury, as per the Treas- 
urer's receipt to him." 

"October 30th 1776. Settled with Major Thomas Bart- 


lett for mustering and paying two companies raised for 
New York, in Col. Nicholas Oilman's regiment, and gave 
him an order on the Treasurer for 5-7-9, the balance of his 

"July 9th 1777. Appointed Gen. Thomas Bartlett 
Muster Master of Capt. Marston's Company." 

"July 11th 1777. Gave orders to Gen. Thomas Bartlett 
to muster Capt. Marston's Company, and gave him an 
order on the Treasury for 324 pounds to pay the bounties 
to the men." , 

"September 10, 1777. Ordered the Register General to 
let Gen. Thomas Bartlett have out of the Treasury 610 
pounds to pay advance money to the soldiers raised in Col. 
McClary's regiment for to recruit the Continentlal Army." 

"October 4th 1777. Gen. Bartlett settled his roll of 
mustering and paying men raised in his regiment for to 
re-enforce the Northern Army, and who went under Col. 
Drake, and he paid the balance in his hands of 109 pounds 
to the Treasurer." 

"January Sth 1778. Ordered the Treasurer to pay Gen. 
Thomas Bartlett eight pounds, one shilling, being the 
balance of his muster and pay roll and accounts passed this 

"The Muster Roll of Col. Thomas Bartlett passed and 

"May 29th 1778. Col. Thomas Bartlett appointed 
Muster Master to Capt. Simon Marston's Company to go to 
Rhode Island service." 

"August 27th 1778. Ordered the Register General to 
pay Col. Thomas Bartlett, one of the Selectmen of Not- 
tingham, £150 for the advance to 15 volunteers gone from 
said town to Rhode Island, and interest from time of the 
advance payment, if before the first of January next." 

" February 3d 1 779. Ordered the Register General to pay 
Col. Thomas Bartlett the balance of his account amount- 
ing to £5-3s for express sent to him on public business, and 
for his carrying ammunition to Portsmouth in 1775." 


" Settled with Gen. Thomas Bartlett for mustering men, 
and he' accounted for 144 he received for that purpose." 

"July 7th 1780. Col. Bartlett to have from Col. Went- 
worth's regiment one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensign, 
and 70 men. 

"From Col. Moulton's regiment, one Captain, one En- 
sign and 40 men; a Lieutenant and 20 men from Col. Evan's 
regiment — 60. 

"From Col. Oilman's regiment one Captain, one Lieu- 
tenant, and one Ensign and oo men. 

"From Col. Gregg's regiment one Captain, one Ensign 
and 33 men; with one Lieutenant and 19 men from CoL 
David Webster's regiment ; 52 

"From Col. Gale's regiment, one Captain, one Lieutenant 
and one Ensign, and 55 men. 

"From Col. McCrary's regiment one Captain, one 
Ensign and 36 men; with a Lieutenant, and 20 men from 
Col. Stickney's regiment, 56 

"From Col. Badger's regiment one Captain, one Lieu- 
tenant and one Ensign, and 55 men. 

"Appointed Dr. Mark How, Surgeon, and Dr. George 
Kezer, Surgeon's Mate, to Col. Bartlett's regiment. 

"Ordered the Register General to let Col. Bartlett have 
out of the Treasury £1000 to be accounted for by him. 

"July 8th 1780. Made out a commission for Col. Thomas 
Bartlett to command the First Regiment of Militia raised 
for the Continental Army for service at West Point." 

The last entry in the record of the committee concerning 
Col. Bartlett is as follows: 

"Friday Oct. 5th 1782. Ordered the Treasurer to pay, 
by discount out of the tax for the current year, Col. Thomas 
Bartlett, or order, fifteen shillings, being the amount of his 
account for selling Excise in the Counties of Hillsborough, 
Cheshire and Grafton." 

This was immediately following Col. Bartlett's suppres- 
sion of the threatened rebellion and civil war along the 
Connecticut River, previously spoken of. 


I give one more interesting quotation from the Journal 
of the Committee of Safety, though it does not refer to Col. 

"Friday Oct. 26th 1781. Annoque Reipublicae Ameri- 
canae Sexto. 

"Three quarters after four o'clock Received the agree- 
able intelligence of the Unconditional Surrender of the 
proud Cornwallis with his whole army to the Illustrious 
Washington, on the 19th instant." 

It is manifest by the dates that it took seven days for the 
news of the surrender of Cornwallis to travel from York- 
town, Va./to Exeter, N. H. No doubt the courier travelled 
as fast as horses could carry him. Now it would not take 
as many seconds as it then took clays. 

On the 2d of February, 1783. lie was appointed a special 
justice of the Superior Court to sit in the trial of those cases 
in which one or more of the permanent judges were inter- 
ested, or were otherwise disqualified, which office he held in 
connection with that of representative until his appoint- 
ment to the bench above mentioned. 

At the meeting of the House June G, 1786, John Spar- 
hawk was elected Speaker, but was too ill to take the chair., 
and the next day, June 7, Thomas Bartlett was elected 
Speaker pro tern. Mr. Sparhawk never recovered his health, 
sufficient to assume the duties of the office, and Gen, Bart- 
lett continued in his place until Sparhawk died Sept. 27 
following, and on Sept. 20 Mr. Bartlett was unanimously 
elected Speaker to fill the vacancy, thus showing that he 
had performed the duties of the office so acceptably that 
the members wanted him to serve longer. At the June 
session in 1787 he was again re-elected Speaker. Also in 
June, 17SS, 1789, and again in 1790, he had to resign as 
representative and Speaker. He was a most excellent 
presiding officer, quick to see, prompt to act, and clear- 
headed in the use of the parliamentary law; clarion-voiced 
and courteous, but he ruled with an unruffled vigor that the 
stormiest debate could not disturb: and they had some 


pretty stormy sessions from time to time in that most 
critical period of the history of New Hampshire. 

The Journal of the House from 1784 to 1790 contains 
innumerable mention of his name and the committees on 
which he served. He seems never to have been absent, and 
served on very many of the important committees when he 
was not Speaker. A few samples of his work are given 
below : 

October 23, 1784, Dartmouth College petitioned for the 
privilege of holding a lottery to raise money to build what 
is now known as Dartmouth Hall, the oldest college build- 
ing at Hanover. When the question came to a vote Col. 
Bartlett voted no; he was emphatically opposed to lotteries 
and frauds in any shape. 

October 29, he was on the committee to draft bills for the 
House, such as may be necessary to be passed at the session. 

November 2, he was appointed on a committee to prepare 
a resolve to carry, into effect a report of his committee re- 
specting a settlement with those soldiers who served in the 
Continental Army for any term short of three years. 

November 9, he introduced a bill, which was then passed, 
to establish a lighthouse at the mouth of Portsmouth 

February 17, 1785, he voted yes on the question of having 
an election sermon preached at the opening of the next 
session of the General Court at Portsmouth in June follow- 
ing. The motion prevailed, and when the time came they 
had a rousing good discourse from Rev. Dr. Jeremy Bel- 
knap. The house unanimously asked the Doctor to furnish 
a copy for publication. 

This shows that Gen. Bartlett was in favor of having 
good sermons when he could get them. 

February 21, 1785, "Voted that Col. Bartlett, Gen. 
Badger, Mr. Macgregor, Major Shepard and Major Baker 
be a committee to take into consideration what standard or 
banners, are most proper to be used in the several regiments 
in this State; also what exercise is best to be practiced by 
the militia of this State; also to consider some more con- 


venient method of swearing the Captains and subalterns 
than is now pointed out." 

On the next day Col. Bartlett reported for the committee 
that "The exercise to be used in several Regiments of 
militia in this State, be that which is commonly called Baron 
Stuben's, now lately published, and used in the Continental 
Army; and that an act, or resolve be passed impowering 
any magistrate within the limits of his commission to 
administer the Constitutional oath to the Captains and 
Subalterns of the militia; and that the consideration of 
what Standard or Banners shall be made use of be post- 
poned until the Major General can be consulted upon the 

October 20, 1785, Gen. Sullivan and Col. Bartlett were 
appointed a committee to revise the laws of the State, and 
put them into shape for publishing in a book. 

November 3, 1785, he voted yes on the passage of a biil 
"to prevent the bodies of debtors from being taken on 
execution, when real or personal estate can be found, or is 
tendered to satisfy the demand." 

February 12, 1786, Gen. Sullivan and Col. Thomas 
Bartlett were appointed a committee to establish post 
roads from Portsmouth to towns in the northern and western 
parts of the State. One of these routes they made to run 
from Portsmouth to Exeter, to Epping, to Nottingham 
Square, to Decrfield, to Epsom, to Concord; from this 
latter point it branched in various directions. 

February 4, 1789, Col. Bartlett voted in favor of a bill 
that was passed granting Dartmouth College a tract of 
forest land in the northern part of the State eight miles 
square. This shows he was in favor of helping the college 
in all proper ways, while he opposed lotteries for its benefit. 

His last election as Speaker was June 2, 1790, by unani- 
mous vote. He resigned in July when appointed judge. 
All through his term of service in the House he was a 
staunch friend of Gen. Sullivan, when the General had 
many hard tilts with the Anti-Federalists. 

Col. Bartlett and Gen. Sullivan were members of the 


convention to consider and act on the adoption of the 
Federal constitution in 1788, and they worked solidly 
together for its adoption: and it was adopted on a close 
vote, New Hampshire being the State that cast the vote 
that established the American Union, and made the States 
in fact, what they had been in name, The United States of 
America. Without the aid of Sullivan and Bartlett New 
Hampshire would have been deprived of that honor. They 
were both strong Federalists of the George Washington 
type, and remained so to the end of their lives. His distin- 
guished father-in-law was the very opposite, being a follower 
of Thomas Jefferson, as opposed to George Washington's 
ideas of central power. 

As regards private affairs Col. Bartlett was a Free Mason, 
and was Master of his (Sullivan) Lodge. His death came 
very suddenly, and, as he was in the full plenitude of his 
fame, his funeral called forth a very large attendance of 
members of that craft, and of the military, of which he 
was head, being major-general, and of the citizens in general. 
The funeral ceremonies were in accordance with the full 
Masonic ritual. Eight military officers of the highest rank 
in full uniform, with their side arms, were the pall bearers, 
and the whole service was grand and impressive. His 
remains were interred in the Gen. Cilley burying ground, 
near the grave of his illustrious father-in-law. Several 
years later, for family reasons, his widow had the remains 
removed to the Bartlett-Cilley-Nealley burying ground, on 
the west side of the Square, where rests the dust of many 
of his descendants, and kinsmen. 

Sarah Cilley Bartlett. 

It seems well in this connection to give a brief sketch 
of Gen. Bartlett's wife, Sarah Cilley Bartlett, who was a 
remarkable woman in many respects, and survived him 
nearly thirty years. She was daughter of (Jen. Joseph and 
Sarah (Longfellow) Cilley, and was born October 1G, 1757, 
being their oldest child. Pier father was the distinguished 
colonel of a New Hampshire regiment in the Revolutionary 


war, and was major-general of the New Hampshire militia 
after the close of the war. Her mother, Sarah Longfellow, 
was daughter of Judge Jonathan Longfellow and Mercy- 
Clark, his wife. Judge Longfellow was one of the early 
settlers in Nottingham, coming there soon after Israel 
Bartlett became an inhabitant of the town. He was son of 
Nathan Longfellow of Hampton and Mary Green, his wife, 
' and grandson of William Longfellow and Ann Sewall, his 
wife, of Newbury, Mass. She was sister to Judge Samuel 
Sewall, one of Massachusetts^ most noted jurists. 

Gen. Bartlett and Sarah Cilley were united in marriage 
August 19, 1773. She was 16 years old and he was 28. 
To them were born nine sons and three daughters: Israel, 
born in 1774: Joseph in 1776, who died at sea in 1806; 
Thomas in 1778; Jonathan in 1780; Bradbury in 1783; 
Sarah in 1785, and died in 1786; Josiah in 1787; David in 
1789; Enoch in 1791; Betsey in 1793; Jacob Cilley in 1796; 
Patty Cilley in 1798. Six of these sons married and raised 
large families, and were men of note and influence in the 
communities in which the}' lived. 

The Revolutionary war began in less than two years 
after they were married, and during the eight years that 
followed Gen. Bartlett did not have much time to attend to 
the management of the household affairs; and in the seven 
years that followed the close of the war he was almost as 
busy in public affairs. So, very naturally and of necessity, 
his young wife had the entire control of the children, and 
brought them up in a manner, as their later lives show, that 
gives the highest credit to her methods of family govern- 
ment. She so managed that when she told them to do or 
not to do a thing they obeyed without a murmur. The 
General was inclined to be easy and not bother himself 
whether the boys wanted to do this or that, but not so 
was his wife. She was always complete mistress of the 
situation, and those sons, to their dying day, loved her and 
worshipped her memory. She possessed all of the com- 
manding ability of her illustrious father, and she exercised 
it firmly but lovingly. She did not "spare the rod" when 


she thought it was good for correction, even in her old age r 
as her grandson, Thomas Bradbury Bartlett, testifies in 
giving to the writer in 1905 his remembrance of his grand- 
mother for this paper. He says: "I remember that I went 
down to see my grandmother one Sunday morning instead 
of going to church; she thought I ought to go to meeting, 
but I did not want to go; it was the custom of some old 
ladies on their way to meeting to call on my grandmother, 
and several were there when I arrived; when they started 
for meeting she told me to go with them, but I hung off 
and was rather stuffy about it, whereupon she took me over 
her knees and gave me a spanking, so strong that I have 
not forgotten the impression to this day; she then told me 
to go to meeting, and I went. I stood not upon the order of 
my going but went at once, but I did not get mad about 
it, for I loved my grandmother dearly. I suppose her 
own boys at one time and another had had instruction in 
deportment something similar to my experience at her 

"I remember another time, one week day, I went down 
to see my grandmother, and she entertained me in great 
style, and when it came time for me to go home she took 
me into the long kitchen, and gave me sweet-cake to eat 
and methcgiin to drink, a fermented beverage made of 
honey and water, very delicious, as I remember it. She 
was very fond of me, as I was of her, but I had to mind what 
she said; she did not scold in the saying of it, but always 
seemed pleasant. 

"I well remember the large, old fashioned, two-story house 
in which she lived. The big chimney was in the middle of it, 
and the large rooms around it, and an immense open garret 
in which was stored all sorts of things. In the rear of the 
house was the wood house, corn house, and cider house, all 
in one. In that stood the cider mill which had converted 
thousands of bushels of apples into cider from year to year. 
The barn stood on the opposite side of the road." 

Mr. George K. Neallcy of Bradford, Mass., who was born 
in Nottingham, and was fourteen years old when she died 


in 1833, told the writer that he remembered her distinctly 
in all her looks and ways. He says she was a fine looking 
and stately appearing woman of medium height, and 
probably weighed 130 pounds. "She was very particular 
about her dress, and was careful of her language. She was 
a good talker, and was thoroughly posted concerning cur- 
rent events, local, state, and national. She knew what was 
proper in manners and speech. She was kind hearted, 
and generous to the poor. It was my good fortune to board 
at her house and attend school on the Square during the 
winter previous to her death, I think, and a more delight- 
ful winter I never spent in my life. She knew how to manage 
affairs in doors and out. The 'hired man' and the servant 

girl both had to work according to her orders, no one 
daring to do any other way." 

Mrs. Daniel B. Stevens of Nottingham, then (in 1905) 
95 years old, said she remembered Mrs. Bartlett very dis- 
tinctly, and she was one of the finest women she ever knew. 
When she was a girl and attended school on the Square she 
says she frequently stayed over night at Mrs. Bartlett's 
when the weather was bad, or the traveling was not suitable 
for her to go home. The old lady was very kind, giving 
good things to eat and drink, and especially good advice of 
every kind which school girls needed. When Mrs. Stevens 
grew older Mrs. Bartlett gave her instruction in the proper 
management of domestic affairs, especially in the making 
of butter and cheese, and this product at the Bartlett farm 
was second to none other made in llockingham County. 
She was a fine looking woman and always dressed well. 
She had dark hair, and beautiful dark eyes. She was 
dignified and gracious in her manners, and knew how to 
entertain distinguished guests and high society people in a 
style becoming their rank. 

Mrs. Sarah Bartlett Brainard, a granddaughter who was 
twelve years old when her grandmother died, said she 
remembered the old lady very distinctly. She said: "My 
grandmother was about my size and build, of medium 
height and very erect. Her complexion was fair; she had 


dark hair and lovely black eyes like your dear mother's 
(Mrs. Betsey True Scales). We grandchildren of my 
father's household all delighted in going to visit her. She 
always manifested great solicitation for our welfare, health 
and happiness. She knew there is nothing makes children 
happier than to give them something good to eat, and she 
never failed to send us all home with our stomachs full and 
happy hearted. I remember that in the spring of the year 
she made a specialty of treating us with maple syrup and 
sugar, the product of her own large maple orchard. When- 
summer came she made us happy with delicious custards 
baked in lovely little mugs. In the fall, when the peaches 
were ripe in her orchard, and the bees had filled their hives 
in her large apiary \ she would treat us every day with 
peaches and honey. Is it any wonder that we grandchildren 
loved our grandmother? What I have mentioned is only 
a small part of the good things she did for us. She was 
what I thought a very lovely woman, upright in her dealings 
and very kind to all, but she did not let her kindness spoil 
her good judgment of right and wrong. Her word was law 
to her large family of boys, and they rarely broke the law 
she laid down for them. They all held their mother in the 
highest degree of respect and love. She was left with a 
large family of children when my grandfather died in 1805. 
I have heard my father say she was a very competent 
woman, and managed her household and her farm in a 
most creditable manner. She kept a man-servant and a 
maid-servant and had everything in style with the best. 
In her hist years her daughter Betsey took charge of the 
help in the house, and her son Jacob managed the farm." 
Thus we have a pen picture of a beautiful colonial dame, 
the peer of any that New Hampshire has ever produced. 


September 9, 1908. 

The annual field day and adjourned meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held in Exeter, N. II., 
September 9, 1908. 

The members were met at the station by Daniel Gilman 
and Rev. Dr. Samuel H. Dana, pastor of Phillips Church, 
who escorted them to carriages in waiting. 

The first place of interest visited was the home of the 
late Judge Jeremiah Smith, and birthplace of his son, Prof. 
Jeremiah Smith of Harvard Law School, now owned by the 
Colonial Dames. A warm welcome was extended to this 
fine old mansion by Miss Grouard and Mrs. Samuel H. 

The Councillor John Gilman house, built in 1650, owned 
and occupied by Miss Jane R . Harvey, was very courteously 
thrown open for inspection. An addition was made in 
1772 or 1773 for the purpose of entertaining Gov. John 
Wentworth. Daniel Webster boarded in the house for eight 
months, while in attendance at the Academy. 

At the Memorial Hall of the New Hampshire Society of 
the Cincinnati, the Treasurer Nicholas Gilman house, the 
Society was met by Col. Daniel Gilman, who extended 
generous hospitality, and luncheon was served in the grill 

Shortly before two o'clock, the President called the mem- 
bers to order on the spacious porch, and made an address on 
the part Exeter played in our colonial and Revolutionary 
history. Col. Daniel Hall also spoke in a reminiscent vein. 

Mr. Edson C. Eastman then moved the following persons 
be elected to membership, which was so voted: 

Daniel Gilman, Exeter. 
Minnie C. Gilman, Exeter. 
Jane R. Harvey, Exeter. 


Rev. Samuel H. Dana, D. D., Exeter. 
Henry A. Shute, Exeter. 
John G. W- Knowlton, Exeter. 
William H. Folsom, Exeter. 
Sophia D. Hall, Dover. 
George B. Leighton, Dublin. 
Frank E. Shepard, Concord. 
Rufus H. Baker, Concord. 
Lever ett N. Freeman, Concord. 

Mr. John C. Thome moved that the Society recognize 
the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Abraham 
Lincoln, Feb. 12, 1909, which was voted. 

The following committee was appointed to carry out the 
celebration: Henry M. Baker, Joseph B. Walker, Charles R. 
Corning, Rev. George H. Reed, William P. Fiske. 

The following resolution, offered by Daniel Hall, was 
unanimously adopted. 

Resolved that the thanks of the Society be returned to 
the citizens of Exeter for their generous hospitality to us, 
which has made this field day so pleasant, so profitable, and 
so long to be remembered. 

On motion of John C. Thorne the meeting was adjourned, 
to meet at the cali of the President. 

The afternoon was passed in visiting Phillips Exeter 
Academy, Robinson Seminary, Gilman Park, and other 
historic and interesting places in the town. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


April 14, 1909. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society in Concord on 
Wednesday, April 14, 1909, at eleven o'clock in the fore- 
noon, thirteen members being in attendance. 



In the absence of the President, Vice-President Daniel 
Hall presided. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last annual meet- 
ing and the adjourned meeting of September 9, which were 

Miss Edith S. Freeman, for the Committee on New 
Members, proposed the following persons for membership, 
and they were unanimously elected: 

Amos Tuck French, Chester. 
Winston Churchill, Cornish. 
Henry W. Anderson, Exeter. 
Mrs. Henry W. Anderson, Exeter. 
Gilman H.. Tucker, New York City. 
Julia A. Robinson, Deny. 
Harry S. Holbrook, Manchester. 

The Vice-President then introduced the speaker of the 
day, Frank B. Sanborn, of Concord, Mass., who read a 
paper prepared for the occasion b}' his son, Mr. Victor 
Channing Sanborn. 

Mr. William P. Fiske moved that Dr. Charles P. Ban- 
croft of Concord be elected a member of this Society, 
which was voted. 

Mr. John C. Thorne proposed Elwin L. Page for member- 
ship, and he was declared elected. 

H Mr. Thorne moved that the thanks of the Society be 
extended to Mr. Sanborn for his kindness in giving his 
valuable paper, and that a copy be requested for the ar- 
chives of the Society, which was voted. 

On motion of Mr. Thorne the meeting was declared 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


By Victor C. Sanborn. 

The story which I have to tell concerns the biography of 
one who lived through the years of the most wonderful 
century of English history, that period from 15G0 to 16G0. 
Those years marked the youth and splendor of British 
achievement in the realm of spiritual awakening, of literary 
and intellectual development, and of commercial activity, 
colonization, and world building. 

In the hundred years I have mentioned Puritanism made 
its first successful stand against the English church, which 
still clung to Romish superstition. They saw, those golden 
years, the imperishable dramas of Shakespeare unfolded to 
the world, the lofty verse of Milton, the graceful muse of 
Jonson, and the brilliant philosophy of Bacon. For them 
the poetical soul, the chivalrous hie and death of Sir Philip 
Sidney, were current fact, not history and tradition. 
• In that short century lived and died the great freebooters 
of the virgin seas, Raleigh and Drake, Frobisher and Flaw- 
kins. Less afraid of new worlds than of old creeds, the 
Pilgrims and the Puritans in that century left their homes 
in the "haunt of ancient peace," and sought fresh soil 
wherein to plant the colony which was to grow into our 
present vast-spreading republic. The feeble, pedantic, and 
pleasure loving Stuarts saw in that century the sceptre 
snatched from their hands, when Hampden, Cromwell, and 
Harry Vane turned England from a kingdom into a common- 

In the same period Holland became a Protestant republic 
in spite of the bloody persecutions of Philip. France 
turned Huguenot after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
and the grasp of Spain began to weaken in the old world 
and the new. 


But, while time has thrown on the stage a thousand full 
length and heroic figures, some there were of lesser note 
who yet played a part in the life of the age, but whose 
history has been obscured by time, or darkened by con- 
temporary dislike and slander. From the mass of these 
smaller men I have selected as a type one who lived the 
century through not unworthily, as I hope to show. 

Two or three years after Elizabeth came to the throne 
there was born somewhere in southern England one Stephen 
Bachiler. Just what was his birthplace I do not know, nor 
what his ancestry. The name was a common one, and 
whether his parents were of Hampshire or Berkshire does 
not specially matter. Perhaps, indeed, they came from 
Protestant France or the Netherlands. To Southampton 
about 1568 came a small colony of Walloons, driven from 
their shops and studies by the iron hand of Philip. Among 
them were a father and son named Bachelier from Tournai 
in France. 1 The teacher of this little band of Protestants 
was Aclrien de -Saravia, that stout champion of Calvin. 
Adrien was born in Artois, his father a Spaniard, his mother 
a Fleming, and he was a minister in Antwerp until driven 
to the Channel Islands in 1560. From there he came to 
Southampton for a few peaceful years, returned to Leyden 
in 1582 as professor of divinity, and was again driven back 
to Protestant England, where he ended his days. I like to 
imagine that Stephen Bachiler was a charge of this brave 
Adrien, and drank in from him that opposition to tyranny 
and abuse which marked and marred his life. 

But, whatever his origin, we first find Bachiler at Oxford 
in 1581, 2 a student at St. John's College, then newly founded 
by the good citizen and London merchant. Sir Thomas 
White. The college of that time was vastly different from 
the St. John's of to-day, with its peaceful gardens, smooth 
lawns and ancient cedars. The good Sir Thomas, since its 
foundation, had lost much of his money, and his college was 

1 Sec Records of Walloon Church in Southampton, pub. by Huguenot 

2 Matriculations at Oxford, pub. by Oxford Hist. Soc. 


very poor. Not for some years did it receive new founda- 
tions and added wealth. But, poor or rich, it was a part 
of that seat of learning, the great University of Oxford, 
at that time a very hive of Puritanism. 

The Regius Professor of Divinity was Lawrence Hum- 
phrey, an ardent Lutheran, who was disciplined by Arch- 
bishop Grindai for refusing to wear the churchly vestments. 
John Harmer, the Earl of Leicester's favorite and one of 
Queen Elizabeth's scholars, was Regius Professor of Greek. 
The unfortunate Thomas Kingsmill, another Puritan, was 
head professor in Hebrew. Edward Cradocke was . Mar* 
garet Professor of Divinity, and the most renowned scholar 
of the day, an Oxford man, John Rainoldes, was the head 
and front of the Puritan arm of the church, and the spokes- 
man of the Puritan party. Rainoldes is called by quaint 
Anthony Wood "a living library and a third university." 
He declined a bishopric, preferring to remain the President 
of Corpus Christi College, and from his Oxford study sent 
forth a mass of treatises in favor of the advanced doctrines. 
It was he who mainly represented Puritanism at the Hamp- 
ton Court conference of 1604, and it was at his suggestion 
and by his aid that the well-meaning but pedantic King 
James undertook that translation of the Bible which is 
to-day mainly used. 

Indeed, in England generally at this time, 1581-7, the 
leanings of the wisest were toward Puritanism. Elizabeth 
was sometimes Puritan and sometimes Prelatic; but her 
best advisers were of the new religion. Cecil, the great 
Lord Burghley, who for half a century of troubled life was 
Prime Minister to the lively and changeable Queen, held 
firmly to the same persuasion, and so did Walsingham and 
the unfortunate Davison. 

Thus we may safely assume that Bachiler's university 
training was mainly Puritan, and the atmosphere of St. 
John's was not in the least Prclatical until the time of its 
later Fellow and President, the ill-fated Laud. 

Among the scholars at St. John's during Bachiler's sojourn 
there was Henry Cromwell, an uncle of the Protector, who 



was father-in-law of Sir Oliver St. John, Cromwell's Lord 
Chief Justice, and of whose sisters one was the mother of 
the patriot, John Hampden, and another was the mother 
of Edward Whalley, the regicide, later a fugitive in New 

At Oxford Bachiler continued until February, 1586, when 
he proceeded B.A. 1 Perhaps he then became a chaplain 
to Lord Delaware, who presented him in 1587 2 to the 
vicarage of Wherwell, Hampshire, a small retired parish on 
the River Test, whose "troutful stream/' celebrated by 
Isaak Walton, is still a favorite resort of anglers. 

Here Bachiler preached for twenty years, and here he 
doubtless hoped to end his days. No more peaceful and 
beautiful place is to be found in sunny Hampshire, lying 
as it does in the middle of verdant and fertile meadows. 
Wherwell was the seat of an ancient abbey, founded in 986 
by Queen Aelfrida, the widow of King Edgar. At the 
Dissolution the abbey was granted to Thomas West, Lord 
La Warr or Delaware, and it soon became the principal 
seat of that great family. Here then let us leave Stephen 
Bachiler to marry and raise a family of his own, while we 
consider the events that began to crowd thick upon Eng- 

In the very year when Bachiler was made vicar of 
Wherwell the preparations for the invasion of England by 
the Invincible Armada were being completed by the "spider 
of the Eseurial." Her eyes blinded by the duplicity of 
Alexander Farnese, Elizabeth was still dreaming of an 
alliance with Spain, and was considering seriously the aban- 
donment of that combination with Holland which finally 
kept Protestant powers the sovereigns of the world. Had 
it not been for the wisdom of Walsingham and the pugnacity 
of Drake and Hawkins, England's Protestants and Puritans 
might have been led in chains to the autos-da-fe of Spanish 
invaders, and the clock of the world's progress might have 
been set back another century. 

1 Degrees of Oxford Univ., pub. by Oxford Hist. Soc. 

2 Register of Thomas Cooper, Bishop of Winton, 10. 


But the alarm had awakened Britain from her slumbers. 
Preparations were made on sea and shore to resist the 
Spanish invasion, and when the 130 ships of the Invincible 
Armada appeared off Dover in 1588 a squadron of as many 
tiny fighting craft was ready. By the seamanship of the 
discredited Drake the unwieldy galleons of Spain were put 
to flight, and the tempests of August loth finished the work 
of that great freebooter, and forever dispelled the fear that* 
Catholic Spain would conquer Protestant England. 

Meanwhile in England the Puritan party was disputing 
the supremacy of the established church. The death of the 
great Puritan prelate Grinclal in 1583 summoned to the 
primacy John Whitgift, whose "cold mediocrity," as the 
elder Disraeli called it, was no match for the fiery argu- 
ments of the Martin Alar Prelate controversy. In the 
century and a half which had succeeded the dissolution of 
the monasteries and the establishment of a Protestant 
church in England, the same material abuses which had 
prevailed in the older church showed themselves in the 
reformed episcopacy. The prelates waxed rich, while the 
people were overridden. The clergy was corrupt and the 
rites of the church were abused. Of a sudden a pamphlet 
ridiculing these abuses ran like wildfire over the land. 
Whether the first ''Mar Prelate" monograph was written 
by John Penry, by Barrow, or by Job Throckmorton will 
perhaps never be known, and does not now especialty 
matter. The attack was so sudden, the knife went so deep 
into the vitals of the establishment, that the surprised and 
angry bishops retaliated in similar rude and scurrilous 
pamphlets, and by fines, imprisonments, and persecutions 
attempted in vain to check the growing wrath of the people 
towards the prelates. The first categorical answer to the 
Alar Prelate pamphlets was written by Thomas Cooper, the 
same bishop of Winchester who had a year before ordained 
Bachiler vicar of Wherwell. But the established church 
was forced to attack both Romish priests and Puritan non- 
conformists, which weakened the force of attempts against 
either, and popular sympathy was far greater for the Puritan 


revolt against the establishment. The last years of Eliza- 
beth's reign were marked by persecutions of Recusants and 
Reformers, with numberless imprisonments and executions. 
The Puritan faction grew steadily, and when in 1G03 James 
of Scotland came to the . throne great was the rejoicing 
among them, for it seemed that a Scotch King of England 
augured well for the victory of Presbyter versus Prelate. 

During all this time our vicar of Wherwell became, we 
may imagine, a man of influence. Perhaps the Lord Dela- 
ware who succeeded in 1595, and who married a daughter 
of the Puritan Sir Francis Knollys, favored him with his 
patronage, listened to his preaching, and agreed with his 
opinions. In 1596 Bachiler was named as- an overseer in 
the will of William Spencer of Cheriton, a rich Hampshire 
squire, who had married one of his parishioners. Probably 
our vicar was one of the thousand English clergymen who 
sanctioned the millenary petition to King James, which 
greeted the Scotch monarch on his coming to the English 
throne, — ;a petition which urged the King to reform the 
crying abuses of the established church, and besought him 
to allow the Puritan pastors to continue their " prophesyings 
and preachings" undeterred by /the persecutions of their 

As a result of this petition King James called the Hamp- 
ton Court conference in 1004. Four divines represented 
the Puritan party, John Rainoldes, John Knewstub, Law- 
rence Chaderton, and Henry Sparke. Against them were 
ranged eight English prelates, headed by the next Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Richard Bancroft, their bitter 
opponent. Lord Delaware was a member of this conference, 
which resulted badly for the popular party, for on Rain- 
oldes's mentioning the word presbyter King James's wrath 
was aroused, and he dismissed the conference with bitter 
reproaches, telling the Puritans that he would "make them 
conform or harry them out of the land." 

The following year was marked by the ejection of hun- 
dreds of Puritans, who declined to follow the hated cere- 
monies of the church. In May, 1605, Archbishop Bancroft 


held an ecclesiastical court at Winchester, and undoubtedly 
instructed the willing Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, 
to dismiss at once all his non-conforming clergymen. 
Among these was Stephen Bachiler, who was ejected in 
August, 1605, 1 from the peaceful riverside parish where he 
had preached acceptably for eighteen years. 

The neighboring dioceses of Winchester and Salisbury 
were at this time under anti-Puritan rule. At Winchester 
was Bilson, an ardent champion of the establishment; at 
Salisbury was Bishop Henry Cotton, of Hampshire descent, 
who persecuted Puritan and Romanist alike, and of whom 
the quaint Sir John Harrington says "he had 19 children by 
one wife, whose name was Patience," — adding "I have 
heard of few wives of that name, and none of that quality." 
When Elizabeth made Henry Cotton Bishop of Salisbury 
and William Cotton Bishop of Exeter (both persecutors of 
the sectaries) she observed that she bad "well Cottoned the 
West" and the Salisbury prelate might have said the same 
of the rich preferments which he bestowed on his numerous 

The next twenty years offer us but scanty notes of 
Bachiler's life. Winthrop says he "suffered much at the 
hands of the Bishops" 2 and f amity tradition alleges that 
he fled to Holland like the little band of Separatists from 
Scrooby, who in 1620 formed the Pilgrim colony at Plym- 
outh. Bachiler was at 45, in the prime of his powers. We 
may imagine that, fitted by scholarship and by the turn of 
his mind, he was an ardent, able controversialist. We know 
that many of his parishioners followed him 3 from the 
church at Wherwell to his ministrations under Puritan 
auspices at the adjoining hamlet of Newton Stacy. In 1607 
Henry Shipton, 4 a wealthy tanner of Shawe, across the 
border in Berkshire, leaves him a small legacy, and in 1616 
Edmund Alleyn 5 of Hatfield Peverell, a rich Essex squire, 

1 Register of Thomas Bilson, Bp, of Winton, 18. 
. 2 Hosmer's Winthrop Journal, vol. II, p. 45. 
'Petition of Sir Robert Paine, Dom. Cal. State Papers, 1535. 

* Will of Henry Shipton, 1607. Arch. Berks K. fol. 260. 

* Will of Edmund Alleyn, 1615. P. C. C. Cope 87. 


bequeaths him a similar sum. In 1610 Bachiler's son 
Stephen was entered at Magdalen College in Oxford, 1 the 
family college of the Wests, Lords Delaware. In 1621 the 
diary of Adam Winthrop, father of the Massachusetts 
Governor, says 2 that he had "Mr. Bachiler the preacher" 
to dine with him.' That he was not without means is shown 
by the Hampshire land records, 3 which recite, between 
1622 and 1630, his purchase and sale of small properties in 
Newton Stacy. A petition of Sir Robert Payne, 4 Sheriff of 
Hampshire in 1632, states that several of his tenants, 
"having been formerly misled by Stephen Bachiler, a 
Notorious inconformist, demolished a chapel at Newton 
Stacy, and executed many things in contempt of the canons 
and the b i s fe pp . 

Thus preaching, persecuted, and adhered to by his former 
parishioners, Bachiler passed a score of years and reached 
the age of seventy. His children had grown up and married ; 5 
one son had become a chaplain in an English regiment in 
Holland, and one a merchant in Southampton. 6 One 
daughter married John Wing, an English Puritan minister 
at Flushing and The Hague; and another Christopher 
Hussey, perhaps a relative of the mayor of Winchester of 
the same name, who married a daughter of the Hampshire 
Puritan prebendary Iienniger; a third daughter married a 
Hampshire Samborne, probably connected with James 
Samborne, the Winchester scholar and Oxford graduate, 
Puritan vicar of Andover and rector of Upper Clatford, 
neighboring villages to Wherwell. 

With the accession of Charles I in 1625 Puritanism re- 
ceived another blow, and many of the English reformers, 

encouraged by the success of the Plymouth Pilgrims of 

1 Records of Magdalen College, June, 1610. 

2 Diary of Adam Winthrop, June 11, 1621. 

3 Feet of Fines, Hampshire-Paschal Term, 1622, Paschal Term, 1029. 
I Michaelmas term, 1630. 

* Dom. Cal. State Papers 1035. 

5 Sanborn Genealogy, pp. 59-60. 

6 Sanborn Genealogy, pp. 59-60. 


1620, decided to seek in the New World a freer atmosphere 
for their religious opinions. By this time Bachiler had 
reached an age when most men become weary of struggling, 
anxious to lay aside contention and strife, and to obtain a 
few years of rest. Not so our Hampshire Puritan, whose 
eager spirit outran his years, and who thought he saw in 
America an Arcadia of religious freedom. 

In 1630 a small band of London merchants, 1 perhaps 
friends of Bachiler 's son Nathaniel, formed a colonizing 
company, called the "Company of Husbandmen' 7 and 
obtained from Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the great enemy to 
New England Puritanism, a patent to some 1600 square 
miles in his province of New England south of the river 
Sagadahock. This Company of Husbandmen sent to 
America in the fall of 1630 a small ship called the "Plough/' 
with a meagre band of colonists to settle on their new patent, 
probably about where the present city of Portland stands. 
The grant from Gorges seems to have conflicted with other 
grants, and the original patent is lost, so that we cannot 
exactly locate the land, which the Husbandmen thought 
embraced the seacoast from Cape Porpoise to Cape Eliza- 

This first little ship-load, sent from England six months 
after Winthrop's well found colony, appears to have landed 
on their grant in the hard winter of 1630-1, and were much 
disappointed in the outlook. The upper coast of New Eng- 
land was sterile and forbidding, bare of settlements except 
for a few scattering fishing stages, and we may imagine the 
Husbandmen were poorly equipped with the necessaries for 
colonization. Whether Bachiler was an original member of 
the company I cannot state, for none of their records have 
survived that general loss of manuscripts which has occurred 
in the lapse of four hundred years. Presumably he was, 
since the first letter 2 from the London managers, dated in 
March, 1631-2, and sent to their New England colonists, 
speaks as though he had for some time been eager in the 

1 Genealogist, vol. XIX, New Series, pp. 272-3. 

2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4 Series, vol. VII, pp. 91-4, notes. 


Company's work. In this letter the London members ask 
the colonists to remember their duty to return thanks to 
God who "hath filled the heart of our reverend pastor so 
full of zeal, of love and of extraordinary affection toward our 
poor society. Notwithstanding opposition yet he remaineth 
constant, persuading and exhorting, — yea and as much as 
in him lieth — constraining all that love him to join together 
with us. And seeing the Company is not able to bear his 
charge over, he hath strained himself to provide provision 
for himself and his family, and hath done his utmost 
endeavor to help over as many as he possibly can, for your 
further strength and encouragement." 

For another year, then, or until the spring of 1632, the 
Plough Company worked in England to secure more colo- 
nists and to enlarge their resources. The London members 
were none of them rich, but all were bound together by 
some mystical religious fellowship, the exact significance of 
which has been lost in the ensuing centuries of oblivion. 
England was, indeed, from 1620 to 1630 a fruitful mother 
of diverse and complicated sects. The stem rule of Arch- 
bishop Bancroft had been followed by the gentler but less 
forcible Abbot, who was born in the same year as Bachiler, 
and of whom Lord Clarendon says, — "He considered Chris- 
tian religion no otherwise than as it abhorred and reviled 
Popery; and valued those men most who did it most furi- 
ously." In the last years of Abbot's primacy he had lost 
credit with the Court, and had been supplanted by that 
Bishop of London who was to succeed him, William Laud, 
the bitter foe of the Puritans. Laud's narrow but deter- 
mined spirit had quite changed the religious complexion of 
Oxford ; and his promotion to the bishopric of London and 
to the King's Privy Council inaugurated an era of suppres- 
sion and severity which aroused and united the hostility of 
these various sects against the established church. 

But two letters remain, 1 so far as the manuscript records 
of the 17th century have been printed, to show who were 
the active members of that ill-fated and meagre Company 

1 Mass. Hist. Soc, Coll., -A Series, vol. VII, pp. 91-6, note. 


of Husbandmen. John Dye, Grace Hardwin, and Thomas 
Jupe, three London merchants of limited education and 
narrow resources, were the principal factors. On the first 
ship came over John Crispe, Bryan Binckes, and John 
Carman, who seem to have had some authority in the 
company, but concerning whom the records disclose nothing 
of note. The loosely knit little company seems to have been 
organized and kept alive by the strenuous efforts of Bachiler 
and his kinsmen. A second shipment of goods and colonists 
was sent out in March, 1632, on two ships, the " William 
and Francis" and the "Whale." The colonists on the for- 
mer ship were captained by the stout old Hampshire parson, 
now over 70, and the party on the "Whale" by his relative, 
Richard Dumme.r, also a Hampshire man,' who had not 
joined the religious circle of the Husbandmen, but who was 
doubtless induced by Bachiler to finance the enterprise to 
some extent. Dumnier was a man of breadth and ability, 
whose connection must have been of value to the struggling 
company, though he soon foresaw its failure and identified 
himself with Winthrop's more permanent enterprise. 

While Bachiler, Dummer, and the London members of 
the Company were thus helping on the enterprise in Eng- 
land, imagining that the colony of the Sagadahock River was 
firmly planted in the new soil, that poor-spirited crew had 
left its northern settlement, aghast at the practical diffi- 
culties of colonization, and perhaps torn by some dissension. 
With their shaky little craft, the Plough, they had drifted 
down the coast looking for more substantial settlements, 
and Winthrop's journal of July G, 1G31, 1 records their 
arrival at Water-town as follows: "A small ship of 60 tons 
arrived at Natascot, Mr. Graves master. She brought ten 
passengers from London. They came with a patent for 
Sagadehock, but not liking the place they came hither. 
Their ship drew ten feet and went up to Watertown but she 
ran on ground twice by the way." The Husbandmen, with 
their vague and mysterious religious tenets, were with some 
reason looked on askance by the compact and intolerant 

1 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. I, p. Go. 


colony of Endicott and Dudley. They had failed in their 
enterprise, and had come from the neighborhood of those 
fishing settlements along the north coast, whose rude and 
lawless members were in bad odor with the magistrates. 
It is doubtful, however, if they deserved 1 the opprobrium 
which has clung to them because of a note added later by 
Winthrop or some other hand — "They most of them proved 
familists and vanished away." The offensive term of Fam- 
ilist, with its hint of free love tendencies, was applied to 
many of the settlers who resented and differed from the 
arbitrary standards of the Massachusetts colony. 

Thus in June, 1632, when Bachiler and Dummer arrived 
with their families and adherents, the ill-fated little venture 
was already doomed. The earnest letter which Bachiler 
brought over from the London merchants was addressed to 
a band already in disorder, and it seems probable that they 
remained near Boston only long enough to deliver their 
patent to the new comers, coupled with such gloomy reports 
of the northern coast as effectually put an end to any further 
attempt at colonization. The Company of Husbandmen 
was practically dead, 2 its assets. in the hands of the Massa- 
chusetts court, and its members scattered; some went back 
to England and some to Virginia. The £1400 of joint stock 
was a complete loss, and apparently the patent was seized 
on b} T Dummer as some security for his advances. This 
Plough Patent was for years a source of dispute, 3 being 
assigned some time later to one of Cromwell's commanders, 
Alexander Rigby, whose agent, George Cleeves, disputed 
the bounds of the royal province of Gorgeana which fell 
to the heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. The constant 
quarrels between the two factions existed until Massachu- 
setts, through its agents in England, bought up their claims 
and established Maine as a dependency of the Bay Colony. 

It seems possible that the only person who derived a profit 

*N, E. Hist, Gen. Reg., vol. XLVI, p. 63. 

2 Mass. Court Rec., pp. 92, 98, 143. 

3 Me. H. & G. Rec, vol. II, p. 66 & seq. 


from the defunct Plough Company was Richard Dummer, 1 
who perhaps bought out Bachiler's interest in the patent, 
and who sold it through Cleeves to Rigby. Bachiler had 
disposed of his small estate in Hampshire 2 to provide funds 
for the colony; had brought over a little company of ad- 
herents and his own children and grandchildren; and found 
himself at 71 stranded in Newtown without a settlement or 
a pastorate, and equipped with a very moderate sum of 
money, a library of fair size, and a somewhat legendary 
coat of arms, 3 which the fanciful herald, Sylvanus Morgan, 
says did ''appertain to Stephen Bachiler, the first pastor of 
the church of Ligonia in New England." 

Bachiler's arrival in the new colony was welcomed. 
Winthrop mentions it in his journal, 4 and it was undoubt- 
edly a matter of moment that the aged Oxford scholar had 
chosen to settle in the Bay, with a considerable group of 
hardy immigrants. A man of education and cultivation, as 
his letters show him to have been, was no mean addition to 
Winthrop's settlement. 

Although contrary to the direct statements of Lewis and 
Newhall, the historians of Lynn, I do not believe that 
Bachiler and his little colony immediately established a 
church at Lynn. Bachiler's own letter to Winthrop 5 shows 
his first sojourn was at Newtown, now Cambridge. Here, 
too, we find the name of John Kerman, 6 one of the Plough 
Company, as an early settler. My idea is that here the 
handful of colonists left of the Plough Company set up 
their first tabernacle, and listened to the prophesyings of 
Master Bachiler. The arbitrary General Court of Win- 
throp's colony promptly suppressed the influence of these 
doctrines, which were perhaps more tolerant, and thus more 

1 Petition of Jeremiah Dummer to Mass. Gen. Ct. Dee., 1683; see Me. 
Hist. Coll. 

2 Feet of Fines Southants, Michaelmas Term, 6 Car. 1 (1630). 

3 Morgan's ''Sphere of Gentry", also Heralds, Coll. "E. D. N. Alpha- 
bet of Arms." 

4 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. I, p. 80-1. 

5 Mass. Hist. Soe. Coll., 4th series, vol. VII, p. 101. 

6 First Records of Cambridge. 


acceptable to many of the newly arriving colonists not yet 
firmly bound to the compact and narrow limits of the 
oligarchy. Bachiler and his adherents had not joined the 
church covenant by taking the "freeman's oath." The 
Court 1 on Oct. 6, 1632, ordered that "Mr. Batchel'r is 
required to forbeare exercising his gifts as a pastor or 
teacher publiquely in our pattent, unless it be to those he 
brought with him, for his contempt of authority and till 
some scandles be removed." 

Probably after this he moved from Newtown to Saugus 
(Lynn) and established his church there. Massachusetts 
was fast filling up with immigrants, and new settlements 
were being established. These plantations either kept no 
records of their first years, or, if such there were, they have 
been lost. Thus the only definite data of these early years 
are contained in the records of the General Court, and in 
the fragmentary notes of Winthrop's journal. On March 
4, 1633, 2 the inhibition of the Court was removed, and 
Bachiler was free to preach at will. This I take to be the 
date of his first ministrations at Saugus. Here he continued 
some three years, preaching to his own little flock, and 
gradually attaching others to them until his church num- 
bered a score of families. This increase became less coherent 
as newcomers settled at Saugus, and on March 15, 1635, 
Winthrop records 3 that "divers of the brethren of that 
church, not liking the proceedings of the pastor and withal 
making a question whether they were a church or not, did 
separate from church commimion." Bachiler and his 
followers asked the advice of the other churches, who, 
wishing to hear both sides, offered to meet at Saugus about 
it. Bachiler then asked the separatists to put their griev- 
ances in writing, which they refused to do. At this Bach- 
iler's quick temper flamed up, and he wrote to the other 
churches that he was resolved to excommunicate these 
objectors, and therefore the conference at Saugus was not 

1 Mass. Court Records, vol. I. 

2 Mass. Court Records, vol. I. 

3 Ilosmer's WLnthrops Journal, vol. I, p. 148. 


needed. This hasty proceeding (as Winthrop calls it) met 
with no approval at the lecture in Boston where Bachiler's 
letter was read, and the elders at once went to Saugus to 
pacify the contending parties. After hearing both sides it 
was agreed that, though not at first regularly constituted 
as a church, their consent and practice of a church estate 
had supplied that defect, and so, Winthrop concludes, all 
were reconciled. 

Probably these reconciling elders pointed out to Master 
Bachiler that he had not yet conformed to their custom and 
become a " freeman "; and indeed the Lynn church resem- 
bled rather the voluntary assemblings of the early Chris- 
tians than the formal and solemn 'installations practised in 
the Bay. At all events, on May 6. 1635/ Bachiler yielded 
to their practice, became a freeman, and thus joined the 
compact, if inelastic, body of the Puritan colony. 

This period was one of extreme danger for the Massa- 
chusetts Puritans. The Bay was fast filling up with English 
settlers from different counties, and each little band was 
headed by some disestablished or non-conforming clergy- 
man whose dislike for English intolerance was probably 
equalled by his determination to submit to no arbitrary 
church government in the new country. Thus, in America 
the leaders of the Bay Colony were confronted with the 
opposition of countless involved theological beliefs at 
variance with then own, while in England the King and 
Archbishop Laud were determined if possible to suppress 
the spread of Puritan strength by handicapping the new 
colony with a Governor-General from England, whose 
autocracy should be firmly allied with the English church 
and the Stuart dynasty. 

The colony of Winthrop and Dudley was thus attacked 
from within and from without. Small blame to them for 
determining actively to expel the contestants here, and 
passively to ignore the church-and-state rule of England. 
The banishment of Koger Williams marks the first con- 

1 Mass. Bay Colony Records, vol. I, p. 1 13. 


certed move to stamp out theological division in their own 
body. In October of 1635 Williams was expelled from Mas- 
sachusetts, one clergyman alone dissenting. It is believed 1 
that this dissenter was our Hampshire Master Bachiler. 
Indeed, the character of the two men was to some extent 
similar. Both were theorists, both intolerant of arbitrary 
rule, but history has magnified the success of one and well 
nigh obliterated the record of the other. The constructive 
talents of Koger Williams resulted in the establishment of 
a province where toleration was the rule of life, while the 
character of Bachiler, always in opposition to authority, 
made his life work nugatory. 

The same autumn, which banished Williams brought 
young Sir Harry Vane to Massachusetts, and the intricacies 
of theological disputes found in him an ardent supporter. 
It is probable, too, that the Boston church, reacting from 
the stern rule of Dudley, repented their share in the banish- 
ment of Williams. At all events that church, under the 
broader and more spiritual mind of John Cotton, the 
teacher or assistant, became an active force in favor of 
toleration in the Bay. 

But the task of weeding out the Puritan garden was not 
to be stopped. The colony must be united and intrenched 
at home. Each settlement must have as its leader some 
man whose trend of thought lay with that of the governing 
oligarchy. At Salem was the arch Puritan, Hugh Peter; at 
Newtown the somber Thomas Shepherd; at Boston was 
John Wilson, whose natural benignity was overshadowed 
by his loyalty to the intolerant tenets he professed; at 
Poxbury John Eliot and Thomas Welde were in full accord 
with the narrower beliefs. Saugus, with its venerable and 
educated pastor Bachiler, was an exception, and here was 
the next stand made. In January, 1636, Winthrop records 2 
"Mr. Batchellor of Saugus was convented before the 
magistrates. Coming out of England with a small body of 
six or seven persons and having since received in many more 

1 Sf. E. H. G. Reg., vol. XLVI, p. 158-9. 

2 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. I, p. 169. 


at Saugus, and contention coming between him and the 
greatest part of his church, who had with the rest received 
him for their pastor, he desired dismission for himself and 
first members, which being granted upon supposition that 
he would leave the town (as he had given out), he with the 
said six or seven persons presently renewed their old cove- 
nant, intending to raise another church in Saugus; whereat 
the most and chief of the town being offended, for that it 
w T ould cross their intention of calling Mr. Peter or some 
other minister, they complained to the magistrates, who 
seeing the distraction which was like to come by this course 
had forbidden him to proceed in any such church way until 
the cause were considered by the other ministers. But he 
refused to desist, whereupon they sent for him, and upon his 
delay day after day the marshal was sent to fetch him. 
Upon his appearance and submission and promise to remove 
out of the town within three months, he was discharged. " 

Thus another opponent of the oligarchy was disposed of 
with the strong hand. The church at Saugus was put 
under the rule of an. approved minister, Samuel Whiting, 
in whose honor the town name was changed to Lynn, and 
Master Rachiler, disheartened, laid down the ministry and 
retired to private life. Among his church, however, many 
besides his own family disliked the change, and several 1 
began a new settlement on Cape Cod, among them John 
Carman, the Plough Company man. 

Bachiler himself is said to have removed 3 in February, 
1636, to Ipswich, where the younger Winthrop had estab- 
lished a settlement. I find no recorded authority for this, 
and incline to think that he and his son-in-law Hussey 
followed Richard Dummer to Newbury, where their cousin 
had taken up a farm of five hundred acres, and where 

1 Lewis's Hist, of Lynn, Freeman's Cape Cod. Mass. Bay Col. 
Rec, vol. I. 

2 Lewis's Hist, of Lynn. N. E. H. G. Reg., vol. XLVI, p. 159. But 
see first record of 1630, Ancient Records of Ipswich (ed. Schofield) evi- 
dently ref. to Henry Bachelor, from Dover, Kent County, England. 
See also Batchelder Genealogy, p. 34G. 


Baehiler and Hussey likewise received extensive grants of 
land. 1 

The tyrannical rule of the New England Puritans met 
with little favor in Old England, where general sentiment 
favored toleration, and much disapproved arbitrary self- 
government in a colony. Mr. Stansby, a silenced Puritan 
in Norfolk, writing to John Wilson, 2 the Boston pastor, in 
1637, complains "that many of the ministers are much 
straited with you : others lay down the ministry and became 
private members, as Mr. Baehiler, Mr. Jenner and Mr. 
Nathaniel Ward. You are so strict in admission of members 
to your church that more than one-half are out of your 
church in all your congregations: this may do you much 
hurt." And now the threatened insurrection broke out into 
a flame. The Fast Day sermon of John Wheelwright 
arrayed the Massachusetts settlements in two distinct 
factions, which we may term Antinomians and Arbitrarians. 
Vane was elected Governor; Cotton as teacher ruled the 
Boston church; the brilliant, if undisciplined, Ann Hutchin- 
son lent distinction to the party of toleration. To the north 
lay the fishing settlements of Gorges and Mason, allied with 
the English church; to the south Roger Williams and his 
colony of broader views. The Massachusetts Puritans saw 
no wiser way of treating the spread of these heretical 
opinions than by suppression. By a political coup worthy 
of the twentieth century the new election was won for 
the Arbitrarians; Winthrop and Dudley went back into 
office, and the Court of Assistants was theirs by an over- 
whelming majority. The defeated part} r did what they 
could by electing Antinomian deputies, but their power 
was? for the moment gone. After some verbal sparring 
between Winthrop and Vane, the Massachusetts Sjmod, 
entirely Arbitrarian, denounced eighty erroneous doctrines, 
and at the November session of the General Court the iron 
hand was applied. The leaders of the opposition were 
banished, disfranchised, or disarmed. Massachusetts again 

1 Coffin's Newbury; Currier's Hist, of Newbury. 

2 Mas^. Hist. Soc." Coll., 4th series, VII, p. 10. 


presented a stern front against toleration. Wheelwright 
and his adherents began a settlement beyond the bounds 
of Massachusetts, at Squamscott (now Exeter, N. EL). 
Richard Dummer, who was among those disarmed, had too 
much at stake to abandon his possessions at Newbury, but 
returned to England and brought back with him in 1638 a 
small band of relatives and friends who strengthened his 

Bachiler and Hussey, living quietly at Newbury and 
having been dealt with the year before, were spared in this 
dictatorial devastation, but the inaction was not to Bach- 
iler's liking. In the severe winter of 1637-S 1 the venerable 
Puritan walked on foot through the wilderness to Cape Cod, 
where he and his little party hoped to begin a settlement 
near that which had been established a year before by John 
Carman and the company from Saugus. The rigor of the 
season and the difficulty of the enterprise discouraged them. 
Winthrop says: '"'The undertaker of this (the settlement at 
Mattakees, now Yarmouth) was one Mr. Batchellor late 
pastor at Saugus, being about 76 years of age: yet he walked 
thither on foot in a very hard season. He and his company, 
being all poor men, finding the difficulty gave it over, and 
others undertook it." 

In England the growing strength of the Massachusetts 
colony had alarmed the King and Canterbury. Malcon- 
tents sent back from the New England Canaan brought to 
the kingl} r ear strange stories of arbitrary and independent 
acts of the trans-Atlantic Puritans. Gorges with unfailing 
j persistency schemed for their overthrow. The Royal patent 

of 1629, granted or bought with anti-Scriptural bribes, 
contained privileges undreamed of when it was given. 

As early as 1635 the great Council of Plymouth sur- 
rendered its charter to the King, and the Attorney-General, 
Sir John Banks, began quo warranto proceedings to annul 
the Massachusetts patent. The whole coast line from 
Sagadahock to Narragansett was parceled out among the 
eight remaining members. To Gorges was allotted the 

1 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. I, p. 26G. 


northern district, as far south as the Piscataqua. Mason's 
share adjoined this and ran south to Naumkeag, now Salem 
harbor. The coast from there to Na.rragansett fell to Lord 
Edward Gorges. Thus a paper division shut out Win- 
throp's colony from any Royal privileges, and the proposed 
appointment of their enemy, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, as 
Governor-General completed the pen-and-ink overthrow 
of the Bay Puritans. 

But paper was all that Charles could give; money and 
resources he had none, and he was indeed keeping his own 
coffers barely filled by illegal and unpopular "ship money" 
and other taxes. With a singular lack of perspective, after 
sweating his English subjects by these money getting 
tactics, Charles and Land added the last straw by attempt- 
ing to force the Anglican church establishment upon Scot- 
land. The storm which this raised at home quite blotted 
out all plans for colonial government and extension. Sir 
Ferdinando was left to his own resources to fit out the ship 
which should carry the Royal Governor to his happy New 
England tenantry; and the doughty Elizabethan knight 
foundered in the attempt, just as his newly launched vessel 
broke to pieces on her way off the stocks. 

Meanwhile the narrow limits of the Massachusetts patent 
"from the Merrimack to the Charles" began to press hard 
. on Winthrop's expanding colony. Each year new settlers 
flocked there from England, and new settlements were 
needed to accommodate them. In 1635 a band of Wilt- 
shire men, headed by Thomas Parker, had planted the 
Massachusetts Hag on the southern bank of the Merrimack 
at Newbury, and soon the tide overflowed into Salisbury, 
Haverhill, and Rowley. 

Here began the debatable land of Mason's patent of 
1629, stretching from the Merrimack to the Piscataqua and 
joining Gorges's province of Maine. Few and scattering 
were the settlements. Depositions made by early planters 
say that in 1631 there were but three houses on all that side 
of the country adjoining the Piscataqua. Captain Neale 
was sent out bv Mason and Gorges in the same month as 


Winthrop's fleet, and on June 1, 1630, settled in the stone 
house built by Thomson, the Scotch trader, in 1623 at- 
Little Harbor. These absentee landlords had large plans, 
and built a manor house or two, set up sawmills and fishing 
stages, but their colonies lacked the effective personal 
element which the Bay Colony possessed, and they came to 

By the close of 1637 Mason w T as dead, Gorges was busy 
in the King's cause, and the vast regions along the Pis- 
cataqua contained but a few dismembered plantations. 
The Antinomian heretics were banished from Massachusetts 
or disarmed; ship-loads of immigrants friendly to the Bay 
Colony were arriving, and they must be provided with 
suitable plantations. The "Lords Brethren" of the Bay 
scanned their patent and saw that its northern line was the 
Merrimack. Now that river reaches the sea at Newbury, 
but its head waters lie far to the North. "The wish was 
father to the thought/'' Winthrop and his oligarchy looked 
the ground over and decided that the King's intention was 
that their patent should include all the country south of the 
headwaters. As early as 1636 1 the General Court passed 
an order that a plantation should be begun at Winnicunnet, 
some fifteen miles north of Newbury, and that Bichard 
Dummer and John Spencer should press men to build a 
house there. The exact location of this house, intended to 
mark possession, but afterwards called the "Bound House," 
cannot now be definitely determined. It was, says ^Yhee^- 
wright in 16G5, "three large miles North of the Merrimack," 
apparently within the limits of the present town of Sea- 
brook. Just where it was, by whom it was occupied and 
how long, it is impossible to say. The settlement planned 
was not completed, and in 1637 the inhabitants of Newbury 
were by court order allowed to settle there. Except for 
Nicholas Easton and a Mr. Geoffrey the Newbury settlers 
did not take up the new grant, and the two mentioned were 
unwelcome to the Massachusetts authorities, Easton (after- 

1 Dew's Hist, of Hampton, X. H., vol. I, pp. G, 7. 


wards Governor of Rhode Island) having been disarmed as 
an Antinomian. 

The salt marshes and pleasant meadows were well known 
to Newbury men, and our old friend Bachiler soon descried 
in them a fit place to establish his little colony, now living 
with him at Newbury. In the autumn of 1638 the Massa- 
chusetts General Court 1 granted the petition of Bachiler 
and his company to settle at Winnicunnet. The company 
included the adherents of Bachiler, his son-in-law and his 
four grandchildren, and with them were also one or two 
Norfolk men who had settled first in Watertown and then 
in Newbury. The Court ruled also (perhaps remembering 
past difficulties with Bachiler) that John Winthrop, Jr., 
and Mr. Bradstreot should go with the little band of set- 
tlers, and no decisive act should be done without the affir- 
mation of these two Massachusetts officials. 

A letter from Bachiler to the younger Winthrop 2 dated 
Oct. 9 ? 1638, still extant, shows that the actual date of 
the trip from Newbury, which was made in a shallop, was 
October 14th. On this pleasant fall day then, the settle- 
ment was made, and our ancient friend probably felt that 
in this new plantation his remaining days would be spent in 
peace. The future looked serene. His adherents were 
united to him, a pleasant and fertile spot had been chosen, 
and one at the farthest northern end of the Massachusetts 
patent, if not indeed really outside of its limits. To the 
west lay Wheelwright and his little colony, farther up 
the coast were the independent settlements of Strawberry 
Bank and Cocheco. It looked as though liberty indeed lay 
before him. 

But the true colonizing spirit of the Bay did not end with 
the beginning of a settlement ; the authorities provided 
the settlers also, and saw to it as best they could that the 
Bay influence should predominate. With the next spring 
came a band of Norfolk and Suffolk men to Hampton, and 

1 Mass. Bay Col. Rec, vol. I, p. 236. 

2 Mass. Hist. Soc. CoD. 4th series, vol. VII, p. 98. 


with them came Timothy Dalton, a relative of Winthrop, 
and a man loyal to the Massachusetts doctrines. 

Dalton 1 was a Cambridge graduate, ejected from his 
Suffolk rectory of Wool verst one for non-conformity, who 
had come to New England in 1635, settling in the Puritan 
colony at Dedham. The pastor and teacher, nominally 
head of the church and assistant, were as far apart as the 
poles. Bachiler was old, educated, controversial, versed 
in polemical discussion, and wedded to his own ideas. 
Dalton was younger, less cultivated, equally obstinate, and 
determined to uphold the tenets of his cousin and neighbor, 
Winthrop. Probably dissension began at once ; it grew and 
spread like wildfire. Time has obliterated nearly all traces 
of the quarrel. The town records contain no reference to 
it. The church records have disappeared. 

An occasional gleam flashed out until in 1641 the dissen- 
sions at Hampton culminated in the sorry incident related in 
Winthrop's journal under date of Nov. 12, 1641.? No per- 
sonal criticism of Stephen Bachiler has up to this date been 
discovered, no breath of scandal has touched his character. 
That he was opposed to the arbitrary rule of the Bay oli- 
garchy is unquestioned, but it was left to the "reverend, 
grave and gracious Mr. Dalton" to defame his character 
and blacken his memory by the story which Winthrop 
recites with that gusto with which similar incidents, real or 
falsified, were treated by early Puritan historians. Win- 
throp says: 

"Mr. Stephen Batchellor, the pastor of the church at 
Hampton, who had suffered much at the hands of the 
Bishops and having a lusty comely woman to his wife, did 
solicit the chastity of his neighbor's wife, who acquainted 
her husband therewith; whereupon he was dealt with, but 
denied it, as he had told the woman he would do, and com- 
plained to the magistrates against the woman and her 
husband for slandering him. The church likewise dealing 
with him, he stiffly denied it, but soon after when the Lord's 

1 Blake's "English Home of Timothy Dalton" 1899. 
2 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. II, pp. 45-6. 


Supper was to be administered he did voluntarily confess 
the attempt, and that he did intend to defile her if she had 
consented. The church being moved by his full confession 
and tears silently forgave him, and communicated with 
him; but after finding how scandalous it was they took 
advice of other elders, and after long debate and much 
pleading and standing upon the church's forgiving and 
being reconciled to him in communicating with him after 
he had confessed it, they proceeded to cast him out. After 
this he went on again in a variable course, sometimes 
seeming very penitent, soon after again excusing himself 
and casting blame upon others, especially his fellow elder 
Mr. Dal ton (who indeed had not carried himself in this 
cause so well as became him, and was brought to see his 
failing and acknowledged it to the elders of the other 
churches who had taken much pains about this matter). 
So he behaved himself to the elders when they dealt with 
him. He was off and on for a long time, and when he had 
seemed most penitent so as the church were ready to have 
received him in again, he would fall back again and as it 
were repent of his repentance. In this time his house and 
near all his substance was consumed by fire. When he had 
continued excommunicated for near two years, and much 
agitation had been about the matter, and the church being 
divided so as he could not be received in, at length the matter 
was referred to some magistrates and elders, and by their 
mediation he was released of his excommunication but not 
received to his pastor's office. Upon occasion of this media- 
tion Mr. Wilson, pastor of Boston, wrote this letter to him." 
It is to be regretted that the letter is not extant. 

Here, then, is the story as told by Winthrop with some 
detail, which has for nearly three centuries blackened the 
memory of our Hampshire Puritan. It were bold to dis- 
credit Winthrop, and yet the tale is stamped throughout 
with improbability. This account is all that remains; the 
court records, district or general, eontain no trace of it, 
no letters mention the case. A careful search discloses 
nothing among the Massachusetts archives; church records, 


local and synodical, are blank concerning it. No published 
or manuscript record except Winthrop's gives us any facts. 
Bachiler's age, eighty years, discredits the story. His life 
up to this time was public, honored and respected. The 
story apparently comes from his enemy Dalton, whose 
literary relics afford us nothing, unless we may consider a 
large bequest to Bachiler's grandson Nathaniel as a tardy 
attempt at reparation. 

It is curious to note that on the shoulders of Dalton 1 and 
Hugh Peter rests also that slanderous account of Knollys's 
and Larkham's offenses against decency, perpetuated in 
Winthrop, but now generally disbelieved. It is almost 
inconceivable that the ardent and spiritual Knollys, the 
founder of the Baptist church,, could have sullied with 
that filthy and indelible stain a life otherwise pure. Thomas 
Larkham's life in England is blameless. The fact is that 
the settlements north of the Merrimack were looked on by 
the Bay Puritans as reeking with impurity, and any garbled 
accounts of misconduct there were of a pleasant savour to 
the nostrils of Massachusetts. 

But let us see what Bachiler and his friends and neighbors 
have to say. Himself, writing to Winthrop 2 in 1613, says: 
"I see not how I can depart hence" (that is from Hampton, 
to accept one of two calls he had received, to Casco and to 
Exeter), "till I have, or God for me, cleared and vindicated 
the cause and wrongs I have suffered of the church I yet 
live in; that is, from the Teacher, who hath done all and 
been the cause of all the dishonor that hath accrued to 
God, shame to myself, and grief to all God's people, by his 
irregular proceedings and abuse of the power of the church 
in his hands, — by the major part cleaving to him, being 
his countrymen and acquaintance in old England. Whiles 
my cause, though looked slightly into by diverse Elders 
and brethren, could never come to a judicial searching 
forth of things, and an impartial trial of his allegations and 
my defence; which, if yet they might, I am confident in God, 

1 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. II, pp. 28, 89. 

2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th series, vol. VII, p. 102. 


upon certain knowledge and clue proof before yourselves, 
the Teacher's act of his excommunicating me (such as I am, 
to say no more of myself), would prove the foulest matter, 
— both for the cause alleged of that excommunication, and 
the impulsive cause, — even wroth and revenge. Also the 
manner of all his proceeding throughout to the very end, 
and lastly his keeping me still under bonds, — and much 
worse than here I may mention for divers causes, — which, 
to bear on my shoulder in going hence, is so uncomfortable 
that, tho' I can refer it to God's revenging hand and wait 
on him, yet then I am taught again that such sins endanger 
the very state of church and commonwealth, for neglecting 
of the complaints of the afflicted in such a state, wherein 
Magistrates, Elders, and brethren all are in the sincerest 
manner set to find out sin, and search into the complaints 
of the poor, — not knowing father nor mother, church nor 
Elder. In such a State, I say, — in such a wine-cellar to find 
such a cockatrice, and not to kill him, — to have such mon- 
strous proceedings passed over, without due justice, — this 
again stirs up my spirit to seek for a writ ad melius inquiren- 
dum. Towards which the enclosed letter tendeth, as you 
may perceive. Yet if your wisdoms shall judge it more 
safe and reasonable to refer all my wrongs (conceived) to 
God's own judgment, I bless the Lord for his grace, if I 
know mine own heart herein, I can submit myself to be 
overruled by you. To conclude, — if the Apostle's words be 
objected, that this is thanksworthy, that a man for con- 
science's sake shall endure grief, suffering wrongfully, — 
and therefore I ought in this aforesaid cause of mine to 
endure the grief thereof in whatsoever I suffer wrongfully, 
without seeking redress or justice against the offender , — I 
profess it was more absolutely necessary so to suffer, when 
the Church had no civil power to seek unto, than in such a 
land of righteousness as our New England is." 

So far as we know, Bachiler's son-in-law Hussey and his 
grandchildren, who were by this time prominent among the 
younger Hampton settlers, stood by the slandered patriarch. 
While the turmoil was at its height Bachiler was chosen as 


arbitrator l in the important land suit of Cleeve v. Winter. 
His award was adverse to Winter, but the Rev. Robert 
Jordan, writing to his father-in-iaw Winter in July, 1642, 
says: "Mr. Stephen Bachiler, the pastor of a church in the 
Massachusetts Bay, was, I must say, a grave, reverend, and 
a good man; but whether more inclined to justice or mercy, 
or whether carried aside by secret insinuations, I must 
refer to your own judgment. Sure I am that Cleeve is well 
nigh able to disable the wisest brain." 

When the five years' struggle at Hampton was over and 
the Bachiler party defeated, the ancient Puritan minister 
decided to leave Hampton, and cast about in his mind 
where to settle. By this time Massachusetts had strength- 
enecHts lines, and had reached out to the Piscataqua settle- 
ments to take them into its fold. One by one Strawberry 
Bank, Dover, and Exeter joined the Bay Colony. Wheel- 
wright, the punished heretic, had withdrawn into Maine, 
and Exeter was without a pastor. The Maine settlements 
were free from the rule of the Bay, since Alexander Rigby, 
one of Cromwell's commanders, had bought the Plough 
patent from Bachiler's Company of Husbandmen, was 
actively at war with the Gorges heirs over his title, and yet 
was opposed to the arbitrary encroachments of Winthrop's 

Both Exeter and Rigby' s settlement sought 2 to secure 
Bachiler for their pastor. Both were neighboring planta- 
tions to Hampton, and must have heard of the Hampton 
slander. Apparently they disbelieved it, and certainly they 
invited him to settle with them. In February, 1G44, Bach- 
iler laid the matter before the church at Boston, and the 
elders apparently advised him merely to remove from 
Hampton, leaving him to decide between the two calls. 
In May he decided to accept the call to Exeter, and wrote 
to Winthrop as an old friend to acquaint him with the 
decision, asking him to urge "his brother Wilson" to attend 
the ordination at Exeter, and "make it a progresse of 

1 Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., Trelawny Papers. 

2 Mass. Hist, Soc. Coll., 4th scries, vol. VII, pp. 100-108. 


recreation to see his ouid friend and thus to do me this laste 
service save to my buriall." 

But the Boston elders, having apparently advised some- 
what against his removing to Caseo, now looked with dis- 
may at his gathering a church at Exeter, which the Bay 
authorities now claimed lay within their patent. The 
General Court held at Boston 1 May 29, 1644, passed this 
order : 

"Whereas it appears to this Court that some of the 
inhabitants of Exeter do intend shortly to gather a church 
and call Mr. Bachiler to be their minister: and forasmuch 
as the divisions there are judged by this Court to be such 
as for the present they cannot comfortably proceed in such 
weighty and sacred affairs, it is therefore ordered that 
direction shall be sent to defer the gathering of a church or 
any such proceeding until this court or the Court at Ips- 
wich, upon further satisfaction of their reconciliation and 
fitness, shall give allowance thereunto." 

Vvmthrop's journal, mentioning this order, 2 adds, — "And 
besides Mr. Batchellor had been in three places before, and 
through his means, as was supposed, the churches fell to 
such divisions as no peace could be till he was removed." 

The call to Casco declined, and the gathering of a church 
at Exeter being forbidden, our stout old Master Bachiler 
was now quite adrift. In 1644 he was forced to sell his 
great farm 3 at Hampton, and moved soon after to Straw T - 
berry Bank, where he lived for some years, preaching to 
the godless fishermen of that seaside parish. With him 
went his godchild and grandson, Stephen Samborne,' 1 and 
they settled on the Kittery side of the Piscataqua. At this 
time, Richard Gibson's Anglican church establishment 
having been disrupted, and James Parker, that ''Godly 
man and scholar" having gone to the Barbadoes, the 
missionary at Strawberry Bank had also the cure of souls 

1 Mass. Boy Colony Rec, 

2 Hosmer's Winthrop's Journal, vol. II, p. 179. 

3 N. E. II. G. Reg., vol. XLVI, p. 251. 

4 York Deeds, vol. I, p. II. 


in the hamlet of Battery and the fishing settlements of the 
Isles of Shoals. Here dwelt a type of men different from 
the devout colony of Hampton and of Exeter, a rude, 
lawless race of deep sea fishermen, often also deep drinkers 
and roisterers. Jenness, in his " Isles of Shoals," gives us 
graphic pictures of their lives, as for instance the court 
record in the case of John Andrews, husband of a local 
termagant, who sought consolation in the wine cup and 
was convented therefor, he " swearing by the blood of Christ 
that he was above ye heavens and ye stars, at which time 
(the record ingenuously comments) ye said Andrews did 
seem to have drunk too much, and did at that time call the 
witnesses Doggs, toads, and foule birds." 

In April, 1647, Baehiler gave to the four grandchildren 1 
he had brought to New England what remained of his 
Hampton property. He petitioned the General Court in 
1645 2 for some allowance for his six years' pastorate at 
Hampton, but was referred to the district court. While 
his case was pending he wrote 3 from Strawberry Bank to 
Winthrop in May, 1647: 

"I can shew a letter of your Worship's occasioned by 
some letters of mine, craving some help from you in some 
cases of oppression under which I lay,— and still do, — 
wherein also you were pleased to take notice of those oppres- 
sions and wrongs; that in case the Lord should give, or open 
a door of opportunity, you would be ready to do me all 
the lawful right and Christian service that any cause of 
mine might require. Which time being, in my conceit, 
near at hand, all that I would humbly crave is this, — to 
read this inclosed letter to my two beloved and reverend 
brothers, your Elders (Cotton and Wilson), and in them to 
the whole Synod. Wherein you shall fully know my dis- 
tressed case and condition; and so, as you shall see cause, 
to join with them in counsel, what best to do for my relief. 

"'It is no news to certify you that God hath taken from 

1 HT. H. Prob. Rec, Miss., vol. XIII, p. 221. 

2 Mass. Bay Col. Rec, III. 

3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th series,, vol. VII, pp. 10S-109. 


me my dear helper and yokefellow. And whereas, by appro- 
bation of the whole plantation of Strawberry Bank, they 
have assigned an honest neighbor, (a widow) to have some 
eye and care towards my family, for washing, baking, and 
other such common services, — it is a world of woes to think 
what rumors detracting spirits raise up, that I am married 
to her, or certainly shall be; and cast on her such aspersions 
without ground or proof, that I see not how possibly I shall 
subsist in the place, to do them that service from which 
Otherwise they cannot endure to hear I shall depart. The 
Lord direct and guide us jointly and singularly in all things, 
to his glory and our rejoicing in the day and at the appearing 
of our Lord Jesus Christ! And so, with my humble service 
to your worship, your blessed and beloved yokefellow, 
(mine ancient true friend) with blessing on you both, yours 
and all the people of God with you, I end and rest your 
Worship's in the Lord to commend." 

But "whether at Naushapur or Babylon," whether at 
Saugus, Hampton, or Strawberry Bank, peace in New 
England was not to be found by Master Bachiler. 

His third venture in the matrimonial lottery was this 
honest neighbor "Mary surnamed Magdalene," the widow 
of an obscure seaman named Beetle, whose adultery with 
a local rascal, George Rogers, was soon detected. 1 Rogers 
was a renegade seaman or servant of Trelawny, who had 
settled at Kittery, across the river from Strawberry Bank. 
This ignominious Lotharian adventure with Mary Bachiler 
was punished in March, 1G51, 2 by the Court at York, which 
sentenced Rogers to be flogged, and the erring wife, after 
her approaching delivery, to be whipped and branded with 
the letter "A," the "Scarlet Letter" of Hawthorne's 

But before the York court had passed its sentence 
Bachiler had doubtless discovered the true nature of this 
obscure Thais, and probably left her and returned to Hamp- 

1 York Co. Rec.j Court at Gorgeana, Oct. 15, 1G50. 

2 York Co. Rec, Court at Gorgeana, March 11, 1651. 


ton, applying for a divorce. The district court at Salisbury 1 
on April 9, 1650, gave him a judgment against the town of 
Hampton for £40, "wages detained," and at the same session 
fined him £10 for not publishing his marriage according to 
law. It then entered the following atrocious order: 

''That Mr. Batchelor and his wife shall live together as 
man and wife, as in this court they have publicly professed 
to do; and if either desert one another, then hereby the 
court doth order that the marshall shall apprehend both 
the said Air. Batchelor and Alary, his wife, and bring them 
forthwith to Boston, there to be kept till the next Quarter 
Court of Assistants, that farther consideration thereof may 
be had, both of them moving for a divorce; Provided, not- 
withstanding, that if they put in 50 pounds each of thern r 
for their appearance, that then they shall be under their 
bail to appear at the next court; and in case Alary Batchel- 
lor shall live out of the jurisdiction, without mutual consent 
for a time, then the clerk shall give notice to the magistrate 
at Boston of her absence, that further order may be taken 

By October, 1650, (the next term of court) when the Maine 
court presented Rogers and Mary Batchellor for adultery, 
the local justices had probably learned the actual offence 
and remitted half the fine imposed in April. 2 Perhaps they 
ignored the incomprehensible order referred to, for we hear 
no more of it; but life in New England had become impossi- 
ble for the venerable Puritan. Old England seemed a sure 
haven. There Cromwell and the Parliament had over- 
thrown his ancient foes, the bishops, and there he had 
grandchildren living in comfort. Sometime in 1654, accom- 
panied by one grandson and his family, he sailed from New 
England, the Arcadia of his hopes, to England, the land of 
his earliest struggles. His last act on leaving America was 
to turn over what remained of his property to Christopher 

1 Old Norfolk County Court Pvecords (MS.) 2nd mo., 9th day, 1650, 
Court at Salisbury. 

2 Old Norfolk County Records (MS) 8th month, lst-3rd days, 1651. 
Court at Hampton. 


Hussey anci his wife "in consideration that the said Hussey 
had little or nothing from him with his daughter as also 
that the said son Hussey and his wife had been helpful unto 
him both formerly and in fitting him for his voyage." 
This kindly act is the last that we have of authentic record 
concerning Bachiler, who it may be hoped returned to 
prosperous and friendly kindred in old England to linger 
out his last years. 

The graceless Mary Bachiler was sentenced by the Maine 
courts 1 for sexual irregularities in 1651, 1652, and 1654, and 
lived to cast one more slander at her aged and deceived 
victim. She petitioned the Massachusetts General Court in 
1656, 2 stating: 

"Whereas, your petitioner having formerly lived with 
Mr. Stephen Bachiler in this Colony as his lawful wife (and 
not unknown to divers of you, as I conceive), and the said 
Mr. Bachiler, upon some pretended ends of his own, has 
transported himself into old England, for many years since, 
and betaken himself to another wife, as your petitioner hath 
often been credibly informed, and there continues; whereby 
your petitioner is left destitute not only of a guide to herself 
and her children, hut also made incapable of disposing her- 
self in the way of marriage to any other without a lawful 
permission. . . . And were she free of her engagement 
to Mr. Bachiler, might probably so dispose of herself as 
that she might obtain a meet helper to assist her to procure 
such means for her livelihood, and the recovery of her 
children's health, as might keep them from perishing, — 
which your petitioner, to her great grief, is much afraid of, 
if not timely prevented." 

This allegation rests on her unsupported and discredited 
statement, and may be taken as an utter falsehood. A 
Dover court record 3 of March 26, 1673, seems to indicate 
that the daughter of Mary Bachiler (born in coverture and 

1 York Co. Records (MS), Courts of Dec. 5, 1651, Oct. 12, 1052, June 
9, 1651. 

2 Lewis's Hist, of Lynn, pp. 161-2. 

3 N. II. Deeds, vol. 2, p. 191. 


therefore legally the daughter of our Hampshire parson, 
though undoubtedly disowned by him) attempted to secure 
some part of Baehiler's estate. Her husband, William 
Richards, was given power of administration to the estate 
of "Mr. Steven Batchelor dee'd," being also prudently 
enjoined to bring in an inventory thereof to the next court, 
and to put up "sufficient security to respond ye estate any 
yt may make better claim unto it." As no further record 
exists of this matter, we may conclude this "fishing expedi- 
tion" resulted in nothing. Tradition states 2 that the 
ancient Hampshire parson died in England in 1660, having 
rounded out a century, and that the last six years of his 
life were spent in tranquility with prosperous descendants 
in England. The statement that he died in Hackney, near 
London, rests, I think, on a letter to Increase Mather from 
William Hooke, who speaks of the death there of a Mr. 
Bachiler, a preacher, but I think refers to John Bachiler, 
the licenser of publications mentioned in Edward's "Gan- 

Whether or not the facts as to Baehiler's life in Old and 
New England will ever be exactly known, it is difficult to 
state. New manuscripts are constantly coming to light 
both in England and America, and it would be a welcome 
task to clear away authoritatively the opprobrium which 
has long rested on his memory. 

The statements of Winthrop's journal are so diametrically 
opposed to what we know elsewhere of Baehiler's life, his 
spirit and his character that, judged by the laws of evidence, 
his memory may be said to have been cleared. Baehiler's 
mind, as shown by the scanty light of other contemporary 
records, shows cultivation in excess of many of his contem- 
poraries, and his few remaining letters evince a gentleness 
•and a courtesy quite at variance with the account given by 
Win thro p. 

Two portraits are offered of him. In one, you may see 
an erring and disgraced old man, hunted from place to 
place by his own mistakes, fleeing from England to America, 

! N. E. II. G. Reg., vol. XII, p. 272. 


and finally hiding in England from the result of his senile 
misconduct. I prefer to see in the other a high-minded but 
unsuccessful patriarch, with the defects of his qualities, at 
variance with the narrow and doomed intent of the Bay 
oligarchs, spending his life in the vain search for religious 
freedom, and rebelling at the limitations and prescriptions 
which time was to show were impossible in a free and grad- 
ually enlightened democracy. Driven from place to place 
by the autocracy first of the English church and then of 
the Winthrop colony, at last he saw triumphant the prin- 
ciples of social and religious enfranchisement, for which he 
spent his life, his means, and his best ambitions. 

Eighty-Seventh Annual Meeting. 

The eighty-seventh annual meeting of the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society 
in Concord on Wednesday, June 9, 1909, at eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 

The record of the adjourned meeting of April 14 was read 
by the Secretary and approved. 

Mr. John C. Thorne moved that chair appoint a com- 
mittee of three to nominate a list of officers for the ensuing 

The chair appointed John C. Thorne, Fred W. Lamb, and 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter. 

The Librarian made her report, which was accepted and 
ordered to be placed on file. 

librarian's report. 

The Society has received during, the year past the fol- 
lowing gifts, exclusive of the accessions in the library: a 
pair of silver sugar tongs, five silver teaspoons and three 
tablespoons, silver cream pitcher, shawl, the Stickney coat 
of arms painted on silk and framed, and a copy of Bouton's 
History of Concord, from Mrs. Catherine Ayer Ransom; 
one hundred eighteen framed portraits of prominent New 
Hampshire men, from the New Hampshire Club of Boston; 
swifts, from Mrs. H. B. Colby; earthern flask and small 
wooden keg used in War of 1812, tin lantern, old high backed 
combs, sugar bowl and pitcher, needle books, tall silk hats, 
parasol, and manuscripts, all relating to the Davis family of 
Davisville, loaned by J. Franklin Terry; three dollar bill 
issued under act of 1780, from M. T. Curtis; Indian pestle 
found at Croydon, from Milon C. Cooper; Indian pestle 
found at Oak Hill, East Concord, from Frank P. Potter; 
manuscripts, lectures of Hon. John D. Philbrick, from Mrs. 
Abby D. Brown; framed letter of recommendation for 


Charles Walker, Jr., written by Henry Clay, dated Oct. 
29, 1819, from Charles Walker Pickering; two plaster casts 
modelled and given by Mrs. Caroline S. Hayley; box of 
minerals from Mrs. C. C. Webster; state ticket as used and 
voted in New Hampshire for Lincoln in 1864, from Gen. 
Alfred R. Evans; manuscripts, genealogy of a branch of the 
Folsom family of New Hampshire, from Mortimer D. Fol- 
som; old deeds relating to the first religious society of Lam- 
prey River, Newmarket, from Frank Battles, Esq., of 
Philadelphia; collection of autographs and manuscripts 
including genealogical memoranda on the Herbert family, 
by will of Miss Alma J. Herbert; photograph of the monu- 
ment marking the spot where the first religious service in 
this locality was held, from Rev. N. F. Carter; seven boxes 
containing books and pamphlets, from E. P. Gerould; 
maps and plans of Concord, Manchester, and various New 
Hampshire towns from the New Hampshire Board of 

In response to the circulars sent out last fall we have 
received copies of gravestone inscriptions as follows: 

Salisbury Heights burying ground, from William H. 
Gallinger; Epsom cemetery, Gossville, from the Misses 
Mabel Young and Marion Burnham; Page, Brown, and 
Dame burying grounds, Dover, from Mrs. John B. Stevens; 
the seven cemeteries in Hudson, from Kimball Webster; 
Tilton Highlands, from Miss Sarah P. Comerford; and the 
Pelham cemeteries, from P. Hildreth Parker. 

The library accessions for the year are as follows: 
Number of books by purchase 89 

" " " exchange 3 

" " " gift ' 281 



dumber of pamphlets by purchase 


" exchange 


" " " " gift 





The town reports have been sent more promptly this 
year than in years previous, three hundred twenty-three 
have been received, some of these back numbers that filled 
gaps in our files. This was also the year for the check lists 
to be sent, and out of the two hundred ninety all but three 
have been received. Twenty-nine volumes, all periodicals, 
have been bound this year. The work on the pamphlets 
which was started last year has been carried on. during this 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edith S. Freeman. 

The report of the Treasurer was read, accepted, and 
ordered to be placed on file. 

Receipts Credited to General Income: 

Income from Permanent Fund, 

New members, 


Books sold, 

State appropriation, 

Receipts from D. A. R., 

Income from Todd Fund, 

Receipts credited to Permanent 
Fund, life membership, 













Expenditures Charged to General Income: 

Salary of Librarian, 

Incidentals of Librarian, 


Printing, &c, 


Books purchased, genealogies and 

town histories, Todd Fund, 
Books purchased, other books, 

(1908) Permanent Fund, 
Current funds, 

To new account: 
Permanent Fund, 
Current funds, 













William C. Todd Fund, 

To investments, $6,880 . 98 

June 20, 1908, received from execu- 
tor of est. Wm. C. Todd, 10,000.00 
Income from the funds, 485 . 36 , 


Paid for genealogies and histories, 196 . 35 


Charles L. Tap pan Fund. 

To investment, $600.40 

income, 24 . 00 



List of Securities in the Hands of the Treasurer: 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co.'s deben- ' 

lures, $500.00 each, 81,000.00 

2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rd. 

bonds, S500.00 each, 1,000.00 

2 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 

bonds, SI ,000. 00 each, 2,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co.'s 

bonds, SI, 000.00 each, 2,000.00 

13 Shares Concord & Montreal Rd. 

stock, 2,268.50 

5 Shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

FeRd., 500.00 

4 Shares Concord Electric Co., 400 . 00 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 4,087.65 

Deposit in First National Bank, 357.91 


William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great North- 
ern Rd. bond, 1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co.'s bond, 

81,000.00 each, 2,000.00 

1 City of Laconia bond, 1 ,000 . 00 

Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 13,169.99 


Building Fund. 

As per report of last year, $18,494.67 

Income from same, 369 . 12 

Apr. 19, 1909, received legacy from 

estate of Nathaniel S. Bouton, 5,000 . 00 




July 1, Paid H. W. Stevens, Treas. 

Bldg. Com., $8,500.00 

July 6, 4,200.00 

July8, 5,790.00 

Apr. 20, 5,000.00 



We have this day examined the account of William P. 
Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
for the year ending June 9, 1909, and find the same cor- 
rectly cast and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We 
have also examined the securities constituting the funds of 
the Society, and find them correct. 
Concord, N. EL, June 9, 1909. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
E. C. Eastman, 
Standing Committee. 

Major Arthur H. Chase, for the Library Committee, 
made a report, which was accepted. 

Mr. John C. Thorne, for the Standing Committee, sub- 
mitted a report, which was accepted, and ordered to be 
placed on file." 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond, for the Publishing Committee, 
made a verbal report which was accepted. 

The following persons were proposed for membership in 
the Society, and they were duly elected : 

Honorary Members. 

Edward Tuck, Paris, France. 
David P. Kimball, Boston, Mass. 


Active Members. 

Julia Stell Tuck, Paris, France. 

Rev. William J. Tucker, D.D., Hanover. 

Rev. Henry Ferguson, D.D., Concord. 

Alfred F. Howard, Portsmouth. 

John M. Mitchell, Concord. 

James B. Tennant, Concord. 

Hannah A. Currier, Manchester. 

Rev. Ashley D. Leavitt, Concord. ' 

Dwight Hall, Dover. 

Frances Smith Hall, Dover. 

Ariana S. Dudley, Brentwood. 

Harold H. Blake, Concord. 

John L. T. Shaw, Chichester. 

Frances P. Hallett, Concord. 

Amos Blanchard, Concord. 

Henry B. Quinby, Lakeport. 
Dr. Eli E. Graves, Necrologist, reported the following 
deaths during the past year, and others not previously 
recorded : 

Active Members. 

Charlotte A. Blake, Concord, June 23, 1908. 
Albert B. Woodworth, Concord, June 24, 1908. 
Ira Colby, Claremont, June 27, 1908. 
Edwin B. Pike, Haverhill, August 24, 1908. 
Alma J. Herbert, Concord, December 18, 1908. 
Ella II. J. Hill, Concord, March 23, 1909. 
Dr. H. A. Hildreth, Bethlehem, March 25, 1909. 
Lyman D. Stevens, Concord, March 26, 1909. 
Joseph Albert Walker, Portsmouth, May G, 1909. 

Corresponding Members. 

Frederick Clifton Pierce, April 5, 1904. 
John Marshall Brown, Portland, Me., July 20, 1907. 
Angus Cameron, La Crosse, Wis., March 30, 1897. 
Edward H. Ehvell, Portland, Me., July 16, 1890. 
Charles W. Darling, Utica, N. Y., June 22, 1905. 


Albert A. Folsorn, Boston, Mass., December 24, 1907. 
John Murry Glidden, Newcastle, Me., March 28, 1906. 
Harrison C. Hobart, Milwaukee, Wis., January 26, 1902. 
Rev. Ephraim 0. Jameson, Boston, Mass., November 9, 

William H. Whitmore, Boston, Mass., June 14, 1900. 
Edwin B. Haskell, Auburndale, Mass., March 25, 1907. 

Honorary Members. 

N. Sherman Bouton, Chicago, III., March 28, 1908. 

Henry Chamberlin, Three Oaks, Mich., Feb. 9, 1907. 

Dr. William H. Hotchkiss, New Haven, Conn., May 2, 

William L. Stone, New York, June 11, 1908. 

Frank Moore, Waverly, Mass., August 10, 1904. 

Daniel C. Oilman, Baltimore, Md., October, 13, 1908. 

Edmund Clarence Stedman, New York City, January 
18, 1908. 

George Henry Bissell, New York City, November 19, 

Nathan Burnham Webster, Norfolk, Va., December 27, 

Cyrus Porter Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y., February 13, 1877. 

Dr. J. Elizabeth Hoyt Stevens moved the chair appoint 
a committee to arrange for the annual field day, which was 

The chair named as that committee Dr. J. Elizabeth 
Hoyt Stevens, Daniel Hall, Arthur H. Chase. 

On motion of William P. Fiske the annual assessment of 
three dollars on each member was voted. 

Mr. Fiske also moved that the Publishing Committee 
prepare and print a roster of the members of the Society, 
which was voted. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that the Proceedings of 
the Society be not published until the new building be com- 
pleted, which was voted. 


On motion of Arthur H. Chase it was voted that the 
salary of the Librarian should be continued the same as last 

Letters were read from Joseph B. Walker, Concord, and 
Rev. Frederick L. Wiley, Laconia, asking to be allowed to 
withdraw from membership. These requests were granted. 

Col. Daniel Hall read letters from Daniel Gilman, Presi- 
dent of the New Hampshire Branch of the Society of the 
Cincinnati, asking for the return of the original records and 
papers of the New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that the request be laid 
on the table, which was voted. 

Mr. Benjamin A. Kimball, chairman of the Building 
Committee, made a verbal report of progress in the con- 
struction of the new building. 

Mr. John C. Thorne, for the Nominating Committee, 
recommended the following list of officers for the ensuing 
year, and they were duly elected. 

President, Daniel Hall. 

^ . 7 , [ Frank W. Hackett. 

Frank. S. Streeter. 
Recording Secretary, Henry A. Kimball. 
Corresponding Secretary, Rev. George H. Reed. 
Treasurer, William P. Fiske. 
Librarian, Edith S. Freeman. 
Necrologist, Dr. Eli E. Graves. 
Standing Committee — John C. Thorne, Edson C. East- 
man, Giles Wheeler. 

Library Committee — Frances C. Stevens, Arthur H. 
Chase, Charles R. Corning. 

Publishing Committee — Otis G. Hammond, John R. 
Eastman, Irving A. Watson. 

Committee on New Members — Charles H. Sanders, 
Dr. J. Elizabeth Hoyt Stevens, El win L. Page. 

Mr. John C. Thorne called attention to the omission from 
the list of committees of that on Naval History. As this 


was a special committee, not provided for by the constitu- 
tion, he did not know that it should be continued. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that this 
committee be discontinued. 

The President, as he retired, very graciously welcomed to 
the chair his successor. 

President Hall accepted the honor with appropriate re- 

On motion of Henry M. Baker, it was voted to adjourn 
to 2:30 p.m., for the exercises of the laying of the corner 
stone of the Society's new building. 

According to adjournment the Society met on the grounds 
of the new building at two-thirty o'clock in the afternoon, 
President Hall presiding. 

It was voted to adjourn after the ceremonies to meet at 
the call of the President and Secretary. 

A true record, attest, 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


On Wednesday, the 9th of June, 1909, at half past two 
o'clock, the corner stone was laid with simple and appro- 
priate ceremonies. Prayer was offered by the Rev. Marvin 
D. Bisbee, Librarian of Dartmouth College, followed by the 
the singing of " America" by the pupils of the Parker School, 
directed by Prof. Charles S. Conant, musical instructor of 
the public schools of Concord. 


We are assembled today to lay the corner stone of an 
edifice which will not be inferior in importance to any build- 
ing in our State. As such I invite you to a full participa- 
tion in and appreciation of the dignity of this observance. 

The building itself whose foundations we are laying, by 
pictorial representation and by printed description, is 
already fairly well known to you; and it scarcely need be 
said at this time that the genius and skill of architecture 
have been laid under contribution for its design and pro- 
portions, and that the highest workmanship of builders and 
artisans will be employed to fashion its details and work 
out its finish. 

It is to be fire-proof throughout, from Doric column, 
pediment, and emblature, through all its reading and lec- 
ture rooms, stacks, vaults, cabinets, and corridors. 

Its material will be the best that these magnificent 
quarries of New Hampshire granite can afford, such as by 
choice from among all competitors has been selected and 
wrought into the Library of Congress in Washington, the 
finest building in America. 

The work of the most accomplished artists in stone is to 
be lavished upon this exquisite material. You already see 
some foregleams of its splendor in the specimens of wall 
before you; and when the resources of art in marble and 


steel and bronze come to be added to this external grandeur, 
it cannot be doubted that the result will be a "thing of 
beauty, and a joy forever/' 

Knowing something of the general scheme and the com- 
mission given to the builders, I assure you that it may be 
confidently expected that in exterior and interior decora- 
tion this noble building is to be the peer of the best in the 
country, and that no scientific or historical association will 
be housed in more sumptuous quarters. 

It will be in keeping with the fine group of buildings which 
will adorn this quadrangle, a site which has been pro- 
nounced the finest in New England next to Copley Square, 
comprising the Capitol, the State Library, the Federal 
Court House and Post Office,, the City Hall, and others of 
scarcely less pretensions, and in historical significance and 
function this will not be inferior to any one of these stately 

Such will be the building, and it is to be raised here in a 
State not as yet replete with monuments of history or artis- 
tic genius, but in which a brave beginning is being made. 
This Society has already done and is now doing much to 
illustrate and immortalize the achievements of the State, 
and the civic and military renown of her sons. 

The Society may, I think, justly claim to have been the 
center and mainspring of the intellectual movement in our 
State, which in the last half century has manifested itself in 
the growth of the historic spirit, and the cultivation of taste 
in literary, pictorial, and monumental art. 

The New Hampshire Historical Society was formed nearly 
a century ago. At the beginning and all along the course 
of its history our leading intellects in the learned profes- 
sions and every department of knowledge have evinced their 
interest in it and its objects. I need not enumerate them. 
The great names of Jeremiah Mason, Levi Woodbury, Jere- 
miah Smith, Ichabod Bartlett, William Plumer, Franklin 
Pierce, 'Joel Parker, Nathan Lord, Ira Perley, Samuel D. 
Bell, Charles H. Bell, and all our later statesmen, orators, 
and scholars have adorned its rolls; and beyond question 



our present and future leaders of thought, opinion, and 
action will hereafter be identified with it and its activities. 

The Society essentially antedates in work on its chosen 
lines that of the State Library, our neighbor now so finely 
housed, which assumed no rank in work of this character 
till 1866. 

The growth of the Society and its progress in carrying out 
its purposes were slow for many years. The interest in it 
was practically local, and its maintenance due mainly to the 
hospitality and public spirit of Concord and Concord people. 

But many studious and inquiring men have cherished it, 
and industriously wrought for its benefit for eighty-seven 
years; and in the last forty years a general quickening of 
interest in it has resulted in a great accumulation of valu- 
able property, till today its collections in every branch of 
knowledge, especially upon historical, antiquarian, and 
genealogical lines, are of priceless value. 

Its library, comprising more than 15,000 bound volumes, 
its pamphlets, manuscripts, letters, autographs, coins, 
curios, Revolutionary relics, and historic memorials of many 
kinds are pronounced by those who are experts in such lore 
to be unsurpassed by collections of this class in any other 
State, while its walls are covered with noble portraits, busts, 
engravings, and objects of historic interest connected with 
celebrated men and events. 

In the course of time these accumulations long since out- 
grew our accommodations, and the need of a suitable build- 
ing to house the precious possessions of the Society has 
long been felt. Some efforts and notable gifts have been 
made to supply this want; but until very recently no as- 
surance of an adequate fund to meet the wants of the So- 
ciety for the present and the century to come has been 

It is a felicity in which we rejoice at the present hour that 
most opportunely a man has appeared who has the insight 
to discern the needs of this Society, the public spirit to ap- 
preciate and the munificence to supply them. 

We are here today by the grace and generosity of Mr. 


Edward Tuck, still, let us be thankful, a citizen of New 
Hampshire and not expatriated, though a dweller in the 
French capital. 

Mr. Tuck is a son of our State, the scion of a distinguished 
father, highly honored and still well remembered by us, and 
a graduate of our own college. He has been a resident of 
Paris for many years, where his great business capacity has 
rendered him able to make the munificent gift which this 
building implies. 

Mr. Tuck has prospered and "made good" in the world, 
and makes this offering in token of his loyalty and affection 
for his native State and the honored ancestor whose name 
he has given to his greatest endowment. 

Such are the public works which he is projecting in our 
midst, the forms of beauty and utility which he is raising 
at Dartmouth College, here at the capital, and in his native 
town, for enlarging the instrumentalities and broadening 
the scope of our culture and civilization; such are his con- 
tributions to the learning and the enlightenment and refine- 
ment of the generations to come, that we may have a sure 
forecast that in traversing our State our successors in citi- 
zenship shall find everywhere proofs that a man of splendid 
public spirit, of insight and liberality has lived and left 
great memorials for the elevation of men. That inscrip- 
tion in the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral will as justly be 
applicable to him as it originally was to Sir Christopher 
Wren, Si monumentum requiris, circum spice, "if you ask for 
his monument, look around you." 

If I may venture to conjecture the purpose of Mr. Tuck 
in making to us this princely benefaction, I believe it is not 
for what our Society has done, or is specially now doing, 
that he is thus distinguishing us b} r his favor; nor is it of 
any local or temporary purport, or for the adornment or 
aggrandizement of this capital, worthy, interesting, and 
beautiful as it is. 

But if I rightly conceive the views of Mr. Tuck, prefig- 
ured clearly by his cosmopolitan spirit in what he has done 
at Dartmouth College and elsewhere, his design is co-ex- 


tensive with the State and nation, particularly the con- 
venient, large unit of the State, the State that gave him 
birth, and to which his heart and mind are ever returning 
in love and service. His thought and his gift are of and to 
the State, and not specially to its capital city. 

He conceives of this as a great repository, whose library 
and whose treasures of literature and art will make it the 
resort of scholars and men of letters of the. entire State; 
where investigation and research of every kind may be 
pursued under the best possible advantages, and statesman, 
lawyer, historian, scholar, and philosopher can find all that 
science and art have gained for his use, his culture, and his 

He sees the great capabilities of such an association of 
our most cultured and advanced thinkers and workers, 
and he wishes to create here a headquarters of civilization 
in the future, to make this Society of ours the New Hamp- 
shire center and rallying point of the best thought and work 
of the next ages. 

I believe the New Hampshire Historical Society will rise 
to the full measure and height of this great opportunity. 
Conscious of its high responsibility and of a new era open- 
ing in its life by these new facilities and means of progress, it 
will be inspired to a zealous co-operation with the just 
expectations of Mr. Tuck, and will make the institution 
endowed with this noble home a laboratory for intellectual 
work of the highest character. Already much has been done 
in this direction, and I am sure that no community is richer 
than this in accomplished results of a serious and permanent 
nature inwrought with the ver} r fabric of society in law, in 
religion, in legislation, in all the arts and sciences which 
adorn, dignify, and elevate human life. At this merely 
preliminary stage of the work it is not the time to enter 
upon any elaborate discussion of the Society or of this 
building. At a later day in more formal and stated dis- 
course our history, our achievements, our aims, and espe- 
cially our obligations to our benefactors will be more care- 
fully given to- the world. 


I merely outline this great enterprise today, and call 
the citizenship of New Hampshire and of the Republic of 
Letters to witness the breadth of this conception of our 
mission, to cherish and disseminate sound learning, to en- 
courage independent thought, to keep an open door and to 
be hospitable to all free inquiry; and especially do we 
design to investigate in the fullest and most searching man- 
ner the origin of this noble State of ours, of which we are all 
proud to be citizens, and to make a comprehensive and logi- 
cal collection of all the authentic sources of our history, and 
bring into scientific body and statement all that can be 
known of a State which yields superior rank to no common- 
wealth in the world. 

These are our hopes and aims, and we cherish the belief 
that in the collections of the Society which have been 
gathered in eighty-seven years past a splendid beginning 
toward their realization has been made. Our library is 
already an invaluable nucleus of what we expect to be 
ultimately a vast storehouse of the facts of our past, of the 
work accomplished by our ancestors in peace and in war. 
We shall await with such patience as we can command the 
raising of these walls, and when the cap-stone has been 
placed, as we place the corner stone at this hour, those of 
us who survive to that not very distant day will meet here 
again to hear a characterization in a more elaborate and 
ambitious style of the great designs of our benefactor, and 
the working out of the stupendous plans of the Divine 
Mind which permeates the universe in giving us such men 
and such fruits of their labor and their lives. 


To achieve the security of the archives of our State for 
generations to come will be to render a service which can- 
not well be overestimated, and this has been the task chosen 
by one of New Hampshire's generous sons, Mr. Edward 
Tuck, and to him the thanks of a grateful people will be 
given for the gift of the magnificent edifice to be erected 


here which will be an enduring memorial of his public 
spirit and love of home and country. 

No structure can be too beautiful or too costly to be a 
fitting casket to contain the treasures of New Hampshire's 
splendid history. 

Within this shrine of imperishable granite will be safely 
deposited the priceless records and other tangible evidences 
of New Hampshire's share in the founding and in the build- 
ing of our nation. 

Here, too, as the years roll by, will be gathered tokens of 
the great battle for the preservation of our Union, that the 
memory of our patriots may never die; and relics of the 
war with Spain, which has banished forever from our con- 
tinent the last vestige of Spanish rule. 

Hither will our citizens journey to contemplate this 
building and its precious contents. Before* us and our 
descendants they will bring vividly to mind the stories of 
Stark at Bennington, who began the breaking of the chain 
which bound us to Great Britain; Sullivan, who provided 
ammunition for Bunker Hill, and the brave men who fol- 
lowed them to victory and who helped to place this great 
republic of ours upon a lasting foundation. 

Here the men and women of New Hampshire can learn, as 
no language can teach them, of the accomplishments of their 
ancestors in the arts of peace and of their heroism in war; 
in every struggle in which America has been involved for 
liberty, for justice, and for equal rights to man; and may our 
children and our children's children find inspiration here to 
emulate the virtues and the patriotism of their fathers. 

Fellow citizens, I congratulate you and our State upon 
the great achievements which have placed New Hampshire, 
although comparatively small in area, among the greatest 
of the States of our Union in influence and importance, and 
well may we all rejoice in this day which sees laid the corner 
stone of this haven of safety for those things which we hold 
so dear, that generations yet unborn, as they behold them, 
may praise God and their ancestors for what they wrought. 



Benjamin A. Kimball, chairman of the Building Com- 
mittee; read this -interesting communication: 

Paris, June 9, 1909. 
Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball, Chairman Building Committee, 
New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N. H. 
It is my hope that the Historical Society Building, of 
which the corner stone is being laid so auspiciously today, 
may be perfectly adapted to its purpose, and by its archi- 
tectural beauty afford perpetual satisfaction and joy to the 
Society itself, and be a source of pleasure and pride to the 
people of the Capital Cit}- and of the State of New Hamp- 

Edward Tuck. 

the laying of the stone. 

As the corner stone was dropped easily and gently on its 
bed, Mr. Kimball contim.ied : 

"And now in behalf of Edward Tuck I declare this corner 
stone well and duly laid. 

"May this building of granite, marble , steel, and bronze 
exist forever. 

"Master Builder: Having thus laid the corner stone of this 
building. I now return to you these implements of your 
craft, having full confidence in your skill and capacity to 
perform the important duties confided to you to the satis- 
faction of those who have intrusted you with their fulfill- 


In the laying of the corner stone a trowel of solid 
silver, with handle of ebony, made at the works of the 
William B. Durgin Silverware Company, was used by Mr. 
Kimball, chairman of the Building Committee, the blade 
of which was inscribed with his closing words. 

The implements were received from Mr. Kimball by 
Edward F. Minor of Worcester, Mass., -president of the 



Central Construction Company, the general contractors 
for the building, who was accompanied by William Shum- 
way, the vice-president of the company, also of Worcester. 
The school children then sang a hymn* written by Rev. 
Daniel C. Roberts, D.D., a former president of the Society, 
which closed the ceremony. 

God of our fathers, Whose almighty hand 
Leads forth in beauty all the starry band 
Of shining worlds in splendor through the skies, 
Our grateful songs before Thy throne arise. 

Thy love divine hath led us in the past, 
In this free land by Thee our lot is cast; 
Be Thou our ruler, guardian, guide and stay, 
Thy woru our law, Iny paths our chosen way. 

From war 's alarms, from deadly pestilence, 
Be Thy strong arm our ever sure defense; 
Thy true religion in our hearts increase, 
Thy bounteous goodness nourish us in peace. 

Refresh Thy people on their toilsome way, 
Lead us from night to never-ending day; 
Fill all our lives with love and grace divine, 
And glory, laud, and praise be ever Thine. 


September 29, 1909. 

The annual field day and adjourned meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society were held in Durham and 
Madbury on Wednesday, September 29, 1909. 

At Durham the party was met by President Hall and 
by Clarence W. Scott, Professor of History in New Hamp- 
shire College. 

Through the courtesy of Prof. Scott, who acted as guide, 
Thompson Hall, the recitation building of the college, the 
library, the new dormitory for young ladies, and the gym- 
nasium were thrown open for inspection. 

Then the members and their friends took carriages for the 
site of Piscataqua Bridge, which was destroyed by the 
breaking up of the ice in Great Bay in the spring of 1854. 
On the way the site of the Woodman garrison, with the 
Indian burial ground, near by, was visited, and the State's 
monument to General John Sullivan on the site of the old 
meeting house, in the cellar of which was secreted the gun- 
powder used later to defeat the British at Bunker Hill, 
the Sullivan house built in 1630 by Dr. Samuel Adams, the 
General's slave house, now going to decay, and the graves of 
himself and family. 

Stops were made at the sites of the Beard, Jones, Bunker, 
Smith, and Davis garrisons. 

At Piscataqua Bridge Col. Hall related in graphic lan- 
guage the local history, and Mrs. Hall read an interesting 
paper on the construction of the old bridge, alluding in the 
same connection to the establishment of the city of Frank- 

Dinner was served at the William King Atkinson house in 
Madbury, built in 1794. A business meeting of the Society- 
followed, after which carriages were taken for the Drew 
garrison, the only one left standing today. This was shown 




through the courtesy of Mrs. Ellen S. Hounds of Dover. 
The party then returned to Dover. 

After dinner the business meeting was held, as stated 

President Hall called the meeting to order. 
The names of the following persons were proposed for 
membership in the Society: 

John B. Abbott, Concord. 

John H. Albin, Concord. 

Frank P. Carpenter, Manchester. 

Josiah Carpenter, Manchester. 

William P. Chamberlin, Keene. 

Richard Coe, Durham. 

Charles H. Cummings, Meredith. 

Albert Demerit t, Durham. 

Margaret B. Frost, Durham. 

Rev. Sullivan H. McCollester, D.D., Marlborough, 

Elnora E. Randall McCollester, Marlborough. 

William H. Moses, Tilton. 

Mary L. Prescott, Concord. 

Ellen S. Rounds, Dover. 

John Scammon, Stratham. 

Charles E. Tilton, Tilton. 

Helen Dudley Walker, Concord. 

Henry C. Morrison, Concord. 

Ernest Fox Nichols, Hanover. 

Frank J. Pillsbury, Concord. 

William L. Stevens, Concord. 

William F. Thayer, Concord. 

Charles W. Tibbetts, Dover. 

Frank J. Wilder, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

and they were unanimously elected. 

President Hall called attention to the request ^of Daniel 
Gilman for the return of the original records of the New 
Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted to take 
the matter from the table. 



Mr. Eastman then moved that the records in question be 
returned to the present New Hampshire Society of the 
' Cincinnati, which was voted. 

Mr. John C. Thorne moved that a Committee on Speakers 
be elected, to consist of Daniel Hall, Henry M. Baker, and 
James 0. Lyford, which was voted. 

It was moved by Mr. Thorne, and voted that a committee 
of three be appointed, consisting of Henry McFarland, 
William P. Fiske, and John C. Thome, to confer with 
Forrest & Cummingham in regard to their claim for plans 
made for a new building for the Society on the old lot, and 
make report at a future meeting. 

President Hall then presented a warm welcome to the 
Society and its friends, speaking of the historic neighbor- 

Mr. John Scales of Dover gave an interesting description 
of the garrisons visited, detailing vividly their defense and 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that the thanks of the 
Society be tendered to the President and the speakers of the 
day, and that copies of their papers be requested for publica- 
tion in the Society's proceedings, which was voted. 

A request to allow the photographing of the letters patent 
of Samuel Morey for the application of steam to boats was, 
upon consideration, refused. 

Voted to adjourn to meet at the call of the President. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


Ladies and Gentlemen of the Historical Society: 

I congratulate you upon the bright sunshine which gilds 
with its radiance our annual field day, and I welcome -you 
to this interesting spot in old New Hampshire. This town 
has very varied historical associations, and presents in its 
annals all the different phases of our civilization, from 
barbarism and savagery to the highest culture and refine- 
ment, from the ignorance and brutality of rudimentary life 
to the college and public library of modern society. 

It is more hospitable to us today than it was to our pale- 
faced ancestors two hundred years ago; for here on these 
hills and shores, and amid its valleys so peaceful, tranquil, 
and secure today was enacted in 1694 one of those tragic and 
ruthless scenes which have left such an indelible stain of 
blood and cruelty upon the name and memory of aboriginal 

The story of that massacre has been recounted by Belk- 
nap, and taken up and told again and again by the chroni- 
clers of our early days, and will always stand out in history 
as a fearful illustration of the struggles of our ancestors, and 
the terrible dangers and .sufferings they endured in laying 
the foundations of the great empire. 

And the thrilling story has been recalled and told again 
as we have travelled along today from old Durham Falls 
where the grave of John Sullivan consecrates the soil, and 
the monument which the State has raised to his memory 
fitly marks the place where the midnight expedition set 
forth to capture the King's stores at Fort William and 
Mary in 1774, and there struck the first blow of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. It is not within my province to give a 
careful account of this memorable transaction, but it is 
difficult to pass it without lingering a little with the details 
of that striking and heroic passage of our own history. The 
Revolution was already approaching parturition; and it 



seems that in the afternoon of Dec. 13, 1774, Paul Revere 
rode up, as tradition has it, to John Sullivan's house, which 
we have seen this morning, with a message from the Massa- 
chusetts Committee of Safety that the King in Council had 
prohibited the importation of arms or military stores into 
the colonies. Revere then rode on to Portsmouth. It was 
in consequence of his coming that Sullivan organized his 
raid. Under his leadership, and that of Ebenezer Thomp- 
son, and that young law student and knight-errant, Alex- 
ander Scammell, who gave up his young life to liberty at 
Yorktown, about thirteen intrepid young men gathered to- 
gether here in this little settlement of Durham, and went 
to Newcastle to attack the British Empire. In the darkness 
and quiet of that wintry night they went down the river 
nine miles, and, reinforced at Portsmouth by John Langdon 
and two or three others, they proceeded before dawn to the 
fort, and compelled the surrender of the garrison. They 
seized and took away with them 100 barrels of gunpowder, 
16 light guns, 60 muskets and other small stores, which were 
taken up the river, then covered with thick winter ice, 
through which a pathway had to be cut. The powder thus 
seized was stored in the cellar of the meeting-house which 
once stood on the spot now occupied by the monument, and 
afterwards, by direction of Sullivan, was taken by Capt. 
John Demerit t in his ox-cart to Cambridge, and arrived 
there in season to be dealt out to the troops at Bunker 


Now, remembering that this was four months before 
Concord and Lexington, and six months before Bunker Hill, 
it is difficult for us to conceive of the extreme danger of 
opening a war at that time upon the British power in 
America. I will not give all the reasons for this statement, 
but not a blow had been struck against England by her 
subjects in America when John Sullivan shut up his law 
office in Durham on the night of Dec. 13, 1774, to embark 
before morning on one of the most perilous enterprises that 
ever challenged the courage and daring of men. 


Says Dr. Quint, "The daring character of this assault 
cannot be overestimated. It was an organized investment 
of a Royal fortress, where the King's flag was flying, and 
where the King's garrison met them with muskets and 

All honor to John Sullivan and Alexander Scammell, 
Ebenezer Thompson and John Langdon, who thus not only 
broke the ice of the Piscataqua River, but broke the ice of 
the American Revolution, committed the first overt act of 
a new rebellion, and won for themselves an immortality 
of fame! 

And then we have come down along the river and seen 
some of those garrison sites which were soaked in the inno- 
cent blood of our ancestors 215 years ago, and are made 
almost holy ground by these associations. Whatever has 
not already been told you will learn later of. the harrowing 
details of that tragedy. 

We have visited also the aborted city of Franklin and 
heard its story in brief, a mere skeleton reminder of one 
of the first city ventures in this country, a large and ambi- 
tious conception, the borning. 

And then again most of us have made our first acquaint- 
ance with the old Piscataqua, Bridge, so familiar in the com- 
mon speech of our immediate forbears, and heard the story 
told of its once so busy and stirring half century of life. 

And from that we have come up to this serene height 
whose beauty arrested the enraptured vision of our fathers, 
from the top of which is spread out before us one of the most 
picturesque quiet scenes in the world, the waters of the 
Great and Little Bay, the islands dotting the swift river, 
the green margins of Fox Point and the varied shores of 
Newington, with the Piscataqua ebbing and flowing 
through the "horse races" and the bridge to the ocean. 

Mr. Webster, when he was attending the courts at Ports- 
mouth and Dover, travelled this road over Atkinson Hill, 
and with that great melancholy eye of his, so sensitive to 
every prospect of beauty, pronounced the view from the 
crown of this hill unsurpassed by any other in New England. 


But, my friends, it is not my purpose to make an address, 
nor to indulge in any extended comments upon what has 
been seen,. or is to be seen today. It is rather this, and only 
this, to tender you my thanks that you have come hither 
today, some to make and some to renew their acquaintance 
with the original cradle of New England. I would have you 
realize that you are on the first planted soil, and within 
rifle-shot of the first settlement of New England. Only 
three years after the Mayflower anchored at Plymouth, the 
Hiltons and Thompsons came to the land just across the 
river, and made the settlement there which was never 
abandoned, and has been maintained to this day. You 
stand, therefore, at the very fountain-head of American 
history, in our national consciousness a holy and venerable 
place. As Air. Choate so felicitously said of Webster at 
Dartmouth College, "You are at the sources of a great 
stream — you are almost privileged to see the little Nile — 
Nilum parvum videre"; to see the very beginnings of that 
great New England influence and character which has swept 
over this land and exerted such a profound influence upon 
I the destinies of mankind. It can but be, therefore, a place 

of profound interest to all who are interested in the history 
which it is our province to study, to understand and make 
known. And yet I think that history has been neglected; 
and till quite recently comparatively little attention has 
been paid to, and comparatively little known about the 
historical evolution of New Hampshire in and through the 
life of the original four towns of Dover, Portsmouth, Hamp- 
ton, and Exeter, which constituted for a century about all 
there was of New Hampshire. But since then we have had 
a notable treatment of these early days through the devotion 
to and study of it by scholars and writers to whom we owe 
deep gratitude. 

Dr. Jeremy Belknap's history shed a great illumination 
over the whole subject; and then fifty years ago Dr. Quint, 
in his Historical Memoranda, began to lay the foundations 
of a reliable and systematic history of early New Hampshire. 
Since then others have made further original investigations. 


Miss Mary P. Thompson of Durham, a great-granddaughter 
of Ebenezer Thompson, a woman of the highest intelligence 
and of fine literary culture, published in 1S86 a noble memoir 
of Ebenezer Thompson, and about 1890 her " Landmarks in 
Ancient Dover," a work which threw a great light upon the 
topography, the names, and the genealogy of the town. 
This was followed by Mr. Scales about ten years after by his 
republication of and addenda to Dr. Quint's Historical 
Memoranda, a book containing a great mine of valuable and 
reliable information. These researches, reinforced by the 
invaluable volumes of Provincial and State Papers which 
have come forth at Concord from time to time, have stimu- 
lated the study of New Hampshire history in a marked man- 
ner and degree, till today there is growing a broad and in- 
telligent interest in the study of New Hampshire and its 

Dr. Alonzo H. Quint, a man of remarkable insight and 
of true critical and historical interest, with an acute and 
discriminating mind, and wielding a graphic pen, was better 
qualified to write the history of New Hampshire than any 
other man ever has been, or perhaps ever will be. He, un- 
fortunately, passed away without making any material 
progress in reducing his knowledge to form, but be collected 
a great mass of material, and it will be a pity if at some 
time it cannot be brought into orderly form and utilized, 
as I am sure he intended it should be. 

I have said that I do not intend to enlarge upon this 
history, but, acknowledging the paucity of my own knowl- 
edge and my incapacity to present anything to entertain 
you in respect to this history, I shall gladly turn that matter, 
and especially an account of the Indian massacre, over to 
others more capable. 

But before I do so, a word in general touching our large 
interests, motives, and hopes as a society I may perhaps be 
indulged in. 

Members of the Historical Society: 

We meet today without any formal purpose beyond 
treating ourselves to a pleasant outing with such profit as 



may be incident to it; but we can scarcely refrain from 
felicitating ourselves upon the happy change in our fortunes 
which gives us a broader outlook and promises means of 
carrying forward to most valuable results the great pur- 
poses of our organization. After an existence of nearly a 
century, never equipped with abundant means of prose- 
cuting historical inquiry, but always animated with zeal 
in the line of our main purpose as expressed in our consti- 
tution, "to preserve whatever may relate to the natural, 
civil, and literary history of the United States in general, 
and of this state in particular," the Society has gone 
forward and achieved results which could only be accom- 
plished in the long course of time, the collection of a valu- 
able library, and treasures which I could not enumerate 
in the way of historical relics, manuscripts, memorials, 
portraits, and souvenirs of a historical character. 

The Historical Society has never been strong in numbers, 
but has always been strong in character, and has steadily 
grown in power for usefulness, and as the repository of much 
that was most valuable in the historic material of our State, 
so that at this day we find ourselves prepared to receive and 
to use to the best advantage the great gift which is about 
being bestowed upon us in the form of a building at the 
capital, which in the grandeur of its design and adaptation 
to its purpose will be the equal of the best structures in this 
country. This beautiful building, the munificent donation 
of Mr. Edward Tuck, is already well advanced to construc- 
tion. Its corner stone and foundations have been laid, 
and its walls are going up with thoroughness and dispatch. 
It is of the best material the world affords, and planned and 
to be built throughout according to the best canons of art. 
It will be at once simple, durable, and beautiful, and will 
give to the New Hampshire Historical Society as its home a 
dignity and distinction of which we shall all be proud. By 
the accomplished results of our eighty-six years of corporate 
life, by virtue of the valuable possessions wherewith we can 
at once occupy and embellish it, we are, as I said, ready to 
receive and worthily use this beautiful building. Within a 


year or a little more, perhaps, we shall have this noble build- 
ing, itself an architectural masterpiece, ready for our occu- 
panc}' and enjoyment; and I enjoy with you the prospect of 
such a possession, and I look forward to a greatly enhanced 
career of activity and usefulness for the Society. 

An increasing interest is already manifest, and it is Dot 
very rash to anticipate that we shall have abundant mem- 
bership when our means and equipment are fully assured. 
You, ladies and gentlemen, some of you who have in its 
time of weakness kept this Society on its feet, have borne 
the heat and burden of the day, and I express the hope that 
all of you will live many years to enjoy the new home of the 
Historical Society. There opens out before those who shall 
in the years to come constitute the Society a future of great 
honor and usefulness. 

By Mrs. Daniel Hall. 

Pascatacma Bridge, otherwise called Piscataqua, extended 
across the river from Header's Neck in Durham to Fox 
Point on the Newington shore. The land at the Newington 
terminus was conveyed by Andrew Drew to the proprietors 
of the bridge November 7, 1793, for the sum of five shillings 
"to encourage the building of said bridge and in considera- 
tion of other advantages he might derive thereform." It 
was one acre in extent, to be laid out in a square form at the 
place the proprietors should deem most advantageous, 
provided that it should be commenced in two years and 
completed according to the act of incorporation. The land 
on the Durham side was conveyed July 24, 1794. The land 
at the Newington shore was conveyed in November of 
1793, as before stated. Previous to this the legislature had 
granted a charter incorporating a number of persons be- 
longing in Portsmouth and some associates outside, who 
early saw the desirability of such a scheme of bridging the 
swift flowing river. A great deal of interest was taken in the 
surrounding towns in the project, the corporation took the 
name ''Proprietors of Piscataqua Bridge. 7 ' Having made 
every necessary preparation, they commenced the work April 
1, 1794, and had it so far completed on the 25th of November 
of the same year as to be passable. 

The bridge connected the towns of Newington and 
Durham just below the outlet of Little Bay at Fox Point, 
now owned by the Hon. Woodbury Langdon, where an 
abutment of the bridge still stands. It was 2,362 feet in 
length and 38 feet in width, with the toll gate at the Durham 
shore. At this point in the river begins the famous 
"Horse Races" of the Piscataqua, where the current is very 
turbulent and rapid, and at that point fifty feet deep at 
high tide. 


From the Newington shore a stone abutment extended 
several feet into the water, and remains of it can still be seen 
from the Durham shore, over a hundred years after it was 
placed. The bridge was supported by piles, five of which 
were strongly framed and braced together and driven into 
the bottom of the river bed; string pieces were then laid 
from one set of piles to another, and on those the plank or 
flooring was secured. This mode of constructing it extended 
as far as Rock Island, on which another abutment was built, 
and another on the shore of Goat Island. The bridge, it is 
noted, was built in three sections, the islands mentioned 
causing it to be so divided and thereby curtailing expense. 
From the abutments on each island to the other an arch was 
thrown composed of three rows of girders. This arch was 
constructed by Mr. Timothy Palmer of Newburyport on an 
entirely new model at that time, and was considered a 
marvel of engineering skill. The remainder of the bridge 
from Goat Island to the Durham shore was built on piles, 
and a draw was made for vessels- to pass through up and 
down the river. There was a planking surface of nearly 
half a mile in length, 3,000 tons of oak timber, 2,000 tons 
of pine lumber, 80,000 feet of four inch plank, 20 tons of. 
iron, and 8,000 tons of stone were used in its construction. 
Mr. Gilrnore of Baltimore, who visited it in 1797, speaks of 
it as "the only one of its kind in America and a surprising 
work." lie made a sketch of the bridge which has been 
preserved. The whole cost of the bridge was 802,000.00. 

The building of the bridge was of great benefit, not only 
to the connecting towns, but to others more or less distant 
who used Portsmouth as a shopping center, and, in the early 
days, to carry on a barter trade as was then practiced from 
north of ns. In my very early days I have a rather indis- 
tinct recollection of the hotel yard at home where I was 
born, at "Norway Plains," being filled in the winter with 
"Pungers," so called, who carried the products of the farms 
to the tidewater port to exchange for West India goods, 
both dr} r and wet. Naturally it proved a great benefit to 
Portsmouth to be so connected, as previously no communica- 


tion could be had without crossing the river or some of its 
tributaries in boats, and for fifty years it greatly contributed 
to the prosperity of that town. It was not a successful 
enterprise, however, financially, as by the building of it and 
the expense incurred in keeping it in repair, many share- 
holders lost nearly all their means. Although seeming small 
to us in these days of colossal fortunes, it represented at 
that time a very large amount, and crippled for a time the 
business interests of many in the adjacent towns, among the 
number Judge Ebenezer Thompson, my great-great-grand- 
father, who met with serious losses by the failure of the 
enterprise. , .... 

On Goat Island, which was one of the links of the bridge, 
was built before October 24, 1794, what was called the 
" Pascataqua Bridge Tavern. " About the same time it was 
advertised "To be L^t-^* .-describing it as "a new accom- 
modation double house, with a large stable," and a well of 
water that afforded an ample supply in the dryest season; 
and no doubt the house would be fully equipped after rental 
with stronger liquid refreshment which was the common 
custom in those days. The tavern w r as burned many years 
ago, and no building remains on the island, it being seldom 
visited except by picnic parties or campers. There is said 
to be a sketch of the bridge including the tavern in the 
Boston Public Library. 

At one time the New Hampshire legislature granted a 
lottery for raising §15,000 to keep the bridge in repair. 
Ten thousand tickets were issued at $5.00 each. Some of 
these tickets are still in existence. 

The bridge gave way first on March 18, 1830, and again 
in the summer of 1854. As travel had so decreased, owing 
to the construction of railroads, it was not deemed best to 
repair it, and during a great storm it was carried away by 
the ice February 18, 1855. The locality all through that 
section still retains the original name of Piscataqua Bridge 
at the Durham side, although only the abutments remain. 
The school district also has the same name. The river de- 
rived its name from the Latin "piscatacus/'fish, and "aqua," 


water, from the abundance of fish found by Capt. Martin 
Pring when he went up the river in 1603. Thoreau, in his 
"Maine Woods, "says the name signifies, as the definition 
given by an intelligent Indian, "The branch of a river." 
Another authority says the word means "a divided tidal 
place," the river of this name being divided at the mouth 
into two streams by the island of Newcastle. The Piscata- 
qua is in fact a forked river with two great branches, one 
coming down from East Pond in the northeast corner of 
Wakefield, and the other from Great and Little Bays. They 
unite at Hilton's Point where the confluent streams flow 
eastward seven miles to the broad Atlantic. Hon. C. H. 
Bell, in his history of Exeter, compares the Piscataqua and 
its tributaries to a man's left hand and wrist, back up- 
wards and fingers wide apart. The thumb would stand 
for the Salmon Falls or Newichwannock, the first finger for 
the Bellamy River, the second finger for the Oyster River, 
the third for Lamprey River, and the fourth for Exeter or 
Swampscott River, while the palm of the hand would rep- 
resent the Great Bay into which the most of these streams 
pour their waters, and the wrist the Piscataqua proper. 

The earlier settlers called that point between the mouth 
of the Cocheco and Hilton's Point, now called Dover Point, 
Fore River; the other side, near Little Bay, Back River, a 
name it still retains. 

In 1776, shortly after the building of Piscataqua Bridge, a 
projected settlement was laid out in Durham at the end of 
the bridge, called "Franklin City." It was incorporated 
by an act of the legislature, and my great-great-grandfather, 
Judge Ebenezer Thompson, was authorized to call the first 
meeting of the proprietors. It was thought that a city at 
that point would be of great advantage to the shipping 
interests. Most of the men interested in the project were 
in the ocean trade. Many vessels were built in Durham at 
the " Falls, " and also at Piscataqua Bridge. I have heard 
my progenitors relate that they distinctly remembered when 
four vessels were built yearly at Durham. I think they 


must have been simply small schooners, judging from -the 
water privileges of our day. 

The embargo and the Vv r ar of 1812 were a check to their 
business, and a serious blow to the projected city, and the 
idea was gradually abandoned. 

A plan of the proposed city is still preserved, with its 
wharves, streets, and house lots marked out in imposing 
array, and it is hard to realize on looking over the site in its 
desolation today that such a low and unpromising situation 
should ever have been selected, and we can easily under- 
stand its failure to materialize. 



By John Scales. 

. On the route as you came here (Old Pascataqua Bridge) 
this morning from the College you saw the head of Oyster 
River at the falls, where the bridge is across it. Later you 
saw the mouth of it at Little Bay opposite Fox Point. It 
was on both banks of this short, tide-water river that, the 
Indian massacre of July 18, 1694, occurred, and of winch I 
am to give you a brief description. That date, you will bear 
in mind, is two hundred and fifteen years ago. The houses 
which were attacked were located on both sides of the river. 
There were twelve garrisoned houses, but many more that 
were not so protected by stockades, but in time of danger 
those persons who resided in the unprotected houses were 
accustomed to make a hasty retreat to the garrisoned 
dwellings for protection. 

On that night of July 18, 1694, all the families remained 
quietly at home, as they had recovered from the fright of 
five years before, produced by the terrible massacre at 
Cochecho (Dover), June 28, 16S9, and they had not seen 
any recent indications of intended attack on the Oyster 
River settlement by the Indians. It was learned later, 
however, that the design of surprising and destroying that 
settlement was publicly talked of at Quebec two months 
before it was put into execution. Sieur de Villieu, who had 
distinguished himself in the defence of Quebec in 1692, 
when Sir William Phips attempted to capture that town, 
was leader of the attack at Oyster River, but the Indians did 
the fighting, burning, and slaughter, the Frenchmen giving 
the command when and where to strike. It was after- 
wards recalled that during the first week of that fatal July 
a few Indians were seen lurking about the settlement here 
and there, but they seemed so quiet and friendly the people 
supposed they were merely engaged in hunting, so thought 


no more of them ; but they were the men who spied out every 
dwelling and every place where the attacks could be made 
with the least danger to themselves and in a way most de- 
structive to the families. They reported to de Villieu, and 
he and two or three other Frenchmen, with two hundred 
and fifty Indians, made their approaches to the town un- 
discovered on the fatal night. They met in the forests 
above the falls and formed two divisions, one for each side 
of the river. The plan of attack was to divide the Indians 
into twelve squads, one to be stationed near each garrison 
before the break of day; at the discharge of a gun at a central 
point the attacks on all were to be commenced simul- 
taneously, so none would have a chance to prepare for de- 
fence cr for escape. It required some little time for each 
division to get to its appointed station. They reckoned 
that all the households would be in sleep until daybreak, 
but it did not turn out to be that way. John Dean, whose 
house stood at the sawmill at the falls, as I pointed out to 
you, intending to go from home very early, arose before 
the dawn of day; the Indians there were on the watch; as 
he came out of his door they shot him dead. This firing in 
part disconcerted their plan. Several parties who had some 
distance to go had not then arrived at their stations. The 
people in general were immediately alarmed, and some of 
them had time to escape and others to prepare for defence. 
But the Indians, when they heard that gun fired, commenced 
the attacks wherever they were ready. Had they been able 
to carry out their original plan they would have destroyed 
every house, possibly, and but few could have escaped 
death. The Indians who were in the fight had come long 
distances, de Villieu having collected them from the tribes 
of St. John, Penobscot, and Norridgewock, and they were 
attended by a French priest. 

Of the twelve garrisoned houses five were destroyed, also 
other houses and buildings; those destroyed were the Adams, 
Beard, Drew, Edgcrly, and jMeader. The enemy completely 
surprised the Adams garrison, entered without resistance,, 
and killed fourteen persons. After the massacre was over, 



and the enemy had retreated and suitable preparations could 
be made, a funeral was held, and all of the bodies were 
buried side by side In one huge grave, the mound of which is 
still to be seen, carefully preserved, near where the garrison 
stood at the mouth of Oyster River, on its south bank. It 
was built by Charles Adams. Mr. Adams and his wife and 
son Samuel were among the number killed. The huge 
mound has always been respected by the owners of the land. 
The ancient Mathes burial ground is near it. 

Thomas Drew's garrison was just above that of Adams. 
He surrendered his place on the promise of security, but 
the Indians totally disregarded the promise, murdered 
him and his brother Francis, and carried away several 
prisoners to Canada. Among those carried away were 
Thomas Drew, Jr., and his wife Tamsen. They had been 
married recently, but were separated on the journey to 
Canada; he was carried to Quebec and she to Norridgewock; 
he was redeemed at the expiration of two years, but she was 
kept a prisoner four years and suffered man} r hardships 
and cruelties. In 1698 the couple were reunited and com- 
menced housekeeping on the west shore of Great Bay, where 
they lived and prospered, and often retold the story of their 
captivity, which was handed down from generation to 
generation to the present time. They raised a family of 
thirteen children, most of whom, lived to maturity and had 
families, and they have many descendants. lie lived to 
be 93 years old, and the good woman was 89 when she died. 
Their graves can be seen at this day in the burial ground of 
the old Drew homestead. 

The Edgerly garrison was built by Thomas Edgerly about 
1680. soon after the Indians began to be quarrelsome and 
dangerous neighbors. It stood on the shore of Littie.Bay, 
in the neighborhood of the Drew garrison.* Mr s Edgerly 
heard the alarm by the attack on the dwellings up river in 
season to get his family ail out and put them into boats, 
by which they crossed the bay to Fox Point. The Indians 
arrived on the shore in season to shoot at them, but only 
one person was killed; a son, Zachariah Edgerly, was fatally 


shot. The Indians burned the garrison and all the contents. 
Thomas Edgerly was a prominent citizen of the province, 
as well as of the town of Dover. He was one of the judges 
appointed by Cranfield to try Rev. Joshua Moody of Ports- 
mouth for refusing to administer the Lord's Supper to the 
Governor and two of his Council according to the rites of 
the English Church "as set forth in the Book of Common 
Prayer and no other." Justice- Edgerly held that. Moody 
was not guilty of violation of any law, whereupon Cranfield 
revoked Edgerly 's commission, but it was restored to him 
by Cranfield's successor. 

On the north side of the river two garrisons were de- 
stroyed, Beard's and Meader's, the former near the head 
of the river and +b^ other near the mouth, on the shore of 
Little Ba}-' opposite Fox Point. William Beard built his 
garrison in 1(375, when the Indians began to be dangerous 
all along the line of English settlements. That very year 
some Indians, under the leadership of the sagamore 
Squando, burned two houses at Oyster River in the neigh- 
borhood of Beard, that belonged to the Chesleys, killed 
two men in a canoe and carried away two captive^, both of 
whom soon afterwards made their escape from their cap- 
tors. The Indians came up to Beard's garrison; he was 
standing outside of the stockade, and before he could get 
inside of it they shot and killed him. Then, in a barbarous 
manner, they beheaded him and set his head on a pole in 
front of the entrance to the stockade which they could not 
get into, the family within having barred the gate securely. 

Mr. Beard was the last of the name in his family, but one 
of his daughters married Edward Leathers, and they were 
residing in the garrison in 1094, when the massacre occurred. 
Mr. Leathers, finding that he would not be able to success- 
fully defend his house, made his escape with his family as 
soon as he heard the alarm given, and before the Indians had 
time to make an attack; so the enemy sacked and burned 
the place when they found it deserted. 

Meader's garrison stood near where Hon. Elisha R. 
Brown now has his beautiful summer residence on the shore 


of Little Bay at the head of the Piscataqua River. It was 
built by John Meacler in 1675, the man who had had a. 
grant of the land below there from the town of Dover, 
which has ever since been called Header's Neck. At the 
time of the massacre in 1694 Mr. Header found himself 
short of powder and guns to make a successful defence. 
When he heard the discharge of guns the enemy had not 
reached his place, but he could see the houses burning on 
the south shore of Oyster River. Very naturally and wisely 
he concluded that "discretion is the better part of valor," 
so he and his family speedily got into boats and crossed the 
river to Fox Point, where a large number of fugitives had 
already gathered in their flight from the enemy. Mr. 
Meader had scarcely landed his family on the other shore 
when he saw the flames which the Indians had set to his 
home, and it was burned to the ground. Mr. Meader re- 
built the garrison in the fall of that year, 1694. 

Nearly all the outlying farmhouses were destroyed; some 
of the families were taken prisoners and carried to Canada, 
others were murdered; some made their escape to the woods 
and kept concealed until the enemy had departed; some 
succeeded in getting into the garrisons that were success- 
fully defended. 

I have told you of the garrisons that were burned. There 
were seven others which were successfully defended, viz.: 
Jones's, Bunker's, Smith's and Davis's on the north side 
of the river; Burnham's and Bickford's on the south side, 
and Woodman's at the head of Beard's Creek, near the falls. 

The Jones garrison was the next below that of Mr. 
Beard. It stood on the west side of Jones's Creek, a 
beautiful location with the river in full view. It was built 
by Stephen Jones about 1675. He had a grant of the land 
from the town of Dover and settled there in 1663, and the 
farm has been in possession of the Jones family, his de- 
scendants, to the present day, two hundred and forty-six 
. years. He is called Ensign Jones in 1692, being one of the 
three officers appointed for the defence of the settlement, the 
others being Capt. John Woodman and Lieut. James Davis. 



Those three men took good care to put in good supplies for 
their own garrisons. It was lucky they did, for that was 
what saved them from destruction in 1694. 

The Jones garrison was attacked soon after the first gun 
was fired at the falls, which killed John Dean and opened 
the battle before the Indians were all ready; those at the 
Jones place seemed to have been ready. However, shortly 
after midnight Ensign Jones heard his dogs barking; he did 
not think of Indians, but thought wolves might be prowling 
around his hog-pens. He went out and made secure some 
swine, quieted the dogs, and went into his house, all being 
quiet. Being suspicious that everything was not right, 
and not feeling sleepy, he went up into the flankart of the 
garrison and sat on the wall. He heard that gun at the 
falls, and soon saw the flash of a gun near at hand, and as 
quick as the flash dropped backwards. It was found after- 
wards that the bullet entered the timber where he had with- 
drawn his legs.- Of course the household was aroused and 
there was something doing at once; the battle was on. The 
garrison was successfully defended without the loss of a 
single life, but it was a hard fight for two hours. 

The Bunker garrison was the next below that of Jones. 
You saw the ruins of it as you came down here this forenoon. 
It was built by James Bunker about 1G75; he had a grant of 
the land from the town of Dover in 1G52, which has been in 
possession of the Bunker family to the present day, two 
hundred and fifty-seven years. The garrison was fiercely 
attacked, but was successfully defended without loss of life. 

The Smith garrison stood on the hill near where you 
saw the Smith burial ground. It was built by Joseph 
Smith about 1675, but he had a grant of the land from the 
town of Dover in 1660 which has remained in possession of 
his descendants, in the Smith name, to the present day, 
two hundred and forty-nine years, the present owner being 
Forest S. Smith, Esq., a merchant in Boston, who makes this 
his summer residence; his mother also resides here much of 
the year. Joseph Smith resided on his grant of land until 
his death in 1728. His remains were interred in the burial 


ground which you saw; a slate headstone marks the spot, 
and bears this inscription: " Sacred to the memory of Joseph 
Smith, who died December 15, 1728, aged 89 years. He ivas 
the first white European who cultivated the soil in which his 
remains are deposited." The adjoining headstone bears 
this inscription: u Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Smith, 
wife of Joseph Smith, who died May 25, 1727." In that 
burial ground you saw the gravestones of six generations 
of that Joseph Smith family, who in turn had been owners 
of that field around it. A very remarkable record! So 
much for the land and its successive owners. What about 
the garrison? It was successfully defended, though very 
fiercely attacked. The Indians had not had time to station 
the division assigned to attack it, before that gun was fired 
at the falls. Mr. Smith " being seasonably apprised of 
danger" and having plenty of powder and shot, he and the 
men with him, who had come there with their families for 
protection, made it hot for the enemy, who were compelled 
to keep away at a safe distance.' The Smith family has had 
men of prominence in every generation from Joseph. 

The Davis garrison, the location of which you saw on the 
hill near the mouth of Oyster River, was built by John 
Davis of Haverhill, Mass., who came there as early as 1653, 
and obtained a grant of land and settled there in 1654. 
He did not build his garrison until about 1675; he had 
no need of it, as the Indians had given the settlers no trouble. 
He is the present writer's ancestor. He is called Ensign 
John Davis as early as 1663; he died about 16S6. 

! James Davis, his son, succeeded him in ownership of the 

place and resided there until his death in 1748. At the 
time of the massacre he was known as Lieut. James Davis; 
later in the next century he was colonel of the regiment, 
and was one of the great men of Dover and the Province, 
holding the office of judge and of Councillor. 

As Lieut. Davis was so far down the river, the Indians 
did not have time to get located for the attack when that 
premature gun was fired at the falls. He was aroused by 
the alarm and put his garrison in order for defence, having 


a good supply of ammunition, and also the assistance of 
several neighbors who made haste to get inside of the stock- 
ade. When the savages arrived they made a fierce attack on 
all sides, but were repulsed at every assault, and did not in- 
jure anyone in the garrison. While Lieut. Davis was de- 
fending his garrison he could see the flames of the burning 
garrisons of his neighbors, Header, Adams, Drew and 
Edgerly. What a horrible morning that was! No pen 
can describe its scenes of terror and woe. 

On the south side of the river, near the shore of Little 
Bay, stood the Bickford garrison, just across the water from 
Col. Davis's garrison. It was built by Thomas Bickford, 
an ancestor of the writer. He was forewarned by the noise 
of the attacks up the river, and prepared to defend his 
establishment. He took the precaution to send all of his 
family across the bay to Fox Point; he then made his plans, 
single handed, to conduct the defence. He had a strong 
stockade around his house. When the enemy came he was 
ready, and commenced a vigorous discharging of his gun. 
The Indians tried to induce him to surrender by making 
good promises, but despising alike their promises and their 
threats, he kept up a constant fire at them and wounded 
some. He changed his dress often and appeared in a new 
disguise, and in a loud voice gave command, as if he had 
a company of soldiers with him. The Indians could hear 
it all, although only one soldier appeared at a time, and 
they at length gave up the fight and retreated up the river. 

The first meeting-house at Oyster River was about a 
mile above Captain Bickford's garrison. The pastor was 
Rev. John Buss, who happened to be absent from town 
that night. The Indians burned his house and a valuable 
library of books, but especially valuable in its manuscripts, 
all of which were lost. It is the tradition that while the 
house burnings and massacres were going on a French 
priest, who accompanied the party, remained in the meeting- 
house, and employed himself in writing with chalk on the 
spacious pulpit. He would not permit the house to be 
damaged in any way, and the men obeyed his orders. 


The Burnham garrison was -about a mile above the 
meeting-house. It was built by Robert Burnham about 
1675, but he came to New England in 1635 in the "Angel 
Gabriel, " which sailed from Bristol, Eng., June 4, and was 
wrecked at Pemaquid, now Bristol, Me., August 15 following. 
He seems to have settled at Oyster River about 1650, and 
had grants of land from the town of Dover, some of which 
land has remained in possession of the Burnham family to 
this day, two hundred and fifty years at least. The garrison 
stood on a steep, craggy hill, precipitous for the most part, 
except on the east side, so it was absolutely impregnable, 
after the modes of warfare in those days. Being so well 
fortified within and without the Indians did not venture 
to attack it in anyway but by shouts and war-whoops, which 
did not scare Captain Burnham or his family and neighbors 
who had fled to the garrison for protection. The cellar 
with its stone wall is still perfect, as well as a smaller cellar, 
entirely separate, winch no doubt was for ammunition and 
other dry storage. These two cellars are mentioned in the 
Burnham records during the 18th century; they are spoken 
of as "the cellar" and "the cellar house." At one end of 
the garrison cellar a depression marks the place of "the 
little barn, " also spoken of in the same records. The house 
had a frame of huge timbers of white oak, some of which 
were used in the construction of the present farm buildings 
at the foot of the hill near by. 

After the massacre was completed, shortly after sunrise, 
the divisions on both sides of the river met at the falls, 
where they had parted the evening before. They then, en 
masse, proceeded to Capt. John Woodman's garrison, the 
cellar of which you saw soon after leaving the college this 
morning. The ground being uneven, they approached 
without danger, and from behind the hill at the west of the 
house kept up a long and severe fire at the hats and caps 
winch the people within held up on sticks above the walls of 
the stockade, but they did no damage except battering the 
roof of the house with bullets. Captain Woodman was 
fully prepared for defence. At length, apprehending it was 


time for the people in the neighboring settlements to collect 
in pursuit of them, they finally withdrew, having killed and 
captured between ninety and a hundred persons and burned 
about twenty houses, of which, as already stated, five were 

This Woodman garrison was standing in a perfect state 
of preservation until it was burned to the ground in Novem- 
ber, 1896. When you visited the spot this morning you 
saw how beautiful the location is, on the hill at the head of 
Beard's Creek, with brooks and ravines on every side of the 
acclivity except the west. The view is charming in every 
direction except the rear, where the rise of land intercepts 
the view somewhat. Durham village, which did not exist 
in 1694, lies at the south in full view: at the east may be 
traced the winding Oyster River. At the north, through 
an opening between the hills, can be seen the spot where 
stood the Huckins garrison; and nearer at hand, but sep- 
arated by a profound ravine, is the field where occurred the 
massacre in 1689, when the Huckins garrison was destroyed 
and eighteen persons were killed by the Indians. The 
mound where they were buried can still be pointed out, 
never having been disturbed by the plow. 

The Woodman garrison was built by Captain John Wood- 
man, a direct ancestor of the writer. He was son of Edward 
Woodman of Newbury, Mass., one of the founders of that 
town. Captain Woodman was a resident at Oyster River 
as early as 1657; he had a grant of twenty acres of land, the 
same on which he built the garrison house about 1675. 
The land and the house remained in possession of the Wood- 
man family, his descendants, for more than two hundred 
years, the last of the name being the distinguished Pro- 
fessor John S. Woodman of Dartmouth College, who died 
in the old garrison May 9, 1871, and was buried in the 
ancient burial ground, which you saw on that beautiful 
ridge of land on the south side of Beard's Creek. On that 
ground is a monument of marble erected by Professor Wood- 
man in 1S62; the date of his own death being placed on after 



the death of his widow in 1884. The following is the in- 
scription on the monument: 

"Here lie the remains of the Woodman family, who 
have occupied these grounds since 1659. Here are the 
graves of seven generations; August, 1862. 

"John Woodman, Esq., who came from Newbury, Mass.; 
born 1630, died 1706. His son Jonathan, born 1665, died 
1729. His son John, born 1701, died 1777. His son Cap- 
tain Jonathan, born 1743, died 1811. His son Nathan, born 
December 29, 1789, died March 2, 1869. His son Pro- 
fessor John Smith, born September 6, 1819, died May 9, 
1871. Professor Woodman's wife born May 1, 1833, died 
December 15, 1884. Their daughter Fanny, born Septem- 
ber 5. 1861, died February 26, 1862." 

So, my friends, I have told you the story of the Oyster 
River massacre and its garrisons. It gives me pleasure to 
announce that you will close your field day travels with a 
visit to the Drew garrison at Back River, which is the only 
garrison house left standing in a good state of preservation. 
It was built by William Dam in 1675, and was occupied 
by the Dam family until 1770, when Joseph Drew married 
one of that family, and it remained in possession of the 
Drew family until 18S3, when it came into possession of the 
present owner, Mrs. Ellen S. Rounds. So far as known the 
Indians never troubled the families who lived in it, but it 
was surrounded by a stockade for thirty years or more. 

April 12, 1910. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the Roger Foster Memorial Parish House 
in Concord on Tuesday evening, April 12, 1910. 

The President called the meeting to order. 

On motion of Mr. John C. Thorne it was voted that the 
State of New Hampshire be given permission to publish in 
Vol. 30, State Papers, whatever unpublished Revolutionary 
rolls may be now in possession of this Society, giving the 
Society due recognition. 

The President then introduced the speaker of the evening, 
Capt. William PL Jaques, who spoke upon the subject of 
"Who Built The First Steamboat.! 5 

The President asked the passage of the following resolu- 
tion, which request was unanimously granted: 

"Resolved that the thanks of the New Hampshire Histori- 
cal Society are hereby tendered to Capt. William H. Jaques 
for his instructive and entertaining lecture, and that a copy 
of the same be requested for preservation in the archives of 
the Society, and for publication in our Proceedings." 

The following persons were proposed for active member- 
ship in the Society, and were duly elected: 

Frances M. Abbott, Concord. 

Walter S. Baker, Concord. 

Josiah II. Benton, Jr., Boston, Mass. 

John T. Busiel, Laconia. 

Clarence E.. Carr, Andover. 

Benjamin W. Couch, Concord. 

Jennie M. Demerritt, Dover. 

Fred W. Estabrook, Nashua. 

Mary D. Felkcr, Rochester. 

Samuel D. Felker, Rochester. 


Wallace Hackett, Portsmouth. 
John H. Henry, Lincoln. 

Rev. George Hodges, D. D., Cambridge, Mass. 
Woodbury E. Hunt, Concord. 
Lyford A. Merrow, Ossipee. 
Calvin Page, Portsmouth. 
Samuel S. Parker, Farmington. 
Edward N. Pearson, Concord. 
George C. Preston, Henniker. 
Dr. Wheelock Ryder, Rochester, N. Y. 
Martha A. Safford, Rochester. 
James Duncan Upham, Claremont. 
Isaac Van Horn, Holderness. 
Florence J. Walker, Pembroke. 
Lawrence J. Webster, Holderness. 
The meeting was then adjourned, to meet at the call of 
the President. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary, 


The eighty-eighth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society in 
Concord on Wednesday, June 8, 1910, at eleven o'clock in 
the forenoon. The President called the meeting to order, 
and the Secretary then read the records of the last annual 
meeting and the adjourned meetings of September 29, 1909, 
and April 12, 1910, which were approved. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that the officers for the 
ensuing year be nominated from the floor, which was voted. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman, nominated Daniel Hall of Dover 
to succeed himself as President, and he was duly elected. 

Mr. William P. Fiske nominated Frank W. Haekett of 
Newcastle for First Vice-President, and John C. Thorne 
named Frank S. Streeter for Second Vice-President, and 
they were duly elected. 

On motion of James 0. Lyford, Henry A. Kimball was 
elected Recording Secretary. 

Mr. John C. Thorne nominated J. Eastman Pecker as 
Corresponding Secretary, and he was duly elected. 

Mr. Arthur H. Chase nominated for Treasurer William 
P. Fiske, who was duly elected. 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond nominated Edith S. Freeman for 
Librarian, who was duly elected. 

On motion of William P. Fiske, Dr. Eli E. Graves was 
! elected Necrologist. 

Rev. Howard F. Hill placed in nomination the following 
persons to serve as a Standing Committee: John C. Thorne, 
Edson C. Eastman, and Giles Wheeler, who were elected. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman nominated for the Library 
Committee Mrs. Frances C. Stevens, Arthur II. Chase, 
Charles R. Corning, who were elected. 


Mr. John C. Thome nominated for the Publishing Com- 
mittee Otis G. Hammond, John R. Eastman, and Dr. Irving 
A. Watson, who were elected. 

The Secretary nominated for the Committee on New 
Members Dr. J. Elizabeth Hoyt Stevens, El win L. Page, 
and Harry S. Holbrook, who were elected. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman nominated for the Committee 
on Speakers Daniel Hall, Henry M. Baker, and James O. 
Lyford, who were elected. 

The Treasurer then read his report which was accepted 
and ordered to be placed on file. 

Receipts Credited to General Income: 

Income from Permanent Fund, $580.63 

New members, 190.00 

Assessments, 459.00 

State appropriation, 500.00 

Income from Todd Fund, 86.29 

Income from Tappan Fund, 63.63 

- • $1,879.55 

Receipts Credited to Permanent Fund: 

Life memberships, 250 . 00 


Expenditures Charged to General Income: 

Salary of Librarian, $557.96 

Incidentals of Librarian, 42.61 

Janitor, 122.42 

Insurance, 65.62 

Printing, &c, 117.60 

Postage and envelopes, 49.19 

Fuel, 88.50 


Books purchased, genealogies and 
town histories, 

Todd Fund, $86.29 

Tappan Fund, 63.63 

Other books, 82.67 

Incidentals, 167.43 

Hammond Typewriter Co., 55.00 

Forrest & Cunningham, 100.00 


(1 909) Permanent Fund, $1 1 ,650 . 00 

Current funds, 1,964 .06 


To new account, $14,144 . 69 

Permanent Fund, 811,900.00 

Current funds, 2,244 . 69 


William C. Todd Fund. 

To investments, $17,169.99 

Income from funds, 699 . 60 

Interest on bonds, 4.50 

vj- • ,< 

Paid for genealogies and histories, 86 . 29 


Charles L. Tappan Fund. 

Original fund, $566.00 

Income, 86.36 


Paid for books, 63 . 63 

$585. 73 

17 " ~~ 


List of Securities in the Hands of the Treasurer: 

2 Iowa Loan &. Trust Co. deben- 
tures, $500 . 00 each, $1,000 . 00 

2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

R. R. bonds, $500.00 each, ' 1,000.00 

1 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

bond, 1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. 

bonds, SI ,000.00 each, 2,000 . 00 

13 shares Concord & Montreal R. R. 

Co. stock, 2,268.50 

5 shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

F6R. R., 500.00 

4 shares Concord Electric Com- 
pany, 400.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 5,281.56 

Deposit in First National Bank, 694 . 63 


William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great North- 

ern R. R. bond, §1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. bonds, 

$1,000.00 each, 2,000.00 
2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co. bonds, 

SI, 000.00 each, 2,000.00 

1 City of Laeonia bond, 1,000.00 
Deposit in New Hampshire Savings 

Bank, 11,787.80 


Building Fund. 
As per report last year, $373 . 79 

Income from same, 14.92 

By legacy from estate of Alma J. 

Herbert, 190.00 



We have this day examined the account of William P. 
Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
for the year ending June 8, 1910, and find the same correctly 
cast and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We have also 
examined the securities constituting the funds of the Society 
and find them correct. 

Concord, N. H., June 8, 1910. 

Giles Wheeler, 
John C. Thorne, 
Standing Committee. 

The report of the Librarian was read, accepted, and 
I ordered placed on file. 


The Society has received during the year past the follow- 
ing gifts, exclusive of the accessions in the library: manu- 
scripts and other papers from Elwin L. Page, executor of the 
estate of George W. Marston; medal and document which 
were presented to Capt. Billings as captain of the first vessel 
to sail up the Seine after the improvements on that river; 
portrait of Mr. Walter Ingalls presented by Mrs. John M. 
Hawley; manuscripts, pamphlets, and newspapers collected 
by Henry B. Bust and given by Mrs. Eliza Bust Moseley; 
framed photograph of Daniel Webster, being the enlarged 
copy of a daguerreotype taken about 1850, presented by Mr. 
Charles S. Knox; anvil brought from England in .1.714, used 
in shoeing horses of the Revolutionary troops, presented by 
Rev. B. J. Glazier; framed picture of Dr. John Farmer, 
Corresponding Secretary of this Society, 1825-38, presented 
by his nephew, Mr. Miles F. Farmer; fac-simile letter by 
Franklin Pierce to Jefferson Davis from Rev. S. E. Quimby; 
received on deposit, the records of the First Congrega- 
tional Society of Hopkinton. 

Gravestone inscriptions of Lee and Epping cemeteries 
have been received from Miss Sara M. Haley, and records 
of the Old Dunstable cemetery from Mr. P. Hildreth 


The library accessions for the year are as follows : 

Number of books by purchase 


" exchange 


" " " " gift 


" " " " binding 




Number of pamphlets by purchase 






Total 1420 

Of the town reports three hundred and eight have been 
received this year, this number including some of the back 

The work has been done mostly on the pamphlets this 
year, as last. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edith S. Freeman, 


The Necrologist reported the following deaths in the 

Active Members. 

Sylvester Clark Gould, Manchester, July 19, 1909. 
James E. Randlett, Concord, August 26, 1909. 
Isaac Walker, Pembroke, October 22, 1909. 
Sylvester Dana, Concord, January 4, 1910. 
Edward Payson Kimball, Portsmouth, March 31, 1910. 

Corresponding Members. 

Francis Olcott Allen, Philadelphia, Pa., December 3, 1909. 
Henry L. Butterfield, Waupun, Wis., June 17, 1SS2. 
Eliza Jane Gate, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., January 9, 1883. 
William C. Crump, New London, Conn., March 9, 1883. 
Edmund L. Dana, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., April 25, 1889. 


George M. Elliott, Winchester, Mass., January 8, 1893. 
Rev. Elvina Ella Gilson, Barre, Mass., March 5, 1901. 
Maj. L- A. Huguet-Latour, Montreal, Canada, May 20, 

John S. Jenness, Newcastle, August 10, 1879. 

Samuel Merrill, Los Angeles, Cal., August 31, 1899. 

Calvin Parsons, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., January 1, 1900. 

George Washington Patterson, Westfield, N. Y., October 
15, 1879. 

Daniel Rollins, Boston, Mass., January 24, 1900. 

James W. Savage, Omaha, Neb., November 22, 1890. 

Rev. Thomas Witherow, D. D., Londonderry, Ireland; 
January 25, 1890. 

Honorary Members. 

Rev. Israel W. Andrews, D. D., Marietta, O., April 18, 


Lucius M. Boltwood, Grand Rapids, Mich., February 28, 

Israel Bailey Bradley, M. D., Fryeburg, Me., November 
11, 1881. 

George F. Danforth, Rochester, N. Y., September 25, 

James M. Edmunds, Washington, D. C, April 14, 1879. 

John W. Gookin, North Yarmouth, Me., November 1, 

Luther L. Holden, Jamaica Plain, Mass., February 17, 

Samuel F. Humphrey, Bangor, Me., March 12, 1903. 

John Jordan, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa., March 23, 1890. 

Rev. William MeClure, D. D., Londonderry, Ireland, 
February 22, 1874. 

William S. Vaux, Philadelphia, Pa., May 5, 1882. 

Charles I. Walker, Flint, Mich., February 11, 1895. 

Joshua W. Waterman, Detroit, Mich., June 24, 1S92. 

Voted that the report be accepted and placed on file. 
Mr. John C. Thorne made a verbal report for the Standing 
Committee, which was accepted. 

| ■ ' ■ 


Mr. Otis G. Hammond, for the Publishing Committee, 
made a verbal report, which was accepted. 

The following persons were presented for active member- 
ship, and were duly elected: 

Anna M. Chandler Riley, Claremont. 
Rev. Josiah L. Seward, D. D., Keene. 
Rev. Alfred Gooding, Portsmouth. 
Helen W. Woodworth, Concord. 
George Waldo Browne, Manchester. 
Henry H. Metcalf, Concord. 

Voted that a new Manual be published, to be limited to 
three hundred copies, and that the Secretary and Librarian 
be authorized to prepare the same. 

The President named as a Committee on Field Day 
Amos Tuck French, J. Eastman Pecker, and John S. 

Voted that the place of holding the field day be left 
to the decision of the committee. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman, for the Building Committee, 
reported the progress made in the construction of the new 
building, the resignation of Frank W. Hackett from the 
committee, and the appointment of Amos 'Tuck French to 
fill the vacancy. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that the 
arrangements for the ceremony of the dedication of the new 
building be left in the hands of the Building Committee, and 
that the committee be authorized to increase its member- 
ship as it might deem expedient. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that the 
salary of the Librarian be increased to seven hundred dollars. 

On motion of William P. Fiske it was voted that an as- 
sessment of three dollars be levied on each member for the 
ensuing year. 

Charles K. Bolton of Boston, Mass., requested by letter 
the privilege of making a photograph of the "Smite Memo- 
rial," and that the document might be sent to Boston for 
that purpose. 


On motion of Otis G. Hammond the request was referred 
to the Library Committee. 

The President read a letter from Frank J. Wilder, a 
member of the Society, in which he suggested that the 
members of the Society collect from time to time such relics 
as pertain to the early history of New Hampshire. 

Rev. Howard F. Hill, in behalf of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, invited the" members of the Society to listen 
to an address to be given in this city July 12 by Rev. William 
Elliot Griffis on the part the New Hampshire troops played 
in Sullivan's Indian Expedition in 1779. 

The President then introduced the speaker of the day, 
James O. Lyford, who delivered an address on "Town 
Historic?. " 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that the 
thanks of the Society be tendered to Mr. Lyford for his 
interesting and instructive paper, and that a copy be re- 
quested for publication in the Proceedings of the Society. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted the thanks 
of the Society be extended to Charles S. Knox for his 
photograph of an original daguerreotype of Daniel Webster. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

Henry A. Kimball* 
Recording Secretary. 

By James 0. Lyford. 

In what I shall present to you today I have drawn from 
my observation and experience in the preparation of two 
town histories, those of Concord and Canterbury. My 
work on them has been my gift to these communities, 
prompted by a sense of public duty. I, therefore, feel 
warranted in appealing to you, and through you to a larger 
audience, to take an interest in a subject of importance not 
only to the towns but to the State as well.- No adequate 
narration of the acltievemenis of New Hampshire has yet 
been written. If it is ever undertaken these compilations 
of the purposes, deeds, and aspirations of the builders of her 
towns will be of great service to the writer. The data from 
which these local histories must now be written is largely 
contained in their official records. These in many cases 
are not safeguarded by the care their value demands. They 
are loaned indiscriminately and carelessly handled. Even 
when kept in proper custody they are not securely pro- 
tected from destruction by fire. If lost or destroyed they 
cannot be replaced. It is, therefore, the duty of patriotic 
citizens to endeavor to have put in permanent form the 
historical material these volumes contain before age, use, 
and the action of the elements have effaced their contents. 

Of the two hundred and thirty odd towns of New Hamp- 
shire only about seventy can be said to have had their 
history written. This is only a little more than a fourth of 
their whole number, yet there is not a town of the State that 
is unworthy of historical consideration. This writing of 
town histories is largely a labor of love, for there is no com- 
pensation to be offered commensurate to the work involved. 
Obligation to the public, calling for personal sacrifice, must 
be the moving incentive to the writer. An interesting and 
almost pathetic account could be written of the efforts of the 
authors of the local histories in the State Library to write 


and publish their productions. For the most part these 
volumes are a credit to those who prepared them, both in the 
amount of valuable material they have gathered and in the 
attractive manner they have presented it to the reader. 
The writing of a town history is almost a life work, so nu- 
merous are its details and so infinitely does inquiry lead to 
subsequent research. Yet there are few writers who can 
afford to give more than a limited time to such an enter- 
prise. If it is an individual undertaking the author is 
fortunate if he receives any return sufficient, beyond the 
cost of publication, to give him the wage of the ordinary 
day laborer. Too often it occurs that, in order to meet 
expenses, the historian is obliged to exploit certain families 
to the detriment of his narrative, because the}' have contri- 
buted directly or indirectly to the financial side of the 
history. Future efforts, therefore, should be the business 
of the community, for a town history, to be of real value, 
should portray the life of the average citizen, leaving to 
biography to deal with the principal achievements of the 
civic and military heroes of the locality. 

The seeming expense of such a work is one reason why 
more towns have not engaged in it. The cost, however, 
need not be beyond the ability of any town to meet if the 
importance of the subject is appreciated by the general 
public. It is true there is only a limited demand for these 
local histories at the present time. To the people at large 
the} 7 are merely reference books to be sought in libraries. 
The change of population, in our rural towns especially, 
has left only a part of the inhabitants who by family con- 
nections are interested in the story of their past. Some 
of the scattered descendants of former residents, if found, 
( may be induced to purchase copies, while here and there 

may be discovered an individual student who desires to 
possess himself of such a book. In the main, however, the 
outside subscriber must be the library, whose trustees are 
seeking to supply their patrons instructive as well as enter- 
taining reading. It is, therefore, in this circumscribed 
field that we must look for encouragement in the prepara- 


tion and publication of histories for the remaining towns of 
New Hampshire. 

A few T years ago the legislature of our State enacted a 
law in aid of the incorporation of town libraries. It has 
proved so helpful that there are less than a dozen towns 
now without a public library. One purpose of the act w 7 as 
the dissemination of useful information. No better in- 
struction can be afforded our people than to familiarize 
them with the story of New Hampshire's past. At present 
this is to be largely obtained in our local histories. How 
few of these are to be found upon the library shelves of our 
towns can be seen in the small number of copies of the recent 
history of Concord that have been sold to them. Here is 
a book embracing much of the history of the State for nearly 
a century, for the reason that the story of New Hampshire 
has been largely connected with its seat of government for 
that period. Although the two volumes of fifteen hundred 
pages have been offered to these libraries for a very small 
sum, only about twenty-five are supplied with a copy. A 
still smaller subscription has been obtained from this source 
for the history of Canterbury now in preparation. 

I know of but two towns that at present are engaged in 
the work of publishing a history, Canterbury and Andover. 
If a similar spirit to that permeating these communities 
were to become contagious it is doubtful if the combined 
product would exceed a town history oftener than once in 
two years. Therefore, to subscribe for these as they ap- 
pear would not be a severe tax upon the annual revenue of 
town libraries, while such a known purpose would go a long 
way towards prompting towns without a history to engage 
in its preparation. Two hundred subscriptions from the 
town libraries of New Hampshire would almost guarantee 
the cost of publication of a town history, leaving the other 
sales to care for the expense, of preparing the manuscript. 
Upon such terms any town could afford to have its history 
prepared, for the work would entail little or no ultimate 
expense to its tax payers. I know of no body of people 
who are interested in this subject more than the members 


of the New Hampshire Historical Society, and I know of 
no work in which you as individuals can engage with more 
benefit to the State than in urging the libraries of your 
respective towns to subscribe for the town histories of 
New Hampshire as they appear. 

It is only by personal work that matters of this kind are 
brought home to the people of a community. In many 
towns of the State interest in this subject will be more diffi- 
cult to arouse with the changing character of the population. 
It is an enterprise that is oftentimes of more concern to 
native sons and daughters who have gone out from the town 
than to those who remain. The advent of Old Home Week 
brings back to our rural towns year by year these people 
who once were residents. A generous impulse, a love for the 
place of his nativity, has here and there led an individual 
among them to do something for the town. No more en- 
during gift could be made than for such an individual to 
have prepared a history of his birthplace. Guaranteeing 
the cost, he ^ould find that the actual expense to himself 
need not be large, for part of it would be met by the sale of 
the book. If, however, his purse and his disposition induced 
bim to make it a handsome memorial, he would discover that 
this beneficence would add more to his permanent renown 
than the erection of costly buildings or monuments. 

Of the town histories already written, some were pre- 
pared twenty-five or more years ago, and the edition is ex- 
hausted. Copies are difficult to obtain and command a 
high price. It should be the pleasure of some public spirited 
citizens of each town to supply its library with copies of 
these rare volumes. 

In anticipation of the preparation of a town history the 
keeping of a scrapbook of current events pertaining to the 
community will be of great assistance to the writer, for 
the modern newspaper is so voluminous in its pages that the 
searching of its files is a considerable task. The town libra- 
rian is the proper person to do this work, and the library 
itself the proper depository for such a collection of material. 

When the suggestion was first made to me that I write the 


history of Canterbury, my opinion was that the work had 
been too long delayed, and that it ought to have been un- 
dertaken a generation earlier, when there were living those 
who had some recollection of the traditions of the eighteenth 
century, and some knowledge of the locations of the early 
settlers. Except the historical sermon of the Rev. William 
Patrick delivered in 1833, thirty years after his settlement, 
nothing had been published of the annals of the town. 
There were neither diaries nor scrapbooks to supplement 
the official records. It seemed to me that only a meager 
account of the past of this community could be written. 
With many misgivings, therefore, I undertook the task, and 
then only when the appeal was made to me that, if I did 
not do it, the work was not likely to be done. 

Experience has shown that my conception was wholly 
vvrong. My story at least has the value of accuracy, for the" 
very reason that I have had no traditions to prompt and 
guide me, and I hope the recital of the facts will be inter- 
esting, even if lacking the personal touch of what the aged 
citizen said. With the exception of the early years, when 
the proprietors transacted the town business, the records 
of Canterbury have been well kept. Like all town records 
they disclose only the action of the inhabitants, merely 
showing the resolutions offered and the votes passed. Yet 
these resolutions and votes are wonderfully suggestive of the 
feelings of the people. For illustration of my meaning let 
me say that I began my work not in chronological order, for 
the reason that the first volume of the records was not dis- 
covered until later. I took the Pi evolutionary period as an 
experiment, and from the town clerk's transcript of what 
occurred, supplemented by a study of printed state papers, I 
began my narrative. To my surprise I was able to prepare 
a chapter of some thirty typewritten pages without entering 
upon the military enlistments from Canterbury, which I 
reserved for a subsequent, chapter. Three votes of the 
town at successive meetings led to an 'investigation. One 
thanked the Committee of Safety at Exeter for arresting 
and taking to court a prominent citizen of the town. The 

official sources 


second related to charges of disloyalty made against Can- 
terbury, while the third recited that u No man in this town 
shall call his neighbor a Tory unless he has sufficient reason 
therefor in penalty of being called in question by the Com- 
mittee of Safety of Canterbury and suffering their censure.. " 
Here was the skeleton of what might prove an interesting 
story, but the subsequent records gave no clue to its details. 
Aided by Otis G. Hammond of the State Library, who had 
gathered material from unpublished sources of what took 
place before the Committee of Safety at Exeter regarding 
those suspected of Toryism, I was able not only to clear up 
this official reflection upon the character of one who Was a 
most loyal supporter of the patriot cause, but also to show 
the acute condition of the times. Suspicion was rife. Men 
were accused of disloyalty upon the slightest pretext, and 
sometimes it happened that private revenges were wrought 
out under the guise of patriotism. Just what motive lay 
at the bottom of this arrest at Canterbury, and for what 
alleged offence it was made I am unable to say, but that it 
was unwarranted hitherto unpublished documents show. 
These papers make up my recital, and explain the three 
separate votes of the town. There is material for quite a 
romance in these bare facts of history drawn wholly from 

A most interesting chapter of State history could be writ- 
ten upon the work of the Committee of Safety of New 
Hampshire and its subordinate committees in the towns, to 
which the recorded happenings in each community would be 
a great contribution. The sources of information for such 
a chapter will not be practically available to the State his- 
torian unless the town histories are written. He could not 
find time to search all the local records, but the mere publi- 
cation of such votes as those passed by Canterbury would 
suggest to him an inquiry. 

It is probably not known to many of you that there were 
town houses of correction in New Hampshire for the con- 
finement and punishment of minor offenders, which were 
maintained until well towards the middle of the nineteenth 


century. At first these were established in the dwelling 
house of the regularly elected keeper, and later at the poor 
farms. The rules adopted for the government of the in- 
mates, which prescribed punishments by solitary confine- 
ment, the use of handcuffs, and of manacles for the legs, 
and whipping by the keeper if the prisoner proved to be 
obstinate, are set forth at length in the records of Canter- 
bury. These town houses of correction preceded the county 
jails, and were authorized by a statute passed in 1791. 

The foregoing are merely striking incidents of what town 
records disclose. In all will be found a fund of information 
relating to the controversies over the settlement of ministers, 
the dissent on the part of some of the inhabitants to the 
payine of taxes for the support of preaching, the later sepa- 
ration of town and church, the building of highways and of 
bridges where rivers, were to be crossed, disputes over 
boundary lines between towns, not to mention early action 
taken for the care of the poor and dependent, votes repri- 
manding public servants, and revealing the frugal attitude 
of the inhabitants. From these apparently dry records 
can be reconstructed the life of our predecessors, with such 
help as the statutes and records of the State afford. And 
this is history, for it is verified by evidence. While the 
charm of the personal equation of the old inhabitant is no 
longer to be added, there are various sources from which 
facts can be obtained to help portray life in the earl}- days. 

Almost every town has its plan of proprietors' lots as they 
were drawn and laid out to them. By the aid of the prov- 
ince registry of deeds, now card catalogued, the student 
can locate many of the early settlers. The recent publica- 
tion of the first United States census of New Hampshire 
by the Federal government gives the names of the heads of 
families in 1790, while tax lists, if they have been preserved, 
add to the information regarding the pioneers of the com- 
munity. A roster of town officers not only shows who were 
prominent in its affairs, but largely who were inhabitants, 
because the minor positions of highway surveyor, hogreeve, 


fence viewer, etc., were places distributed among the people 
at each annual meeting. 

If the genealogy is looked after by a committee, as in 
Canterbury, the writer of a town history will be relieved of 
a most wearisome task, thus enabling him to give his whole 
thought and time to his narrative. A committee of women 
acquainted with the present and past residents will do this 
work _better than the average historian, unless he has an 
aptitude for this kind of research. Furthermore, such an 
assignment creates a wider interest in the publication, 
enlisting as it does a larger number in the active labor of its 
preparation. It would be very helpful to the writer of the 
history if the work of collating genealogical facts preceded 
his endeavor, for this information would be most useful to 

In the histories of Concord and Canterbury the pictures 
of individuals living or dead have been excluded, the illus- 
trations being confined to those of localities and ancient 
public buildings and dwellings. However desirable it may 
be to have portraits of the distinguished sons of a town, this 
feature, cannot be undertaken without causing dissatis- 
faction unless the town is prepared to go to the expense of 
reproducing any likeness that may be offered. Where the 
cost of a history is met in part by families able to pay for the 
pictures of ancestors or of living representatives, there is 
often a discrimination against those more worthy of con- 
sideration but less able to meet the requirements. Much 
annoyance and trouble will be avoided if portraits of indi- 
viduals are omitted. 

In the brief time you have allowed me I have endeavored 
to point out the importance of this subject and to show that 
the undertaking of a history is not such a serious problem 
for towns now without a permanent record of their achieve- 
ments. An awakened public spirit, co-operation of towns 
through their libraries in the promotion of this work, indi- 
vidual effort and personal sacrifice for the general good will 
secure the desired result. The recent history of Concord 
was born of the persistent agitation of one man, and ripened 


into a city enterprise in which a score or more of citizens 
gave freely of their time and ability in its writing and pub- 
lication. The history of Canterbury was started by the 
appeal of one individual to the writer to assist in preserving 
what might be in a few years lost of its story. The discus- 
sion of the subject by a half dozen men and women for a 
few months resulted in a unanimous vote of the town to 
advance the money for its publication. The public spirit 
of these two towns is not exceptional in New Hampshire. 
Properly presented to other communities, there is no reason 
for believing the subject will fail of enlisting the interest 
of their inhabitants. 


September 28, 1910. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in Chester on Wednesday, September 28, 

The Society was met on arrival by Amos Tuck French, 
chairman of the committee of arrangements, and the 
historic cemetery was first visited. 

Following a social hour the members and their friends 
gathered in the chapel of the Congregational Church for the 
business meeting, which was called to order by the President, 
who introduced, as the first speaker, Amos Tuck French, 
who read portions of an address on "Chester Fifty Years 
Ago," written in 1S76 by Judge Henry Flagg French. 

Brief and informal addresses were made by Charles R. 
Corning, Rosecrans W. Pillsbury, and John C. Chase. 

The following names were proposed for active member- 
ship, and they were duly elected : 

Herbert M. Kimball, Hopkinton. 
Rev. Edwin J. Aiken, Concord. 
John C. Chase, Derry. 
Rosecrans W. Pillsbury, Londonderry. 
Mrs. William W. Elkin, Concord. 
Susan P. Woodman, Dover. 


Mary Niles, Concord. 
Margaret F. Stevens, Concord. 
Lydia F. Lund, Concord. 
Almira M. Fletcher, Concord. 
Elijah H. Merrill, San Francisco, Cal. 

On motion of Charles R. Corning it was voted that the 
thanks of the Society be extended to the field day committee, 
to whose efforts the success of the occasion was due. 

The resignation of J. Eastman Pecker as Corresponding 
.Secretary was read and accepted. 

The President reported a correspondence with Rev. W. 
S. Beard of Willimantic, Conn., in regard to the Society's 
assuming the care of the Sullivan burial lot in Durham, and 
of a fund raised by Mr. Beard's efforts for that purpose. 

It was voted that the Society accept the fund in trust, and, 
on motion of Samuel C. Eastman, the President was 
authorized to appoint a committee to report at the next 
meeting a form of contract to be entered into by the So- 
ciety and the donors of the fund. 

Samuel C. Eastman, John S. Blanchard, and Henry 
A. Kimball were named as such committee. 

The President, in behalf of Mrs. Ellen S. Rounds of 
Dover, presented the Society with a cane made from a piece 
of timber from one of the garrisons erected in 1G9S for de- 
fence from the Indians. On motion of John Dowst the 
thanks of the Society were extended to Mrs. Rounds for 
her gift. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman the meeting was then 

Dinner was served at the Chester Inn, an ancient tavern 
built in 1761 . 

After dinner the members visited the residence of Mrs. 
John W. Noyes, once the home of Senator Bell, the residence 
of Amos Tuck French, formerly the home of Chief Justice 
Richardson, the Maihew Thornton homestead, and Pinker- 
ton Academy in Deny. 

A true record, attest 

Henry A. Kimball, 

Recording Secretary. 

Written by Henry F. French in 1875. 

* * * Walk with me once more in the pleasant summer 
twilight along the lovely street already slightly sketched, and 
let me tell you of the people who built and occupied the 
houses which were standing fifty years ago. My blessed 
mother, born in this village in the year 1782, still survives in 
1875, with memory and hearing and gift of speech perfect as 
in earliest youth. The house on the right as we face the 
west is her birthplace. Her grandfather, the Rev. Ebenezer 
Flagg, occupied it for many years. He preached in this 
parish nearly sixty years, was born in 1704, graduated at 
Harvard in 1725, and died here in 1796. 

With this venerable man my mother lived until his 
death, when she was fourteen, and she has a distinct recol- 
lection of him and the traditions of his time. When we 
consider that she still lives, and that one more life of equal 
length with either would extend back ten years before the 
landing of the Pilgrims in 1620, we feel as if the history of 
the county need not be lost if only the chroniclers be faith- 
ful to their duty. 

We have his portrait, showing -a venerable face with 
blue eyes, a shaven chin, and a full white wig, with bands 
across the breast. The inscription on the back made at the 
time is as follows: "The likeness of the Rev d Ebenezer 
Flagg taken in June, A.D. 1792, he being in the 88th year 
of his age, by Mr. Mitchell." My mother remembers well 
when it was painted. The artist was not a resident of the 
town, but "came along," and was employed by friends of 
"grandfather" to paint it. She says that he sat by the 
open window in his study, and the wind blew his bands up, 
and the artist said he would paint one of them turned up as 
we see it now, and the trivial circumstance is clearly re- 
membered after more than four score years. We have 
still his old mahogany chairs and the tripod mahogany table 


on which his sermons were written, and many of his manu- 
script sermons on very small paper, closely written as if 
paper were scarce in those days, and with many abbrevia- 
tions. The records show that Moses Hale, the former 
minister, in 1736 conveyed to Mr. Flagg the land and a 
house. This house was replaced by a new one by Mr. Flagg, 
and still stands as the L of the present dwelling. It was 
moved back by John Bell when he built the present hand- 
some front in 1806. 

Mr. Bell occupied it from 1806 till his death in 1836. He 
was one of a family most distinguished in the modern history 
of the State in all the departments of public life, political, 
judicial, and military. 

His wife was the daughter of Dr. Isaac Thorn of London- 
derry, an educated and accomplished lady, who lived in the 
old mansion until 1862. They had ten children, the eldest 
two pi whom were daughters, and fifty years ago were 
ornaments of the society which we are trying to describe, of 
the ages of about 19 and 21. Mr. Bell was a member of 
the Executive Council five years, and was elected Governor 
of the State in 1828. 

Next to the old parsonage is a large square house built by 
Amos Kent in 1799. He was a graduate of Harvard, and 
married a daughter of Hon. Joshua Atherton of Amherst 
in the fall of the year his house was built. He was by pro- 
fession a lawyer, and his wife a sister of Hon. Charles II. 
Atherton, who was the father of Charles G. Atherton, a 
Senator in Congress from New Hampshire. 

My mother relates a touching incident in the history of 
Mr. Kent's family. He was returning from Amherst with 
a pair of horses and a sleigh, having with him his wife and 
per >iaps others, with his sister Jane, a young lady of great 
beauty and sprightliness. As they were crossing the Mer- 
rimac River on the ice the young lady was singing a gay 
song, "Be gone dull care," when suddenly the horses broke 
through the ice and the party were thrown into the water, 
and poor Jane was taken out dead. It was supposed that 
she was disabled bv a kick from one of the horses so that she 


could not make exertions to save herself. Mrs. Kent was 
a highly accomplished lady, and didmuch to give tone to 
the society of the place, which we shall see was as select 
in that good old town as in any modern metropolis. There 
were three daughters and five sons in the family. Two of 
the sons were lost at sea in youth. The others are still 
living; two of them in Louisiana, prosperous as planters, 
and one in his native state. Of the daughters, who were all 
ladies of high culture, and one of whom is still living, it is 
enough for my purpose to say that one of them in the ad- 
ministration of President Pierce filled with dignity and grace 
the position of lady of the White House, the wife of the Pres- 
ident being prevented by bereavement and illness from ap- 
pearing at public receptions. 

Nearly opposite is a fine old gambrel-roofed house, in 
modern times occupied as a hotel. Its style of architecture, 
so grand and fine and spacious, has gone nearly out of use, 
and has given place to a feeble substitute under the false 
names of French and Mansard roofs. This house, which 
may yet stand for a century longer, was built by my moth- 
er's grandfather, Col. John Webster, in 1761. He was a 
man of importance in town and State affairs, and was an 
active patriot in the Revolution. He was muster-master, 
and at times advanced his own money for bounties to the 
soldiers. A few incidents illustrating the customs of the 
times, though of earlier date than our half century, may not 
be out of place in this sketch. 

Col. Webster's first wife having died in 1700, he, in nowise 
discouraged, built his new house, and in November, 17G2, 
married the widow Sarah Smith of Hampton. He went 
to Hampton, a distance of about thirty miles, and brought 
his new wife home on horseback, that being the common 
mode of travelling at that time. 

Each brought from Hampton as a riding whip a willow 
stick, which they carefully planted on their arrival home 
near thestreet by their house. These twigs grew into very 
large trees, and are well remembered by many now living. 
The Colonel's first wife had seven children, the second wife 


brought with her two Smith children, and four more blessed 
their last marriage, to some of whom we may again refer 
as we continue our walk Tip the street and our notes on the 
old houses which we pass. 

We have not yet done with the old Webster house. Fifty 
years ago Dr. Benjamin Kittredge owned and occupied it. 
He was the oldest of eight sons, all of whom were physicians, 
that profession being hereditary in the Kittredge family. 
His first wife was a daughter of Col. Webster. They had 
one son, who was also a physician, and lived a half mile 
south on the Derry road, and he had a wife and sons. and 
daughters who contributed much to the social life of the 
village within our half century. 

Old Doctor Kittredge, as he was usually called to dis- 
tinguish him from his son, though he was but sixty-two 
when he died in 1830, married for his second wife the widow 
Graham, whose daughter by her first husband was an agree- 
able young lady in " Chester society" at the period of which 
I write. His second wife was sister of his son's wife, and the 
indiscriminate use of "aunt" and "cousin" in the two fami- 
lies was a source of much perplexity to strangers. Indeed it 
is not easy to define the precise relationship which existed 
among the children of the two marriages. 

Mrs. Graham in her widowhood was noted for her energy 
and activity even in those stirring times. Living with her 
brothers, who were all sportsmen, she learned the use of 
firearms when a girl, arid would go with her dog and gun to 
the woods of an autumn day and bring home at night as 
many gray squirrels and partridges as the best of them. 

She kept a fine saddle-horse, which it was said she took 
care of herself, and made a fine figure as she dashed through 
the street. 

Passing two or three modern houses, we come to one of 
more ancient date, though, like others to which we have 
alluded, shorn somewhat of the proportions of fifty years 
ago. It then had upon each side a wing of a single story, 
which had been recently added by its occupant, Hon. Sam- 
uel Bell. He Was a graduate of Dartmouth, and from time 


to time held most of the positions of honor which the State 
could bestow. He was by profession a lawyer, was Speaker 
of the House of Representatives, President of the Senate, 
Justice of the Superior Court, Governor for four years, and 
Senator in Congress twelve years. The family was of 
Scotch-Irish origin from Londonderry in Ireland, and have 
been distinguished always for their well balanced heads and 
clear common sense, and for the industrious and temperate 
habits which mark their race. 

The two Governors were tall, stately, dignified men, and 
the male descendants have generally preserved these char- 

They have been careful observers and students in their 
several professions, rising always to the foremost rank,' 
somewhat reserved and never familiar in their intercourse, 
and popular in the general sense, not because they sought 
position, but because their high qualifications commanded it. 
A brief mention of the sons of "Senator Bell," as he was 
called to distinguish him from "Governor Bell," his brother, 
will show an array of honorable names such as cannot be 
equalled in the history of the State. The father came to 
Chester in 1812, and fifty years ago the four sons of his first 
marriage were from nineteen to twenty-seven years of age, 
and so belonged to the golden age of our little town. Sam- 
uel D., the oldest son, was a lawyer of eminence, County 
Solicitor, Judge of the Court of Common Picas, then of the 
Superior Court, of which for fifteen years he was Chief 
Justice till he resigned in 1804. He was also a commis- 
sioner to revise the statutes of New Hampshire, and author 
of two books of law precedents. 

He was also eminent as an antiquarian, and was an in- 
dustrious student in various departments. And it maybe 
added that one of his sons is now a representative in Con- 
gress from New Hampshire. 

The next of the sons of the "Senator" was John, a grad- 
uate of Union College, who studied medicine in Boston and 
afterwards in Paris, was a professor of anatomy in the 
University of Vermont, and editor of the Medical and 


Surgical Journal. He is remembered as a most accom- 
plished gentleman and scholar, but died in 1830, at the age 
of thirty years. 

Going abroad for education was in those days an occur- 
rence rarely heard of in a country town, and the return of 
young Dr. Bell was much talked of, and I remember going 
with other little boys down the street to meet the stage to 
see if he had come, and sure enough there he was on top of 
the stage with a beautiful brown spaniel riding by his side. 

The next son was James, born in 1804, a graduate of 
Bowdoin, a lawyer of large practice and great eminence in 
his own State, and a Senator in Congress at the time of his 
death in 1857. 

Doctor Luther V. Bell, the fourth son who was born in 
180G, was a graduate of Bowdoin, and a physician and sur- 
geon, and was well known as superintendent of the McLean 
Asylum for Insane. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on 
him in 1855. He went out as surgeon of the 11th Mass. 
Volunteers, was medical director and brigade surgeon in 
Hooker's division, and died in the service in 1 862. 

It was while most of these young men were at home that 
the three large elm trees in front of Mr. Noyes's house and 
garden were set out. One of them cracked and was filled 
with some sort of wax, and another had a line tied to the 
top of it to make it grow straight. This was not far from 
the year 1823. The trees are now perhaps two and one-half 
feet in diameter. When set they were so small that two or 
three of them could be carried by one person. 

The four sons of the Senator's second marriage, which oc- 
curred about 1828, belonged to a later generation than that 
of which I write. Two of them were lawyers, and two 
physicians, three, if not all, graduates of colleges, and 
three of them in the Union service in the army. 

Louis, the youngest, was colonel of the New Hampshire 
Volunteers, and was killed while gallantly leading one of the 
divisions in the successful assault on Fort Fisher Jan. 15, 
1865. He was breveted brigadier-general for his distin- 
guished military service. 



A little further up the street and on the same side we see 
a large and respectable mansion, which long ago was the 
home of " Senator Bell," and where in 1826 his son, after- 
wards Chief Justice, began his married life, and where the 
older set of children had their home. The only daughter 
among the eight sons was born in 1802, and was an orna- 
ment to the select circle of Chester society. 

Further up and on the other side of the street, covered 
with shade trees, stands the only three story house in the 
town. It was built in the year 1800 by Daniel French, a 
lawyer who came to Chester the year before to take the office 
and business of Hon. Arthur Livermore, who was appointed 
Judge of the Superior Court. Mr. French was Attorney- 
General of the State from 1S12 till 1815. when he resigned, 
and continued in extensive -pi*artice of his profession till Ins 
death in 1840. He was postmaster of the town from 1807 
till 1839, when he resigned, and his son succeeded him. In 
this mansion all his eleven children except the eldest were 
born. They all lived at the homestead till one son in 1825, 
just fifty years ago, died at the age of nineteen. The three 
other sons were ail educated to the profession of law. The 
eldest held many positions of trust and honor, was clerk of 
the House of Representatives in Congress, and Grand 
Master of Masons. One of the others was a Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas in Xew Hampshire, and is in prac- 
tice still in Boston. 

Across the way and a little beyond is one of the finest 
dwellings in the town, a large. square house with a high roof, 
. formerly ornamented, as the fashion then was, with a railing. 
A handsome stable, now somewhat modernized, stands back 
on the rear line of the house, and a court-yard paved with 
granite slabs extends to the street. The house was built 
in 17S7 by Tappan Webster, son of the Colonel, of whom 
mention has been made. He was engaged in trade, and 
did a large business, and seems to have been an enterprizing 
man in various ways. 

There was then no lawyer in town, and Mr. Webster in- 
duced a young man by the name of Porter from Canada to 


come and assist in collecting his debts. He was a handsome- 
and agreeable young gentleman, insomuch that he and Mrs. 
Webster became so much enamoured of each other as to 
elope together and flee to his home in Canada. The lady 
was then twenty-six years of age, and left three young 
daughters, two of whom grew up in Chester, and are well 
remembered by a lady now living. 

The husband, thus suddenly bereft, obtained a divorce,, 
and endeavored to retrieve his fortune by a second marriage, 
but his new wife was more attached to her home than to her 
husband, and when he had failed in business and thought it 
necessary to move to the city of Washington, she refused 
to accompany him and he went alone. By some means, of 
which history does not inform us, a second divorce was 
decreed, and Mr. Webster again married in Washington, 
where he died. What is remarkable is that. his three wives 
were all living at the same time. 

The paved court-yard was not the work of the builder 
of the house. Lord Timothy Dexter, as he was called, 
owned and occupied the place for a while. He was a 
rich and eccentric man, who is said to have blundered into- 
his fortune. At one time some wag advised him to ship 
a cargo of warming-pans to the West Indies, as it was said 
that market was very poorly supplied with the article. 
He did so, and they were found so useful as ladles to dip 
syrup of sugar-cane with that he made a large profit on his 
venture. He is the same man who wrote a small book en- 
' titled a Pickel for the Knowing Ones, without any punctua- 
tion, but with some pages of w stops and marks" at the close 
for each reader to use according to his taste. The tradition 
is that he kept his coffin in his front entry for many years, 
and once got his servants and others to carry it in proces- 
sion, that he might see how his funeral would look. He 
offered to pave Chester Street if the people would call it 
Dexter Street, but the offer was not accepted. The only 
other fact about him preserved by tradition in Chester is 
that he was cowhided by Judge Livermore for some insult 
offered the Judge as he was riding past on horseback. He 



at once dismounted and proceeded to execute judgment upon 
him without mercy. 

Dexter afterwards lived in Newburyport, where the 
writer has seen his house surrounded with life-size carved 
wooden images of Washington and other distinguished 

Next beyond, and very near, is the house occupied by 
Chief Justice William Merchant Richardson from the time 
he moved to Chester in 1819 till his death in 1838. It was 
built in 1788 by William Hicks, who w r as a goldsmith, and 
married a daughter of Col. Webster. Judge Richardson 
was a graduate of Harvard, and was not only a profound 
lawyer but a man of high scientific and literary culture. He 
was a representative in Congress from Massachusetts from 
1811 to 1815, when he resigned and removed to Portsmouth, 
N. H. He was appointed Chief Justice of the Superior 
Court in 1816. He fills so large a space in the' judicial 
history of New Hampshire that' anything which relates to 
his personal history should be interesting. 

His mother was Sarah Merchant of Boston, born in 1748, 
and died at Pelham, N. H., in 1841. He was named for her 
brother, who was the same William Merchant who is men- 
tioned in the history of the times as one of the "foiir youths" 
who were engaged in a fray on the 5th of March, 1770, 
the day of the Boston Massacre, with some British soldiers. 
He received a bayonet scratch under his arm, and seems 
to have been a youth of spirit, as his sister well recollected, 
and informed her descendants. that he was also one of the 
Boston Tea Party, and came home disguised as an Indian 
that night. His portrait by Copley, painted in 1755, and 
kept by his sister more than fifty years hanging over the 
kitchen fireplace in Pelham, is still preserved, and is de- 
scribed in Perkins's history of Copley pictures. William 
Merchant died unmarried in Barbadoes at the age of about 
forty. The father of the Judge was a well educated farmer 
and a soldier in the Revolution. Tradition says that he 
met his future wife at the Rev. Mr. Davis's in Dracut, 


where she was boarding as a young girl of fifteen^ and he 
was studying Latin with the same reverend gentleman. 

In all that has been said so far we have alluded to the 
occupants of eight houses, and these houses all now standing 
and in good repair, well painted, and likely to stand another 
half century. They are all on a single street, within half a 
mile. If we count up the offices held by persons who were 
living there fifty years ago, either held by them at that time, 
or before or afterwards, we find two Governors of the State, 
two Senators in Congress, two Chief Justices of the highest 
State court, two Judges of the Superior Court and Court of 
■Common Pleas, and one Attorney-General. 

Five of the families named had living at that time thirty- 
seven children, twenty girls and seventeen boys, of what the 
traders call "assorted sizes," but most of them between 
fifteen and twenty-five, and when we add to this number of 
young people others belonging to families of less distinction 
it will be seen that material existed for society both young 
and old of the highesji order. 

Five miles to the south were the two villages, upper and 
lower, of Londonderry, which also contained several 
families of education and refinement, with whom we as- 
sociated in a somewhat stately and formal way, the two 
towns regarding each other as in some degree rivals and 
perhaps inferiors, but still respectable enough to be re- 
ceived into good society. * * * 


January 18, 1911. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society in Concord 
January 18, 1911, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. The 
President and Vice-President being absent, the meeting 
was called to order by John C. Thorne, who was then 
elected chairman of the meeting. 

The Chairman then introduced Otis G. Hammond, who 
read an address on the Tories of New Hampshire. 

On motion oi Henry M. Baker it was voted that the thanks 
of the Society be extended to Mr. Hammond for his. very 
interesting, able, and scholarly address, and that a copy 
be requested for preservation, and publication in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary, 


By Otis G. Hammond. 

The Word "Tory/* although it has been variously modi- 
fied by circumstances from its earliest use as applied to the 
outlawed Papists of Ireland in the reign of Charles II, down 
to its giving way to the present term, " Conservative," has 
always had a negative significance, an idea of opposition 
to political changes and a reverence for the existing order of 
government. To use a modern synonym, the Tories were 
always "stand-patters. " 

Since the Restoration, a Tory's political opponent has 
always been a Whig, the forefather of the Liberal of present- 
day English politics. The Whig was always the restless, 
ambitions, progressive element, eager for a change, without 
necessarily having established the fact that the change 
would be practical or beneficial to his party. 

During the Revolution, and since in America, as might 
be expected in view of the victory of the opposition, the 
word "Tory" acquired a peculiarly ignominious meaning 
which did not pertain to its earlier use. It came by com- 
mon consent to be used as almost synonymous with the 
word "traitor." Had the Tory party been victorious in 
the struggle the same significance would have been forced 
upon the word Whig. 

The word "Tory" was applied indiscriminately to all 
who refused or failed to support the Revolutionary move- 
ment, regardless of their reasons for so doing, or of the de- 
gree of activity they displayed against that movement. 

The Tories applied to themselves the name "Loyalist/' 
a term respectable and admirable in its meaning, but not 
definite per se. A man may be loyal to anything to which 
he has once attached himself, his country, his church, his 
superior officer, or his wife. The Loyalists were loyal to 
their King. Those who rebelled against the Crown con- 
sidered themselves loyal to their constitutional rights as 


Englishmen, and to the new standards of government they 
had set up in order to maintain those rights. 

On the other side the name " Whig," an old English polit- 
ical term, applied originally to the country party, as 
opposed to the Tory, the court or administration party, 
and the name "Patriot/- as the colonist loved to call him- 
self, are equally lacking in definite and accurate meaning 
as applied to those Americans who rose in rebellion against 
the unjust and burdensome demands of George III and his 
Parliament. The men of both sides considered themselves 
patriots, and the word is quite as applicable, in its true 
meaning, to one side as to the other. In this discussion I 
shall venture the use of the terms Royalist and Revo- 
lutionist as substitutes for the names we have inherited 
from our forefathers, substitutes more accurate in their 
significance and entirely free from the false interpretations 
of hatred and strife. A Royalist is one who maintains his 
loyalty to his King through the stress of rebellion. A 
Revolutionist is one who has risen in arms against a con- 
stituted authority and won. 

In this present day we have no right to consider a man 
a Royalist unless we find in the official archives, or in con- 
temporary private records of good authority, some evidence 
of his preference for the continuation of the Royal jurisdic- 
tion in Air, erica, or some evidence of his having suffered for 
such opinions. The fact that a man was suspected, 
harassed, arrested, or even imprisoned does not necessarily 
prove that lie was a true Royalist, but proves only that he 
was so considered at that time by some people. Trials on 
these charges were not held before a court of law, but before 
the provincial committee of safety or some local committee, 
and there was one in every town. The judges in these 
cases were not versed in the law, and there were no rules of 
evidence. Witnesses were allowed to say what they pleased, 
and hearsay evidence was freely admitted. 

Commitments to prison were made oftener on reasonable 
suspicion than on proven charges. But it is now too late 
to appeal any of these cases or to review the evidence, as. 


comparatively little of it was ever recorded. In considering 
the whole' class of Royalists in New Hampshire we must 
then, necessarily, include all who appear to have been under 
suspicion, bearing in mind the prejudices of the time, the 
excited state of the public mind, and the crude methods of 
trial by which the defendants were judged. Of about 200 
suspected persons in New Hampshire only 76 were of suf- 
ficient guilt to be included in the proscription act, and to 
suffer the penalty of banishment, and against several of 
these there is no evidence on record except the fact that 
they had left the State. 

We must not consider the entire body of Royalists in 
New Hampshire as actively engaged in opposing the meas- 
ures of the Revolutionists. • Many of them maintained a 
strict, dignified, and silent neutrality, watching the contest 
with disapproval, but obeying the laws established by the 
State in which they retained their abode, paying the taxes 
assessed upon them, and observing a careful regard for the 
highly excited and nervous state of public opinion. They 
were passive Royalists, and among their number we find 
many officials of the Royal government, members of the 
oldest, best educated, wealthiest, and most aristocratic 
families, clergymen of the Church of England and many of 
their communicants, men of the learned professions, and 
aged men who did not easily change the opinions and at- 
tachments of long life under the Crown. But harmless as 
their conduct was, these men did not escape. the penalty of 
their convictions. With others more active they suffered 
prosecution by the authorities and persecution by unau- 
thorized and irresponsible individuals. In this respect the 
war of the Revolution was no different from any other war. 
Non-combatants residing in the enemy's country never 
lead a peaceful, happy, or prosperous life, and a memory of 
this unjust feature of warfare still rankles in the minds of 
thousands, north "and souih, who suffered insult, abuse, and 
financial ruin in the great War of the Rebellion. It is the 
inevitable result of the high tension which is always pro- 
duced by a conflict of arms, which sees things that are not,. 


-and magnifies things that are. The treatment the Royalists 
received in America, though in many cases unjust and se- 
vere, was only what might fairly have been expected, and 
what many others have suffered before and since in similar 
circumstances. It was only a normal price they had to 
pay for their unyielding principles, their minority, and their 
inability or failure to leave the field of action. 

In March, 1776, Congress deemed it necessary to ascertain 
the extent of Royalism in the colonics, and recommended 
that a test be submitted to the people. It was considered 
that those who signed it could be depended upon to support 
the Revolutionary movement, and those who did not sign 
it were to be disarmed and so made for a time incapable of 
etfective opposition. This pledge was called the Associa- 
tion Test, and the text was as follows: 

"We, the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage and 
promise that we will to the utmost of our Power, at the 
Risque of our Lives and Fortunes, with Arms oppose the 
Hostile Proceedings of the British Fleets and Armies, 
-against the United American Colonies." 

By request of Congress this was presented for signature 
to all males above twenty-one years of age except lunatics, 
idiots, and negroes. Printed copies were sent to all the 
towns, and they were presented to the people for signature. 
Unfortunately not all the returns from New Hampshire 
towns have been preserved in our archives. 

The nearest census was that of 1773. At that time there 
were ISO granted towns in the State, but many of them were 
unincorporated, unorganized, and even unsettled. The 
census of 1773 includes returns from 136 towns, and gives 
the province a population of 72,092, with several towns 
omitted. The returns of the census of 17S6 are from 138 
towns, the delinquents being far more numerous than in 
1773, and a population of 95,452 is shown for the State. 
So that we may fairly assume the population of the colony 
in 1776 at 75,000, dwelling in about 150 settled or partly 
settled towns. 

The 87 towns from which the Association Test returns 


have been preserved in the archives represented a total of 
50,682 of population, or 66 per cent, of the population of the 
colony at that time. These returns bear the signatures 
of 8,567 men, and the names of 781 who did not sign. One 
hundred and thirty-one of these refused because of religious 
scruples^ conscience, or other reasons not hostile to the 
cause of the colonies, and 4 were reported absent, leaving 
646, or 6.9 per cent, of possible signers, who refused to sign 
without apparent reason other than an unwillingness to 
support the war. 

In Acworth, Antrim, Atkinson, Barnstead, Bow, Brook- 
line, Canaan, Candia, Canterbury, Chester, Concord, 
Conway, Dublin, Effingham, Enfield, Gilsum, Lebanon, 
Lempster, Loudon, Manchester, Meredith, Newport, North 
Hampton, Peterborough, Piermont, Rindge, Rye, Sea- 
brook, Sunapee, Surry, Wakefield, 31 towns, all signed. 

In Danville, Kingston, and Northwood all but 19 signed, 
and these declined for reasons of conscience, and 5 of these 
were Danville and Northwood Quakers. In Kingston one 
man, James Carruth, a Scotchman, "Declines obliging him- 
self to take up Arms against his Native Country but De- 
clares he will neaver take up Arms against America, & is 
willing to bear his Proportion of the publick taxes with his 
Townsmen." One man, Moses Welch, u refuses to take 
up arms & pleads Conscience for an excuse." Twelve men 
"Appear to be fearful that the Signing of this Declaration 
would in some measure be an infringement on their Just 
Rights & Libertys but the}' Appear to be Friendly to their 
Country & Several of them have Ventured their lives 
in the American Cause & the 3 last named Persons are now 
in the Army." 

Of those who refused to sign for reasons of religion or 
conscience 73 were Quakers, located in Danville 4," Kensing- 
ton Id, Northwood 1, Rochester 22, Weare 31. 

Other reasons for not signing are very interesting, amus- 
ing, some of them, and worthy of analysis. : ' 

In Bedford the Rev. John Houston declined "firstly 
Because he did not apprehend that the Hon ble committee 



meant that ministers Should Take up arms as Being incon- 
sistent with their Ministerial Charge, 2 ndly Because he was 
already confin'd to the County of Hillsborough, therefore he 
thinks he Ought to be set at liberty before he Should Sign 
the Sd obligation, 3 rdly Because there is three men Belong- 
ing to his Family already Inlisted in the Continental- army. " 

In Gilmanton, of 35 men refusing to sign, 21 state their 
reasons as follows: " there being some scruples on our minds 
we Cant Conscientiously sign it and we beg Leave to assign 
our Reasons which are as follows, viz., we agree and Consent 
to the Declaration of Independence on the British Crown, 
and we are willing to pay our proportion to the support of 
the United Colonies, but as to defend with arms, it is 
against our R,.li i^u^ principles and pray we may be Ex- 

In Kensington the selectmen, in returning the names 
of those who would not sign, after making a list of 15 names, 
said "So Far is Quakers as these two collums and What is to 
Come your honours may Call What you please." Then 
follow the names of rive men who apparently did not stand 
high in the estimation of the selectmen. 

In Loudon all signed except "one or two that lived very 
much out of the way." The failure to obtain these signa- 
tures was by the indolence of the selectmen by their own 

In Newcastle, of the 4 who are returned as refusing to 
sign, one, Richard Yeatoii, Jr., is recorded as a soldier, and 
was probably at that time absent in the service. 

In Nottingham, of 25 non-signers, 10 are credited with 
having advanced money to hire men to go to Crown Point. 

In Richmond 12 men give as their reasons for not signing 
that "We do not Believe that it is the Will of God to take 
away the Lives of our fellow crators, not that We Come Out 
Against the Congress or the Amarican Liberties, but When 
Ever We are Convinct to the Contory We are Redy to join 
our Amarican Brieathen to Defend by Arms Against the 
Hostile Attempts of the British fleets and Armies." 


In Sandown " Samuel Stevens did not Sign but is Since 
gon into the war." 

The Test was not satisfactory to James Treadway of 
Canaan, nor were the ordinary rules of warfare severe enough 
to satiate his blood-thirsty patriotism. He signed, but 
imposed these conditions: "that no man who is taken a 
captive from the British forces he made an Officer or let be 
a Soldier in the Continental Army and 2 ly that Every 
American found & taken in armes against the United Colo- 
nies be immediately put to Death, and 3 ly that all & every 
of the British Troops that are Captivated by the Continen- 
tal forces by sea or land, or any other way taken Shall be 
kept in Prison or Close Confinement, & 4 ly that Every 
Commanding Officer or a Soldier, or any Person or Persons 
employed in any business whatsoever in the Continental 
Forces, who is found and proved to be a Traitor to the 
United Colonies in America be put to Death Immediately. ,y 

Upon whom he imposed these conditions, or whom he ex- 
pected to carry out his revised rules of war in order to secure 
his allegiance to the cause of independence does not appear. 

Moses Flanders of South Hampton also signed on con- 
dition that the acts or advice of the Continental Congress 
relating to minute-men be complied with. 

In the town of Temple the Association Test was construed 
literally as involving not only enlistment into the service, 
but extraordinary efforts in the field after such enlistment, 
and in town meeting the text of the document was so revised 
that the inhabitants might sign it without doing violence 
to their consciences. The selectmen said on their return of 
the Test, "We produced to the inhabitants of this Town in 
Town Meeting the Paper proposed by the Committee of 
Safety to be Sign d by the Inhabitants of this Colony. Few, 
if any of the Inhabitants were willing to engage & promis as 
there proposed, to oppose by Arms to the utmost of their 
power the hostile Attempts of y e British Fleets & Armies — 
As this seem'd to the Inhabitants plainly to imply Some- 
thing far more than any Common Enlistment into the 
Sendee, over engaging as soldiers directly & during the 


Continuance of the war, as well as exerting oner selves 
faithfully when engaged: this, at least, being within the 
Compass of our power. But it did not appear to the in- 
habitants prudent or Necessary for any, or in any Degree 
lawfull for all thus to engage. The Town directly adopted 
the Form of Association Sign d on this paper which they 
and we hope expresses all Required by the general Con- 
gress. " 

The revised form adopted was thus: 

"We the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly Profess our 
Intire willingness, at the Risque of our Lives and Fortunes, 
with Arms, to oppose the Hostile Attempts of the British 
Fleets, and Armies, against the United American Colonies, 
when Ever And to such A Degree as Such Attempts of 
Britain may Require. " This was signed by all but three 
of those to whom it was presented. 

Refusing to sign the Association Test did not, alone, 
make a man a Royalist, nor did the signing of it make him 
in fact a Revolutionist. The Association Test was promul- 
gated for the purpose of ascertaining the sentiment of every 
man in the colonies who was qualified to bear arms. The 
declaration therein was not one of mere moral support to the 
cause of America, but was in its actual words a solemn prom- 
ise to resist the power of Great Britain by force of arms; and 
the signer pledged his fortune and even his life in defense of 
American liberty. It was a powerful obligation, almost 
an enlistment into the armies of the United Colonies. 
Many who signed it never saw a moment's service in field or 
garrison, although they had sworn to take up arms to resist 
the invasion which afterwards occurred. Many who re- 
fused to sign it have left on record no evidence of opposition, 
by word or deed, to the establishment of an independent 
government. Some who signed it were afterwards con- 
victed as Royalists, and suffered various penalties inflicted 
by duly authorized officers of the State, by irresponsible 
gatherings of the people, or by the malice of individuals. 
Some who refused to sigu it were undoubted patriots, and 


supported the measures for carrying on the war to the 
extent of their moral and financial ability. 

The Association Test was presented to young and old, 
able-bodied and infirm alike,, the lame, the halt, and the 
blind, and was generally regarded in the light in which it 
was circulated, as a test of allegiance or opposition to the 
Revolutionary movement. Those who refused to sign it did 
so for various reasons; some because they honestly believed 
that the colonies had no just cause for resorting to the ex- 
tremity of rebellion against the Crown; some because their 
love for the mother country and their reverence for English 
law and government caused them to look with horror upon 

fany plan for disunion, or even any questioning of the justice 
and wisdom of Royal decrees: some because they read the 
Association Test literally, and were unable to perform its 
requirements, being either physically incapacitated for 
I active service, or morally opposed to any act of war; some 

because they believed that, although the colonies had just 

(cause for opposing the measures of the home government, a 
resort to war would lead only to sure defeat and an increased 
burden of taxation and oppression; some because of private 
pique and resentment of certain measures affecting their 
own personal welfare; some because of actual persecution 
by which they were afterwards driven into the British lines. 
Thosn who signed the Test were also actuated by various 
motives. There can be no question that most of them did 
so from purely patriotic impulses, fully convinced that the 
attitude of Parliament towards the colonies, from the Stamp 
Act down to the Boston Port Bill, was unjust and oppres- 
sive, and that they were denied the natural political liber- 
ties accorded to Englishmen in every other part of the King's 
dominions, and constitutionally guaranteed to all the King's 
subjects wherever they might dwell. But there were those 
who signed for mercenary reasons, and paid the taxes levied 
on their property for carrying on the war to the end that 
they might preserve their estates from the ruin which was 
more or less certain to be visited upon the hated minority. 
There were also those who yielded to threats, and petty but 


continued and determined annoyances, which impressed their 
minds with the belief that what was then but an annoyance 
was the forerunner of certain disaster. 

I find record evidence of guilt or suspicion of Royalist 
tendencies against about 200 men in New Hampshire. 
Many of these were prosecuted on suspicion founded on 
evidence of the most flimsy texture, and the formal charges 
brought against them were such as counterfeiting, or at- 
tempting to circulate counterfeit paper money, trying to 
spread small pox, or saying things, which spoken carelessly 
or in jest, gave their neighbors a long sought opportunity 
of revenge, or of posing before the authorities as zealous 
advocates of liberty. So that these figures do not represent 
the actual hurriber of Royalists in New Hampshire, but the 
number of those who were, by any possible pretext, brought 
under official suspicion. 

There was undoubtedly much counterfeiting in all the 
colonies, but there is no evidence that there was any con- 
certed or organized attempt at this practice among the 
Royalists, although individually they did, as Gen. Sullivan 
says, disparage the value of colonial bills of credit in com- 
parison with British or Spanish gold. The paper money of 
the Revolutionary period was crude in design, of many dif- 
ferent forms, each colony issuing its own series, and the 
Federal government still other series, and the business of 
counterfeiting was extremely easy and profitable. As the 
war progressed paper money became so plentiful as to be 
enormously depreciated from its face value in specie, and in 
the Continental Army depreciation pay rolls were made 
up every year for paying to the soldiers the lost value of 
their wages. In these circumstances it is hardly fair to 
charge the Royalists with the responsibility for all the 
counterfeiting that was perpetrated in the colonies. As to 
the accusation that they attempted to spread the small pox 
in order to lessen the fighting force against Great Britain, it 
is too absurd and lacking in proof to be worth a moment's 
consideration. This was a hallucination natural to the 
time when small pox was one of the most dreaded diseases 


of a military camp. Vaccination had not been discovered, 
but inoculation with true small pox was extensively prac- 
tised with the object of gaining immunity by having the dis- 
ease in a degree somewhat modified from the normal by 
medical care, and, if possible, under hospital conditions, from 
the beginning. 

In May, 1775, Philip Bailey, James McMaster, and 
Thomas Achincloss, all of Portsmouth, were persuaded to 
sign recantations like this: 

" Whereas, I the subscriber, have, for a long series of time, 
both done and said many things that I am sensible has 
proved of great disadvantage to this Town, and the Con- 
tinent in general; and am now determined by my future con- 
duct to convince the publick that I will risk -my life and 
interest in defense of the constitutional privileges of this 
Continent, and humbly ask the forgiveness of my friends 
and the Country in general for my past conduct." (Am. 
Arch., 4th ser., v. 2, p. 552.) 

May 15, 1775, the town of Portsmouth passed a vote to 
support the local committee of safety, and giving that com- 
mittee sole jurisdiction over any obnoxious persons who 
might flee to that town for asylum; and, in view of the im- 
pending scarcity of provisions, they advised the inhabitants 
to refrain from purchasing any lamb that might be killed 
before the first day of August, and from killing any lambs 
before that date; and recommended the use of fresh fish 
twice a week at least. (7 N. H. State Papers, 467.) 

Gen. John Sullivan, in a letter to Gen. Washington dated 
Oct. 29, 1775, in regard to the defences of Portsmouth 
harbor, speaks his mind in regard to the Royalists of that 
locality. He says: 

"That infernal crew of Tories, who have laughed at the 
Congress, despised the friends to liberty, endeavoured to 
prevent fortifying this harbour, and strove to hurt the 
credit of the Continental money, and are yet endeavouring 
it, walk the streets here with impunity, and will, with a 
sneer, tell the people in the streets that all our liberty-poles 
will soon be converted into gallows. I must entreat your 


Excellency to give some directions what to do with those 
persons, as I am fully convinced that, if an engagement was 
to happen, they would, with their own hands, set fire to 
the town, expecting a reward from the Ministry for such 
hellish service. Some who have for a long time employed 
themselves in ridiculing and discouraging those who were 
endeavouring to save the Town, have now turned upon me 
and are now flying from one street to another,, proclaiming 
that you gave me no authority or license to take ships to 
secure the entrance of the harbor, or did anything • more 
than send me here to see the Town reduced to ashes if our 
enemies thought proper. Sir, I shall await your directions 
respecting those villians, and see that they are strictly com- 
plied with by your Excellency's most obedient servant. 

J. S." 

(Am. Archives, 4th ser. v. 3, p. 1252.) 

To which Gen. Washington replied more temperately 
Nov. 12, 1775: 

"I therefore desire that you will delay no time in causing 
the seizure of every officer of Government at Portsmouth 
who have given pregnant proofs of their unfriendly dis- 
position to the cause we are engaged in; and when you have 
seized them, take the opinion of the Provincial Congress or 
Committee of Safety in what manner to dispose of them in 
that Government. I do not mean that they should be 
kept in close confinement. If either of those bodies should 
incline to send them to any of the interior Towns, upon 
their parole not to leave them till released, it will meet with 
my concurrence. 

"For the present, I avoid giving you the like order in 
respect to the Tories in Portsmouth, but the day is not far 
oil when they will meet with this or a worse fate, if there 
is not considerable reformation in their conduct. Of this 
they may be assured." 

In order to accurately ascertain the public sentiment in 
regard to the Royalists we must go to some contemporary 
record to which the public had free access for the registration 
of its opinions. There is no such record but the newspapers. 


The New Hampshire Gazette, founded at Portsmouth in 
1756, and still issued weekly, now the oldest newspaper of 
continuous publication in the United States, gives us a 
fair idea of the popular estimate of the Tory. A few ex- 
tracts are well worth repeating. 

In the issue of Sept. 21, 1776, is an article signed "Na~ 
mora," a name which is easily seen to be "A Roman" 
spelled backwards. Namora says: 

"It's astonishing to see daily, the insults offered by the 
Tories, and unnoticed by the Committee, in a more partic- 
ular manner, since the news of the skirmish on Long Island; 
on the first report, they had their meeting and a dinner 
provided to congratulate each other on the importance of 
the day; and, if common fame speaks truth, they have their 
particular toasts on such occasions; their significant nods 
and smiles at each other as they pass by, and in their very 
countenances it is as plain to be seen as the sun in its merid- 
ian. They have the effrontery to assert that it is much 
worse than reported; that it's so bad that the sons of Liberty 
are afraid to let it be known, least the people should be 
discouraged. Is not this intollerable? It's a matter of fact 
that they have the first news on every event, and that they 
propagate every intelligence they receive, talcing care to 
calculate it, so as to serve their own turn; it's beyond a 
matter of doubt that they keep up a secret correspondence 
thro' the colonies in order to comfort one another, to keep 

up their sinking spirits, and to propagate falsehoods." 

* * * 

The following sarcastic reply to Namora was found in 
the hallway of the Gazette odiee, and the ech'tor printed it 
the following week as a curiosity: 

"Well done Namora, you talk sence, you preach liberty, 
real genuine liberty, downright, alamode liberty, by G-d! 
I must observe, however, that I was at first a good deal 
alarmed on discovering your design of abolishing looks and 
nods, those dear conveyors of our secret meaning; but when 
I found you only meant significant ones, and that out of 
the abundance of your great goodness and impartiality you 


had confined it to tories, I was immediately reconcil'd to it, 
and discovered, by the help of certain political microscopic 
glasses, that it tended to the public good. 

"It is, indeed, no less than alarming, that these damn'd 
tories have the impudence to meet, speak, eat, and drink 
together as other men do; yea, they have the effrontery, in 
open violation of the laws both of God and man, to cast at 
each other, as they pass, their significant looks and nods; 
intolerable! and still they go unnoticed by the committee; 
amazing! 'Tis a disgrace to the state to allow of such 
significant looks and nods, and if the legislative body of 
these states have not. in their great wisdom, already pro- 
vided a punishment adequate to the diabolical nature of so 
black a crime (which hardly admits of a doubt), I think the 
honorable committee of this town, if they desire that the 
trumpet of fame should sound their praises to after ages, 
cannot have a fairer opportunity of immortallizing their 
names than by enacting laws against such treasonable and 
unheard of practices; which would at once discover their 
patriotic zeal for their country, their wise and god-like pene- 
tration into the nature and cause of things, and their un- 
erring knowledge of mankind, who carry on daily the most 
villainous conspiracies in no other language than looks and 
nods; 0, most shocking! What dreadful ills have not been 
done by noding? I humbly think a significant look ought 
to be punished by a burning out of the optics, and a nod by 
severing off the offender's head from the unoffending body; 
this would be going justly and regularly to work; it would 
be removing causes, as the surest way to prevent effects. 

" And now, Mr. Printer, in case you or any of your readers, 
should be so abandoned to toryism, or so full of that brutish 
feeling, humanity, as to think the above hints toward 
enacting laws for the regulation of tories are too severe, 
even for that infernal set of beings; or, if either of you should 
be so unwise or unacquainted with the unbounded power 
of committees, as to imagine that (though that same cum- 
bersome feeling above mentioned, could be stilled) yet 
these laws are in their nature chimerical, wild, and not 


reducible to practice, and consequently that my worthy 
friend Namora (who to tell you the truth is no other than 
a double-headed monster, bred behind a Spring hill counter) 
and myself are wicked, designing devils, & foolish withall, 
I hereby certify & declare to all men, that tho' I may be a 
foolish devil, yet, I am neither a wicked or designing one, 
and that these two last epithets, with all the detestable 
ideas attending them, are only applied to my double-headed 
friend; this being only a kind of explanatory supplement to 
this piece, I am 

(signed) What you will" 

In the Gazette of Jan. 14, 1777, appeared another expres- 
sion of opinion er^W 

"To the Public. 

"Is it not amazing, astonishing to every thinking mind 
at this Period,, when nothing but Rapine and Murder can 
Satiate the Lust of those Infernal Devils sent among us 
by the Infamous Tyrant of Britain, that there can still be 
found a single Person who yet retains that odious name of a 
Tory, when they see (notwithstanding their much boasted 
Loyalty) their wives & Daughters are not exempt from the 
Ravaging Cruelties of those Wretches, any more than those 
of the Rebels (so called) ; by which Treatment alone, (though 
void of all Principle) one might reasonably expect it would 
exasperate and Excite them to such a degree of Resentment 
and Revenge, that all their pretended Loyalty would in- 
stantly vanish, and with Heart and Hand join their much 
Injured Country-men in sheathing their Swords in the 
Breasts of such Brutal Animals; which would afford much 
more consolation to a noble Mind than to sit down, tamely 
submitting to the Murderous Decrees issued by a vile, Des- 
potic Tyrant, to be executed by the very dregs of 11-11. 
Oh! it makes my very blood boil with Indignation at the 
thoughts of such horrid Deeds, and much more when I 
reflect that there are many such shameful Wretches among 
us at this late Hour, that would sell their God, their Country, 
their Wives, their Children, and all that is near and dear to 


them. Pray, what is the reward due to such Monsters? 
Do they deserve the Lenity shown them by their Townsmen?" 
Don't they rather deserve the halter? Nay, is not even 
that too good for them? Can any infliction of Punishment 
(though ever so severe) be called too Cruel? Upon the 
whole, what ought to be done in order to Rid us of such 
Vermin? Suppose I should suggest a mode, and that is to 
provide some kind of a Bark, and, after putting on board 
some Provisions, Set them a Drift, <k make it death for any 
of them ever to land on any Part of the American Shore 
that is Inhabited by Freemen, which in my opinion would 
be the best and most effectual method, and much milder 
than such Slaves could reasonably expect. 

(Signed) An Enemy to Tories." 

Ma}- 31, 1777, the Gazette editorially suggested that 
they be " taken up, sent and kept under a Strong Guard 
(at their own expense, so far as their Estates will go), in 
some of the New Townships, there to continue during the 

Feb. IS, 1777, the Gazette printed 

"A Whisper to the Folks called Tories. 

"As you have given Bonds not to disturb the Peace of 
the Town, nor do anything directly or indirectly against 
the American Cause, would advise, that you keep in your 
own Houses as much as possible, and not assemble together 
in the Street or elsewhere in too great a number, as that 
will be look'd upon as an indirect Method taken against 
the public Good, and subject your Persons to insults. It 
would also be prudent for those who desire to preserve 
the Name of staunch Whigs, not to join their Assemblies 
so frequently in the open Streets, as that gives a sanction 
to their evil Doings. The Court has acquited them on 
conditions, therefore pass them with silent contempt, and 
let their own guilty reflections be their Punishment. It 
would also be proper that whirling Whigs should be distin- 
guished, and assemble together, as their mixing with either 
of the above is taking an unfair Advantage, and conse- 


quently brings a Reflection on both Parties, as they must 
be considered by the Public a Species beneath the Notice 
of either Class.' 7 

July 19, 1777, the House of Representatives appointed a 
committee to report some method for taking firearms from 
such persons in the State as refused to take up arms against 
the enemies of the American States. The same day the 
committee recommended that the colonels of the several 
regiments of militia be empowered to disarm the disaffected 
persons, and that the arms so taken be appraised by two 
disinterested men, and be paid for unless returned. The 
recommendation was adopted, but we find no record of 
further action on this plan, although here .and there a few 
Royalists were disarmed by local committees of safety. 

A curious incident of the time is the suspicion of the 
Quakers. Aug. 2S, 1777, the Federal Congress stated that 
there was reason to believe that Quakers in different States 
were carrying on a treasonable correspondence, and recom- 
mended that the States investigate the matter by seizing 
and examining their records and papers, and that any doc- 
uments of a political nature so found be forwarded to Con- 
. gress. November 8 following the New Hampshire House of 
Representatives appointed a committee to apply to clerks 
of the Quaker societies in Dover, Hampton Falls, Seabrook, 
Brentwood, Weare, and other towns for the privilege of 
examining their records, and gave the committee power 
to break and enter in case access was refused. There is no 
evidence on record that any incriminating documents were 
found among the Quakers of New Hampshire. 

Officially it was intended from the beginning that there 
should be no persecution of Royalists, and no action of any 
kind against them except by due process of law. June IS, 
1776, the Federal Congress resolved "that no man in these 
colonies charged with being a Tory, or unfriendly to the 
cause of American liberty, be injured in his person or 
property, or in any manner whatever disturbed, unless the 
proceeding against him be founded on an order of this 
Congress, or the assembly, convention, council, or com- 


mittee of safety of the colony, or committee of inspection- 
and observation of the district where he resides; provided 
that this resolution "shall not prevent the apprehending 
any person found in the commission of some act destructive 
of American liberty, or justly suspected of a design to commit 
such act, and intending to escape, and bringing such person 
before proper authority for examination and trial." 

January 17, 1777, the New Hampshire House of Repre- 
sentatives passed a resolution giving all disaffected persons 
three months in which to leave the State unmolested, with 
their families and effects, with the privilege of selling their 
property before departure; and requiring them to register 
their intentions with the selectmen of their respective towns 
thirty days before leaving; and these registrations were to 
be transmitted to the Secretary of State. This did not 
become operative as law, the Council neglecting to concur,. 
but it is valuable as showing the fair and reasonable inten- 
tions of the representative body of the people. The same- 
day the Council passed an act defining treason and mis- 
prision of treason, and providing a penalty of death without 
benefit of clergy; and an act for punishing lesser offences of 
a treasonable nature, such as discouraging enlistments,, 
speaking against the cause of the States, and spreading 
false reports. 

June 19, 1777, an act was passed authorizing the Com- 
mittee of Safety to issue warrants to sheriffs, deputy-sher- 
iffs, or any other person, for the commitment to jail of "any 
person whom the said Committee of Safety shall deem the 
Safety of the Common Wealth requires should be restrained 
of his personal Liberty, or whose Enlargement within this 
state is dangerous thereto," there to remain without bail 
until discharged by order of the committee or the General 
Court; and the committee was given power of examination 
and trial in such cases. 

November 29 an act was passed to prevent the transfer 
of property by persons apprehended on suspicion, and for 
securing the lands of those who had gone over to the enemy,. 
or might do so. and of those who resided in Great Britain.. 


These acts were all preliminary, and show the gradual 
development of a hostile sentiment in the legislature and 
among the people. 

The Proscription Act, or act of banishment, was passed 
Nov. 19, 1778, and bore the title "An act to prevent the 
return to this state of certain persons therein named, and of 
others who have left or shall leave this state, or either of the 
United States of America, and have joined or shall join the 
enemies thereof." Seventy-six men are named in the act, 
first of whom was Gov. John Wentworth, and they are 
described as having left this State and joined the enemies 
thereof, " thereby not only basely deserting the cause of 
liberty and depriving these states of their personal services 
at a time when they ought to have afforded their utmost 
assistance in defending the same against the invasions of a 
cruel enemy, but abetting the cause of tyranny, and man- 
ifesting an enimical disposition to said states, and a design 
to aid the enemies thereof in their wicked purposes." 

An analysis of this list of 76 outlawed Royalists is inter- 
esting, especially if we may consider it as fairly representa- 
tive of the whole body of Royalists in New Hampshire, 
fairly indicative of the classes and the proportions of each 
that we may find in the entire number. In this list we find 
30 "Esquires" or gentlemen (using social distinctions of that 
time rather than this), 1 military officer, 5 mariners, 4 physi- 
cians, S merchants, 5 traders, 19 yeomen or farmers, 1 rope- 
maker, 1 post-rider, 1 printer, and 1 clerk or minister. 
Thirty-three of these were citizens of Portsmouth; London- 
« derry and Dunbarton had 6 each, Keene 5, Charlcscown 

4, Mollis 3, Newmarket, Amherst, Alstead and Hinsdale, 4 
each, and Pembroke, Exeter, Concord, Merrimack, New 
Ipswich, Franeestown, Peterborough, Nelson, Winchester. 
Rindge, and Claremont 1 each. 

The geographical distribution covers very nearly the 
whole of the State that was under settlement at that time, 
and seems to defy the application of any particular theory 
of locality. It extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the 
Connecticut River, and from the Massachusetts line to 


Claremont on the north. There was no large number in 
any one town except Portsmouth, which held nearly half 
the entire list. This fact was perfectly natural to the place 
which had been the seat of the Royal government for nearly 
a century. From a social point of view it will be noticed 
that 30 of the 76 belonged to the class of gentlemen, and 5 
others were of the learned professions. The penalty pro- 
vided in the act for a voluntary return to the State was for 
a first offense transportation to British territory, and for 
a second offense death. 

The Confiscation Act followed eight days later, or Nov. 
28, 1778, and in it were named 25 Of those included in the 
Proscription Act, and three others not previously men- 
tioned. They were described as men who ""have, since the 
commencement of hostilities between Great Britain and the 
United States of America, left this and the other United 
States, and gone over to and joined the enemys thereof, and 
have, to the utmost of their power, aided, abetted, and 
assisted the said enemys in their cruel designs of wresting 
from the good people of said states their Libertys, civil and 
religious, and of taking from them their property, and con- 
verting the same to the use of their said enemys." All 
their property in New Hampshire was declared forfeited to 
the use of the State. 

It will be noticed that the Proscription Act banished 
those who had left the state of their abode and joined the 
enemy, whether in the United Colonies or elsewhere; but 
the Confiscation Act seized the estates of those only who 
had departed from the country, sought refuge on British 
soil, and become perniciously active in opposition to the 
Revolutionary government. This will account for the 
difference in numbers affected by those respective acts. 

Belknap says "In these acts no distinction was made 
between those persons who had withdrawn themselves from 
the state by a sense of their duty; those who were, in fact, 
British subjects, but occasionally resident here; those who 
had absconded through timidity; and those who had com- 
mitted crimes against express law, and had fled from justice. 


No conditional offer of pardon was made; no time was 
allowed for any to return and enter into the service of the 
country; but the whole were put indiscriminately into one 
black-list, and stigmatised as having basely deserted the 
cause of liberty and manifested a disposition inimical to the 
State, and a design to aid its enemies in their wicked pur- 

Confiscated estates aggregated a large sum in original 
value, but were greatly diminished by a period of bad 
management and neglect while in the hands of trustees. 
These values, like all others, were also affected by the almost 
ruinous depreciation of paper money, and the net income 
to the State from all confiscated property was very small. 

It is not now necessary to argue the apparent conflict of 
these laws with the constitutional principle that no part of 
a man's property shall be taken from him without his con- 
sent, or due process of law. The constitution of 177G, 
which wa t s in effect at the time of the passage of these laws, 
was a temporary enactment, intended, as stated in the pre- 
amble, to continue only "during the present unhappy and 
unnatural contest with Great Britain." It was a mere 
skeleton of a form of government, and it stood on a pre- 
amble and not a bill of rights. Government under it was 
provisional, and there was no constitutional government in 
New Hampshire until June, 1784, when our permanent con- 
stitution went into operation. 

In his opinion in Dow v. Railroad, 67 N. IT. 1, Judge 
Doe says: "Under the non-legislative reign of Parliament, 
and the pre-constitutional government of this State, there 
was no limit of governmental power to be decided or con- 
sidered by the court. The acts of banishment and confis- 
cation, passed and enforced by the provisional government 
of the Revolution, were as valid as the habeas corpus act." 
There was, then, no bar to the passage and execution of these 
laws by a government whose power had no constitutional 
limitations, but the act of confiscation was not in accord 
with the principle of the inviolability of private property 
which the fathers wished to embodv in the constitution 


adopted in 1783; and at that time these acts were in force, 
and many confiscated estates were still in the process of 
settlement by the courts. In order, therefore, to re-affirm, 
establish, and definitely eonstitutionalize these acts, it was 
provided in the constitution that "nothing herein contained, 
when compared with the twenty-third article in the bill of 
rights (retroactive legislation], shall be construed to affect 
the laws already made respecting the persons or estates of 
absentees." This subject has been discussed by the court 
in Opinion of the Justices, 66 N. H. 629; Orr v. Quimby, 
54 N. H. 591 ; Dow v. Railroad,, 67 N. H. 1 ; State v. Express 
Co., 60 N. H. 219, and in other cases. 

In 1777 the air was full of tales of Royalist plots in 
various parts of the State for doing all sorts of monstrous 
things. The Committee of Safety, writing to the delegates 
in Congress May 10, announced the discovery of several 
combinations in Hillsborough and Rockingham counties and 
the western parts of Massachusetts; a plan for organizing, 
arming, and joining the enemy; a hogshead of entrenching 
tools hidden under a barn in Hollis; and unusually large 
supplies of liquors, provisions,, and arms in the vicinity of 
Groton, Massachusetts. The committee adds " Interest- 
ing Matters are opening, and it is probable that all our 
Gaols will soon be filled with these more than monsters 
in the Shape of men, who would wreck there Native Coun- 
try in hopes to share some of the Plunder." 

In January, 1777, on the occasion of sending some pris- 
oners of war to Rhode Island, Timothy Walker, Jr., of 
Concord wrote to Col. Nicholas Gilman warning him that it 
was ''vehemently suspected that our Tor}' Gentry in this 
part of the Country" were designing to send information 
to Howe's arm}' by the prisoners. The Committee of 
Safety instructed Capt. John Haven, in command of the 
guard, to search the prisoners with the utmost care, and 
after examination to allow no man to address or approach 
them before embarkation. 

In September the Committee of Safety in Plymouth re- 
ported the discovery of a suspected Royalist meeting. 



They said "The Place and some Persons being Suspected, 
a Secret Spy was Sent out in order to make Discovery, who 
upon Return Reports That at & near the House of Brion 
Sweeneys Northerly of Great Squam Pond in the Town of 
Newholderness (a place very remote from any other humane 
Settlement) was discovered Sundry Persons who by their 
number & Dress did not appear to be the proper Inhabitants 
of that place (no man in that family being Grown up but 
Sweeny himself)." 

In Claremont were a considerable number of genuine 
Royalists, men who sincerely believed the colonies were 
wrong, and who were willing to aid the King's forces to the 
extent of their ability/ even at some risk of discovery and 
its well-known consequences. There never was in New 
Hampshire any organization of Royalists, either for the 
purpose of armed resistance to the Revolutionists, or for 
giving indirect aid to the Crown. In some States, however, 
notably New York, and consequently Vermont, because of 
the powerful New York influences which prevailed through 
all the territory between the Connecticut and the Hudson 
Rivers, the Royalists were numerous and strong enough 
to organize in various ways and for various purposes. 
Claremont may have been affected by a combination of 
two circumstances, proximity to a locality in which Royal- 
ists were bold, separated only by the span of the river, and 
the existence within its borders of an organized parish of 
the Church of England, whose members, though in the 
minority, were active and ardent in their support of the 
little church they had planted so far up in the frontier wild- 
erness. To these men, strong in their belief in a united 
church and state, any attack on the body politic of England 
was almost in the same degree an attack on the church. 

There was in Claremont a hiding' place for Royalists, 
one of a chain of rendezvous extending from New York to 
Canada. It was known as Tory Hole, and was protected 
on three sides by a swamp covered by a thick growth of 
alders, and on the fourth side by a steep bank about 30 
feet high. Here meetings were held in safety for a long 


time, and travellers were sheltered and fed and passed on 
their journey. The 'existence of such a resort was long 
suspected by the Revolutionary party, but it was not dis- 
covered until late in the year 1780. Two men who were 
found there escaped by swimming across the Connecticut 
River and taking refuge on the top of Ascutney Mountain, 
where they were captured while asleep; and, being armed, 
were held as prisoners of war, sent to Boston, and after- 
wards exchanged. 

In December, 1775, twenty-five men of Claremont were 
brought before a joint committee of safety from the towns 
of Claremont, Hanover, Lebanon and Cornish for examina- 
tion, being suspected of Royalism. Among them were Rev. 
Raima Cossitt, rector of the church, and Samuel Cole, 
schoolmaster and catechist under him, and most of the 
others were members of Mr. Cossitt's church. Mr. Cossitt, 
on examination, said "I believe the American Colonies, in 
their dispute with Great Britain, which has now come to 
blood, are unjust, but will not take up arms either against 
the King or country, as my office and circumstances are 
such that I am not obliged thereto. I mean to be on the 
side of the administration, and I had as leave any person 
should call me a damned Tory as not, and take it as an 
affront if people don't call nie a Tory, for I verily believe 
the British troops will overcome by the greatness of their 
power and justice of their cause. " 

The joint committee disarmed all the persons examined, 
and recommended to the Provincial Congress that Capt. 
Benjamin Sumner, Samuel Cole, and Rev. Raima Cossitt, 
as chief advisers and dictators, be placed in confinement. 
They were brought to trial in Charlestown April 10, 177G, 
and were sentenced to be confined to the town limits of 
Claremont until the close of the war unless they prom- 
ised good behavior, Capt. Sumner being required to give 
bonds instead of promises for his release. They were 
forbidden to be seen together except at public worship, 
but Mr. Cossitt was allowed such liberty as was necessary 


for the performance of his ministerial office in preaching, 
baptizing, and visiting the sick. 

Col. John Peters wrote from Quebec July 20, 1778, to his 
brother, Rev. Samuel Peters, in London, as follows: 

"Rev. Dr. Wheelock, President of Dartmouth College 
in New Hampshire, in conjunction with Deacon Bayley, 
Mr. Morey, and Mr. Hurd, all justices of the peace, put an 
end to the Church of England in this .state so early as 1775. 
They seized me. Capt. Peters, and all the judges of Cumber- 
land and Gloucester, the Rev. Mr. Cossitt and Mr. Cole, 
and all the church people for 200 miles up the river and 
confined us in close gaols, after beating and drawing us 
through water and mud. Here we lay some time, and were 
to continue in prison until we abjured the King and signed 
the league and covenant. Many died, one of which was 
Capt. Peter's son. We were removed from the gaol and 
confined in private houses at our own expense. Capt. 
Peters and myself were guarded by twelve rebel soldiers 
while sick in bed, and we paid dearly for this honor; and 
others fared in like manner. I soon recovered from my in- 
disposition, and took the first opportunity and fled to 
Canada, leaving Cossitt, Cole, Peters, Willis, Porter, Sumner, 
Paptin, etc.. in close confinement where they had misery, 
insults, and sickness enough. My flight was in 177(5, since 
which my family arrived at Montreal, and inform me that 
many prisoners died; that Capt. Peters had been tried by 
court martial and ordered to be shot for refusing to lead his 
company against the King's troops. Pie was afterwards 
reprieved but still in gaol, and that he was ruined both in 
health and property; that Cossitt and Cole were alive when 
they came away, but were under confinement, and had more 
insults than any of the loyalists, because they had been 
servants of the Society 1 , which, under pretense (as the rebels 
say) of propagating religion, had propagated loyalty, in 
opposition to the liberties of America." 

Mr. Cossitt himself wrote from New York June 0, 1779, 
to the Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the 

1 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 


Gospel: "I arrived in this city last Sunday by permission, 
with a flag, and am to return in a few days. I trust the 
Society cannot be unacquainted with the persecution the 
loyalists have endured in New England. I have been, by 
the committee, confined as a prisoner in the town of Clare- 
mont ever since the 12th of April, 1775, yet God has pre- 
served my life from the people. I have constantly kept up 
public service, without any omissions, for the King and 
royal family, and likewise made use of the prayer for the 
high court of parliament, and the prayer to be used in time of 
war and tumults; have administered the Lord's Supper on 
every first Sunday in the month, except two Sundays that 
we could not procure any wine. The numbers of my 
parishioners and communicants in Claremont are increased, 
but I have been cruelly distressed with fines for refusing 
entirely to fight against the King. In sundry places 
where I used to officiate, the church people are all dwindled 
away. Some have fled to the King's army for protection, 
some were banished, and many died." 

Mr. Cossitt remained at his post in Claremont until 1785, 
when he was sent as a missionary by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel to Sidney, Cape Breton. He 
died there in 18 J 5. 

Rev. Dr. Hubbard, sometime rector of Trinity church, 
Claremont. in his centennial address of 1871, said 

'^Ye can hardly estimate aright at this distant day, and 
in the midst of circumstances so greatly changed, the posi- 
tion in which churchmen found themselves at the breaking 
out of the Revolutionary war. The period of religious tol- 
eration had not arrived, and the spirit of the ancient con- 
tests which had raged for centuries in the Old World, and 
in a measure spent their force, was here revived in all its 
intense bigotry and malignity. It was not the fear of such 
men as Samuel Cole and Raima Cossitt, in a civil point of 
view, that led to their cruel persecution and abuse. Doubt- 
less they were loyal to the government, and most warmly 
attached to the Church of England. But tliey^ were 
peaceable, law-abiding men. There was no treachery or 


sedition in them. Their own principles taught them to 
obey the powers that be. While the great struggle was 
going on they could not be hired or driven to take up arms 
against the King; neither would they take up arms, nor 
plot nor conspire against the lives and happiness of their 
fellow-citizens. They desired to remain quiet and await 
the decision of Providence. And when that decision came, 
if it were adverse to their hopes, they would be as faithful 
and obedient to the new government as they had been to 
the old." 

The only other Protestant Episcopal Church in New 
Hampshire at this time was Queen's Chapel of Portsmouth, 
now called St. John's church. Its rector was Ptev. Arthur 
Browne, a faithful and beloved priest and a man of spotless 
character. His attitude during the war was that of an 
absolute neutral. There is no record of any charge or 
suspicion against him. His son-in-law, however, Major 
Kobert Rogers, commander of Rogers's Rangers in the 
French and Indian wars, was one of the most active Royal- 
ists, as weli as one of the most famous soldiers of New 
f England. 

In January, 1777, fifteen citizens of Portsmouth were 
arrested by the town committee of safety on suspicion, and 
sent to the state committee at Exeter under 'guard. Among 
them were James Sheafc, Jonathan Warner, Peter and 
John Peirce, Isaac Rindge, and Nathaniel Treadwell, mem- 
bers of some of the most respected and influential families 
of Portsmouth in the days of the province. Among them. 
also, was John Stavers, keeper of the Earl of Halifax inn, a 
tavern which had been a favorite resort of the officers of 
the provincial government and of travellers from England. 
The place was naturally held in suspicion by the Sons of 
Liberty, and was once raided and nearly reduced to ruins. 
It was commonly thought that Royalist meetings were held 
there, and many threats were made against the house and 
its keeper. It is quite probable that these fifteen suspected 
persons, who seem to have been all gathered in at once, and 
among whom was the inn-keeper himself, were in attend- 



ance upon one of these meetings when arrested. Twelve of 
them were released under bonds of £500 each "not to say 
or do anything directly or Indirectly in anywise contrary 
or in Opposition to the American Cause now contending 
for, * * * or the United States of America for & during 
y e Term of one year next coming, and further advise that 
they be very careful and cautious in these times of jealousy 
& danger, in giving any occasion of mistrust to any person 
Whatsomever of their dissatisfaction to the common cause. 
The Committee likewise recommend that People of every 
rank and denomination in this State be careful in detecting 
all persons speaking or conspiring against this or any of the 
United American States, and cause them to be prosecuted 
according to the Laws made & published for that purpose." 

So many Royalists were committed to jail that an under- 
standing of the entire subject cannot be complete without a 
knowledge of the character of the places in which they were 
confined. Each country had its jail, and Rockingham had 
two, one at Portsmouth, old, insecure, and not much used, 
and one at Exeter. The records preserve to our use a very 
good description of the Hillsborough county jail at Amherst, 
second only to that at Exeter in importance during the 
Revolution. Probably the other jails did not greatly differ 
from this in the main points of construction. 

Built in 1772, it was 34 feet long, 26 feet wide, and 17 feet 
high, divided into two stories, probably 9 feet and 8 feet 
respectively. There were lour rooms for the prisoners, each 
11 feet square, two on each floor, but the jail-keeper's rooms 
were 14 feet long. The entry was 7 feet wide, opening into 
the jailer's apartments on one side, and the prisoner's 
quarters on the other. There was no cellar except under 
the end of the building occupied by the jailer. The posts, 
sills, and plates were of white oak, and the rest of the timber 
was chestnut, and the appropriation for the entire work 
was £200. The fence was 8 feet high, well spiked, and 
stood 10 feet from the building on all sides. The new jail 
was occupied in October of the same year, and at the same 
time an addition 18 feet in length was ordered to be built 


on the jailer's end of the building. On the 5th of November 
a stove for use in the prison was voted by the court of 
general. sessions. Later in the month the sheriff protested 
that the jail was not secure, and it was ordered that the 
prisoners' rooms be lathed and plastered, and that iron 
bars, 3 inches apart, be set in the window of the lower north 
room. But laths and plaster were not effective in prevent- 
ing escapes, and in August, 1773, two good locks and window 
shutters for the same room were provided. Joseph Kelley, 
who had escaped once and threatened to do so again, was 
put in chain's. In November even the doors had to be 
fastened, and two locks and a padlock were ordered; the 
fence, also, was insufficient, and the court ordered it to be 
built 12 feet high and moved to 20 feet from the west and 
north sides of the building. Even this failed to prevent com- 
munication with the prisoners from the outside. In De- 
cember, 1774, the sheriff went to the court in despair, and 
represented that his locks and hinges were all broken, many 
of the doors smashed, and that a large hole was cut through 
the floor in the north room, and that all his prisoners were 
gone. The court responded with orders for the repair of the 
building in the best and strongest possible manner, but 
two years later, fourteen New York Royalists confined there 
broke jail and escaped in one night. 

In 1777, statements being made to the Committee of 
Safety that the prisoners in Exeter jail had become very 
sickly on account of bad air, the keeper of the jail, 
Simeon Ladd, was instructed July 12 to permit the pris- 
oners, one half the number at a time, to come out of close 
confinement into the two front chambers and to remain 
there under double guard from 6 o'clock in the morning until 
G o'clock in the afternoon. A fire was allowed in the lower 
jail from Dec. 13, 1777, to May 10, 1778, and the allowance 
of wood was half a cord a week. Apparently no lire was 
kept on the second floor. The following winter, however, 
the committee was more merciful, and allowed fires both 
up-stairs and down, and ordered them to be lighted as early 
as Nov. 4. Complaints from the prisoners of sickness on 


account of foul air, unsanitary conditions, and vermin were 
very numerous. 

The number of Royalists actually confined in prison was 
far exceeded by those sentenced to certain limitations. The 
common penalty in the less serious cases was confinement to 
the bounds of the town in which the defendant lived. Some- 
times this restriction was enlarged to include an adjoining 
town or two, and occasionally the whole county; and some 
were forbidden to leave their estates except to attend public 

The first man in New Hampshire to suffer for his suspected 
Royalist tendencies was Benjamin Thompson of Concord, 
afterwards Count Rumford, who was driven from his nat- 
ural allegiance to the colonies to seek protection within the 
British lines by continued unreasonable persecution, in- 
spired and promoted by private jealousy and malice. Mr. 
Thompson had come from Woburn, Massachusetts, his 
native town, to Concord, New Hampshire, in 1772 to teach 
school. He had not a college education, but was possessed 
of a natural love for art. music, and especially for natural 
science. Before he had been in Concord six months he 
married Sarah, widow of Benjamin Rolfe and daughter 
of Rev. Timothy Walker > a woman of many charms, for she 
had youth, beauty, family, and the largest and finest estate 
in town. Immediately after his marriage he became ac- 
quainted with Gov. Wentworth, and found in him a man of 
charming manners, culture, wealth, and a taste for science 
which enabled them at once to meet on common ground. 
Mr. Thompson's errand to the Governor was to propose a 
survey of the White Mountains, and to his great delight the 
Governor not only thought well of the plan but offered the 
loan of some valuable instruments and books he had in his 
house at Wolfeborough, and proposed to go with the part}' 
himself if public business should allow. It is not strange 
that such Haltering interest and attentions from the Royal 
Governor to the boy, for he was then only 20 years old, 
secured his enthusiastic and devoted admiration. The 
Governor's friend-hip was further manifested in 1773, when 


he gave Mr. Thompson a major's commission in a regiment 
of militia, and so placed him in a position of command over 
many officers and men of twice his age, and infinitely his 
superior in military knowledge and experience. It is a fair 
assumption that at his age his mind was fully occupied with 
his recent triumphs, his marriage and social position, his 
friendship with the Governor, and his military rank, all 
accomplished within about a year, to the exclusion of public 
affairs, in which he had never participated nor shown any 
particular interest. He did not see the intensity of the 
Revolutionary feeling among the people about him, nor was 
his knowledge of and experience with human nature suffi- 
cient to show him the normal result of an inordinate social 
attachment to the- chief executive officer of an unpopular 
.government. The jealousy and suspicion thus aroused were 
probably the primary cause of -the hostile acts which soon 
followed. There was another contributing cause, but it was 
not of sufficient importance to have caused him more than 
the temporary inconvenience which a hundred others suf- 
fered under unjust suspicions which were soon cleared 
away. After his marriage Major Thompson became, of 
necessity, a farmer, and employed among others two men 
who afterwards proved to be deserters from the British 
army, desirous of returning to their duties but restrained by 
fear of the penalties for their crime. They were sent, back 
to Boston by Major Thompson with a letter to Gen. Gage 
asking that they be pardoned and restored to their duties. 

Nothing else appears upon which any suspicion of his 
political principles could be based. But public opinion 
sometimes seems to need very little tangible foundation, and 
it was unalterably set against him. Envy, hatred, malice, 
and all uncharitableness pursued him from all sides. There 
was nothing wrong in particular, but he was in that position 
which is most nearly hopeless in practical politics; he was 
"in wrong.' 7 In the summer of 1774 he was summoned 
before a committee of th^ citizens of Concord on the charge 
of being unfriendly to American liberty. No proof was 
found, he denied the accusation, and was discharged. But 


the hostility of his neighbors continued to increase, and in- 
November, by the advice and assistance of his brother-in- 
law, Judge Timothy Walker, he left his wife and child and 
secretly went back to Woburn, whence he wrote to his 
father-in-law Dec. 24: 

" Reverend Sir. The time and circumstances of my leav- 
ing the town of Concord have, no doubt, given you great 
uneasiness, for which I am extremely sorry. Nothing 
short of the most threatening danger could have induced 
me to leave my friends and family; but when I learned 
from persons of undoubted veracity, and those Whose 
friendship I could not suspect, that my situation was re- 
duced to this dreadful extremity, I thought it absolutely 
necessary to abscond for a while, and seek a friendly asylum 
in some distant part. 

" Fear of miscarriage prevents my giving a more particular 
account of this affair; but this you may rely and depend 
upon, that I never did, nor (let my treatment be what it 
will) ever will do any action that may have the most dis- 
tant tendency to injure the true interest of this my native 
country. * * * 

"The plan against me was deeply laid, and the people 
of Concord were not the only ones that were engaged in 
it. But others, to the distance of twenty miles, were 
extremely officious on this occasion. My persecution 
was determined on, and my (light unavoidable. And had 
I not taken the opportunity to leave the town the moment 
I did, another morning had effectually cut off my retreat." 

January 11, 1775, he wrote in reply to Parson Walker's 

letter urging him to return to Concord, * * * "As to 

any concessions that I could make, I fear that it would 

be of no consequence, for I cannot possibly, with a clear 

conscience, confess myself guilty of doing anything to 

the disadvantage of this country, but quite the reverse." 
* * * 

But peace was not in Woburn. He was arrested there 
May 15, 177."), on the same indefinite charges. Again no 
proof was produced, and he w$g discharged. This second 


prosecution was undoubtedly instigated by reports from 
Concord, or from New Hampshire soldiers at Cambridge. 
Smarting under prosecution which his conscience told him 
was groundless, and discouraged by its persistence, he 
turned to the camp of Washington's army at Cambridge in 
the hope that his military rank might be recognized, and 
that he might be given a command in the American army 
which would reinstate him in public favor. Unsuccessful 

fin this he endeavored to establish himself in the business 
of supplying non-commissioned officers' epaulets for the 
army, and again he found hostile influences too powerful 
for him to overcome. In his letter of August 14 he wrote 
"I have been driven from the camp by the clamours of the 
New Hampshire people. ■■ There was no other way to turn 
for justice. Civil life and the military camp alike were 
permeated with hostility towards him, and on the loth of 
October, 1775, he left Woburn in company with his step- 
brother, and took refuge on board the British frigate 
Scarborough in the harbor of Newport, a Royalist by com- 
pulsion of the Revolutionists. 

As to the real allegiance of his heart and mind, I present 
these extracts from his letter of Aug. 14, 1775, to Rev. 
Timothy Walker, his wife's father: 

* * * "I am not so thoroughly convinced that my 

leaving the town of Concord was wrong (considering the 

circumstances at the time) as I am that it was wrong in me 

to do it without your knowledge or advice. This, Sir, is a 

step which 1 have always repented, and for which I am 

now sincerely and heartily sorry, and ask your forgiveness. 
* * * 

"I was peculiarly happy in having my brother "Walker's 
approbation of my conduct. But notwithstanding he 
thought me innocent, yet lie dared not appear in my behalf; 
he saw the current was against me, and was afraid to in- 
terfere. * * ■ ' * 

"As to my being instrumental in the return of some 
deserters by procuring them a pardon, 1 freely acknowledge 
that I was. But will you give me leave to say that what I 



did was done from principles the most unexceptionable, the 
most disinterested, a sincere desire to serve my King and 
country, and from motives of pity to those unfortunate 
wretches who had deserted the service to which they had 
voluntarily and solemnly tied themselves, and to which 
they were desirous of returning. * * * 

"But as to * * * maintaining a long and expensive 
correspondence with G(overno)r W(entwor)th or a suspi- 
cious correspondence, to say the least, with G(overno)rs 
W(entwor)th and G(ag x ie, I would beg leave to observe that, 
at the time Governor Went worth first honored me with his 
notice, it was at a time when he was as high in the esteem of 
his people in general as was any Governor in America, at a 
time when even Mr. Sullivan was proud to be thought/ his 
friend. * * * 

" 'Tis true, fir, I always thought myself honored with 
his friendship, and was even fond of a correspondence with, 
him, a correspondence which was purely private and 
friendly, and not political, and for which I cannot find it in 
my heart to either express my sorrow or ask forgiveness 
of the public. 

"As to my maintaining a correspondence with Governor 
Gage, this part of the charge is entirely without foundation,, 
as I never received a letter from him in my life; nor did I 
ever write him one, except about half a dozen lines which 
I sent him just before I left Concord may be called a letter, 
and which contained no intelligence, nor anything of a 
public nature, but was only to desire that the soldiers who 
returned from Concord might be ordered not to inform any 
person by whose intercession their pardon was granted 
them. * * * 

"And notwithstanding I have the tenderest regard for 
my wife and family and really believe I have an equal re- 
turn of love and affection from them; though I feel the 
keenest distress at the thoughts of what Mrs. Thompson and 
my parents and friends will sutler on my account; and 
though I foresee and realize the distress, poverty, and wretch- 
edness that must unavoidably attend my pilgrimage in 


unknown lands, destitute of fortune, friends, and acquaint- 
ances, yet all these evils appear to me more tolerable than 
the treatment which I meet with from the hands of mine 
ungrateful countrymen." 

''I must also beg a continuance of your prayers for me, 
that my present afflictions may have a suitable impression 
on. my mind, and that in due time I may be extricated out of 
all my troubles. That this may be the case, that the happy 
time may soon come when I may return to my family in 
peace and safety, and when every individual in America 
may sit down under his own vine, and under his own fig- 
tree, and have none to make him afraid, is the constant and 
devout wish of 

Your dutiful and affectionate son 

Benj a Thompson." 

His talents were lost to America at a time when tliey were 
most needed. His genius for organization was driven to a 
foreign soil when it should have been devoted to the es- 
tablishment of a new government in the land of his birth; 
and all this because a few of his friends and relatives in 
Concord did not have the courage to stand with him, face 
his jealous accusers, and declare his innocence in accordance 
with their belief.' As a people and as individuals we can 
never cease to regret that so unworthy motives as jealousy 
and suspicion deprived America in her time of need of the 
services of the greatest social scientist of his day, founder 
of a new school of social economy that taught the world 
how to care for the poor by teaching the poor how to care for 
themselves, the vital principles of which endure to this day. 

His genius was officially recognized by the United States 
government in an invitation in 1799 to return to America 
and organize the Military Academy at West Point, and he 
was at the same time offered the commission of inspector- 
general of artillery in the United States army. This in- 
vitation he was obliged to decline on account of his official 
obligations to the 1 Bavarian government, and his labors in 
the founding of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 
In appreciation of the invitation he left, by his will, all his- 



books, plans, and designs relating to military affairs to the 
United States Military Academy. 

In 1774, when Gen. Gage found quarters lacking for his 
troops in Boston, and sought to provide for his men by 
building new barracks, he was much embarrassed by the fact 
that the carpenters of Boston and vicinity had joined the 
American forces and withdrawn from the city. Conse- 
quently he was obliged to send into the country for the 
necessary skilled workmen. Gov. John Wentworth, in a 
letter to the Earl of Dartmouth dated Nov. 15, 1774, says: 
''General Gage having desired me to furnish some carpenters 
to build and prepare quarters for his Majesty's troops in 
Boston, the carpenters there being withdrawn, and the 
service much distressed; I immediately engaged and' sent 
him a party of able men. which arrived to the General, and. 
are very useful. ' ; 

This was in October, 1774, and the news of the sending of 
the artificers to Boston soon spread abroad. Nicholas 
Austin of Middleton was suspected of being an agent of the 
Governor in engaging and forwarding the carpenters. The 
muster of militia which was held in Rochester the first week 
in November afforded an opportunity for these rumors and 
suspicions to crystallize, and the Sons of Liberty proposed 
to visit Mr. Austin in a body and ascertain the truth. But 
some of the cooler and more conservative among them, fear- 
ing hasty and violent action if this plan should be carried 
out by the people in their excitement, proposed that Mr. 
Austin be requested to meet the Sons of Liberty at some 
time and place to be agreed upon. Wise counsel prevailed, 
and the latter plan was adopted. The Rochester committee 
of correspondence notified Mr. Austin to meet them at the 
house of Stephen Wentworth, innholder, in Rochester on 
the following Tuesday, Nov. 8. 

On the day appointed a large concourse of the people 
of Rochester and the neighboring towns met to hear the 
case. Mr. Austin appeared, and after taking oath before 
John Plummer, Esq., gave a rather lame statement of his 
part in the affair, lie testified that he spoke to only four 


of the men hired for Gen. Gage, and told them to go to Gov. 
Wentworth and speak to him; that he did not tell the men 
they were to go to Boston, although he suspected that to be 
the case from a remark the Governor had made; that the 
Governor told him the people would be dissatisfied when the 
affair became known, but, thinking it would be best, he had 
proceeded; that he told the men the general of the army 
would pay them their wages. 

Mr. Austin was then forced to his knees in full view of the 
assembly, and compelled to sign and repeat the following 
confession and declaration: 

" Before this Company I confess I have been aiding and 
assisting in sending men to Boston to build Barracks for the 
Soldiers to live in, at which you have Reason justly to be 
offended, which I am sorry for, and humbly ask your For- 
giveness, and I do affirm that for the future I never will be 
aiding or assisting in any Wise whatever in Act or Deed 
contrary to the Constitution of the Country, as Witness, 
my hand." 

And he was not, for no record of any further action 
against him is found. He represented Wakefield, Middle- 
ton, and Effingham in the convention to consider the 
Federal constitution in 1788, and was a member of the 
House of Representatives the same year. 

Eleazer Russell, long time postmaster of New Hampshire 
and naval officer of the port of Portsmouth, read the Asso- 
ciation Test literally as an obligation to do active service, 
for which he was physically incapacitated. He also had a 
strong element of Quakerism in his character, and a sense of 
honor which would not allow T him to do a popular deed in vio- 
lation of his moral principles. He explained his refusal to 
sign the Association Test in a letter to Meshech Wcare, chair- 
man of the Committee of Safety, Aug. 17, 1776, in which he 

"On the 4th day of May last, Co 11 Wentworth, of the 
Committee for the Town of Portsmouth, brot me the As- 
sociation to Subscribe, At a time I was so ill as to be in- 


capable of any thing. Upon growing better, I thot largely 
of the matter, and, finding my mind perplex'd, wrote him 
on the Subject; which letter, at my request, he consented 
to lay before the Honora bIe Committee of Safety. 

"Till yesterday I never knew but the Association paper> 
with my letter, had been in the Committees hands for more 
than two months: And now I find myself bound by every 
principle of Honor, Duty, and gratitude to enlarge upon the 

"It was, and is, meerly to secure the morality of my mind 
that I was reluctant to put my name to it — Solemnly to 
bind my-self to the performance of what nature & necessity 
rendered impossible, I started at the thot of. And, tho my 
health is mended. So wreck d Are my nerves that I could 
not do one hours Military Duty to Save my life. 

"The Article of shedding human blood, in me, is not a 
humor, but a principle — not an evasion, but a fact. It was 
received in early life, and has 'Grown with my growth & 
Strengthend with my Strength' — not a partiality for 
British more than Savage blood, For, al circumstances con- 
• sidered, I think the latter more innocent than the former. 

"From the first Injuries clone America by Great-Britain; 
my thots took fire on the Subject; And have been conceived 
& uttered, in one unvaried Strain, To the highest personage 
and down to the meanest enemy, without hesitation or 
reserve, So that I can challenge all mankind to impeach me 
to my country. 

"To enlarge on the matter in my own favor would be 
easy, but might appear indelicate, and to be Wholly Silent 
in the case would be criminal. 

"Therefore believing my conduct is to be judg'd by 
persons of Liberal Sentiments and Sentiments of mind — I 
am, with the greatest respect. Honorable Sir 

"Your obliged & dutiful Hum 6 Serv fc 

E Russell." 

James Sheafe, one of the fifteen men arrested in Ports- 
mouth, had no further trouble with the R evolutionists 



during the war, and became United States Senator from 
New Hampshire in 1801. But in his political campaigns 
he was severely reminded by Q#Ji. Sullivan of his doubtful 
principles during the Revolution. 

Joshua Atherton of Amherst, an able lawyer, and a 
wealthy, educated, and cultured gentleman, was opposed 
to the war because he believed that the result could not be 
other than disastrous to the colonies, and that, in the end, 
they would not only fail to gain relief from any of the op- 
pression under which they labored, but would add a burden 
of debt, and be subjected to whatever vindictive measures 
might be enacted upon a conquered people. He suffered 
some persecution, but his tact and unfailing good-nature 
saved him from, much more. He was in custody for nearly 
a year and a half, and in prison so much of that time that 
his health was permanently injured. After the war he re- 
sumed his practice, and filled the office of representative to 
the General Court, delegate to the convention to consider 
the Federal constitution, State Senator, and Attorney- 
General. But his reputation as a Royalist was always a 
bar to his gaining the full confidence of the people, and for 
the last 13 years of his life he was a physical and mental 

Among those who declined to sign the Association Test 
because they considered themselves bound in honor by oath 
of office under the Crown was Theodore Atkinson. A mem- 
ber of an old, wealth)', and aristocratic family of Portsmouth, 
he was connected with the Royal government in New 
Hampshire in some capacity, civil, military, or judicial, 
nearly all his life after graduating from Harvard College in 
171S. At the outbreak of the war he was Secretary of the 
province, a position he had held continuously since 1741, 
except from 1762 to 1769, when the office was filled by his 
son, Theodore, Jr., and he was also Chief Justice of the 
province, having been appointed in 1754. He had married 
Hannah, daughter of Lieut .-Gov. John Wentworth, and 
was accordingly a brother-in-law of Gov. Benning Went- 
worth, and, by marriage, an uncle of Gov. John Wentworth, 


the last Royal Governor. Sabine calls him a Royalist, but 
a careful examination of the case shows that his sense of 
honor did not allow him to violate his official oath, and 
that after his office was taken away from him he main- 
tained a strict neutrality which was respected b}^ his towns- 

In July, 1775, the Provincial Congress sent a committee to 
remove the records of the province from Portsmouth inland 
to Exeter for greater safety, as the defences of Portsmouth 
were not capable of repelling the British ships of war which 
were daily expected. When the committee called upon 
Secretary Atkinson July 4 for the records of his office, he 
refused to deliver them, saying that such an act would be 
contrary to his honor and his oath of office. In a letter to 
Gov. Wentworth describing the incident the Secretary 
says: "After an hour's moderate conversation, and without 
any heat, the Committee left me, and I was in hopes I should 
not have any farther visit from them, but on the sixth in- 
stant they came again and urged the delivery. I still 
refused as before, and told them they well knew it was not 
in my power to defend the office by force of arms; if they 
took the records etc., or any of them, they must be an- 
swerable. They then entered the office, and took all the 
files and records belonging to the Secretary's office, except 
those books in which were recorded the several charter 
grants of land, which were with your Excellency to take some 
minutes from. The Committee offered me their receipt, 
agreeable to their orders from the Congress, but I refused, 
being no otherwise concerned than barely as a spectator. 
They then cleared the office of all the books and papers, and 
transported them to Exeter, where they are (I am in- 
formed) to remain until further orders." 

On the second visit of the committee the Secretary made 
a written reply to their demands, which he filed in the ar- 
chives, where it remains to this day. 

"In answer to your request touching my delivery of the 
records and files belonging and now in the Secretary's office 
of the Province, I beg leave to acquaint you that I am by 


his Majesty's Special Commission appointed Secretary of 
this Province during his Majesty's pleasure & my residence 
in the Province, and agreeable thereto I was Admitted and 
sworn into that office and had the keeping of the archives be- 
longing thereto deliver d to me and put under my Direction & 
in my keeping. You cannot but see my Honour and my 
Oath forbids my consent or even my connivance in such a 
Delivery, unless accompanied with his Majesty's superced- 
ed or my not being in this Province. Gentlemen — the Diffi- 
culties, I may say the Distresses in the Province, & indeed of 
the whole Continent are such that every cause of additional 
Perplexity need be avoided. I have, Gentlemen, no tho tB of 
attempting to maintain the security of the Records in my 
custody by force — this I know would have no good effect ; my 
aim is only to remove any grounds of complaint that may 
be against me for either Neglect or mal-Praetice in the Ex- 
ecution of my said office. ; ' M ajor William Weeks was chair- 
man of the committee, and in a letter to Gov. Went worth 
dated July 10, 1775,, the Secretary says, "Major Weeks 
seemed sorrowful that he was appointed." 

Judge Atkinson was at this time 77 years old, and re- 
spected, honored, and beloved throughout the province. 
He retired tc private life, and no suggestion of slander or 
suspicion was ever brought against his name. He was not 
spared to see the outcome of the struggle, but died in 
Portsmouth Sept, 29, 1779. 

To introduce a very different and far less attractive 
kind of Royalist, let me cite the case of Major Batcheller. 
Breed Batcheller of Nelson, son of John, was born in Wen- 
ham, Mass., Dec. 11, 1740. At the age of 1G lie served in 
Capt. John Burke's Falltown company in the Crown Point 
expedition of 1756. He was also in service the following 
year, and in the campaigns of 1758 and the Crown Point 
expedition of 1759 in Capt, William Paige's Hard wick 
company. His father diexl in Brookfield, Massachusetts, 
June 10, 1765, leaving him some property, and the same 
year he went to Nelson, then an unsettled town, where he 
purchased nearly 9000 acres of land as a speculation, and 


afterwards added to it large tracts in Marlborough and 
Hollis. Within ten years he had established a tavern and 
built the only grist mill in town. 

Breed Batchellcr was an arrogant, blustering, profane, 
purse-proud man, a man of many enemies, and always in 
trouble. He refused to sign the Association Test, probably 
because all his neighbors did sign it, and because he feared 
the result of rebellion or a revolution on his property. 
When the news of the battle of Lexington reached Nelson 
the local militia hurriedly assembled and marched to 
Cambridge. Major Batcheller was the ranking officer in 
the town, but instead of taking command he hastened off 
to Keene, ostensibly to find out if the rumor of the battle 
were true. He followed his men to Cambridge and spent 
several weeks there, but merely as a spectator, as the officers 
and men refused to recognize his authority. His allegiance 
was already under suspicion. About the time of the Boston 
Tea Party he had defied public opinion by bringing home 
from Canada a quantity of India tea and offering it for sale 
in Nelson and surrounding towns. 

In December, 1775, he was summoned before the town 
committee of safety, and, though he appeared, he refused to 
answer any of their questions and denied their jurisdiction. 

Josephine Rugg testified that Major Batcheller damned 
the committee and threatened to kill the first man that 
should come to take him. 

Jonathan Felt heard him say the committee should not 
come into his house, but might stand at the door and talk to 
his hogs, and that he would be tried by fire and brimstone 
before he would be judged by the committee. 

Meanwhile Major Batcheller continued his tea-selling 
trips, and complaints were made by various town commit- 
tees of safety to the General Court. The failure of the 
Nelson committee to lodge him in jail caused the town, at a 
meeting held Sept. 17, 1776, to appoint a new committee, 
and the major was soon brought to jail in Keene. His 
case came before the House of Representatives March 20, 
1777. nnd he was placed under bonds of £500 and confined 


to the town limits of Nelson on parole. His bounds were 
afterwards enlarged to allow him to visit his lands in Marl- 

This was altogether too much freedom to suit his fellow- 
townsmen; they protested most strenuously, and renewed 
their efforts for his imprisonment. Their petition for a 
new trial was granted. New evidence was introduced, 
upon which he was ordered to be closely confined until 
further order of the General Court or Committee of Safety. 
Witnesses testified that he swore that if a mob came after 
him he would stick the small pox into them, though he 
would not give it to a dog; that he would rather be hanged 
than come under an independent government; that he 
damned Col. Hale and the Congress, and said he would 
rather be tried by hell-hounds than by the committee; 
that he drank the King's health and damnation and con- 
fusion to the States. 

But notwithstanding his profanity and violent language, 
some of which is too vile for repetition, he was neither. a 
Royalist nor a Revolutionist at heart, but was solely con- 
cerned about the effect of war on his property, as many wit- 
nesses testified that he said he would be very glad if the 
differences between the King and the colonies could be set- 
tled without bloodshed on either side. J 

Although sentenced, he was not yet in prison. He was 
hunted like a wild beast, and lived for some time in a cave 
not far from his home still known as "Batcheller's den," 
where be was supplied with food by his wife and a kind- 
hearted neighbor. Tradition says that one day his pur- 
suers, being weary, sat down to rest directly over his cave. 
and so near that he could hear their terrible threats. Con- 
vinced that only by escape from the country could he save 
his life, he fled, so closely followed that he was obliged to 
clamber down the face of an almost perpendicular cliff 
by a narrow, winding cleft since called "Batcheller's stairs.'' 
He joined Burgoyne's army, and was made a captain in the 
Queen's Rangers. His company formed a part of". Col. 
Baum's force at Bennington, where he was severely wounded 


in the shoulder. He was sent to Canada with the other 
wounded, and afterwards returned to New York, where he 
remained until the close of the war. Then he went with 
the British troops to Digby, Nova Scotia, and followed a 
life of dissipation. In 17S5 he fell out of his boat in the 
Annapolis basin, and was drowned. His wife and five 
children were left in Nelson in destitute circumstances, but 
were allowed a home and a small allowance by the State out 
of his confiscated estate. 

Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, founder of Dartmouth College, 
was accused of Toryism for no other reason than that in 
1775 he celebrated Thanksgiving at the college on the 16th 
of November instead of the 30th. The 16th was the date 
established in the Connecticut proclamation, which he re- 
ceived first; and as the New Hampshire proclamation had 
often failed to reach him until after the day named therein, 
he had been accustomed to observing some day in Novem- 
ber most convenient to himself and the college. . "But," 
he says, "I soon heard there was a great clamor in the 
neighborhood * * * and that it was spreading fast 
abroad as though we were like to be all undone; that I should 
be speedily sent for to Exeter, 150 miles, to answer for it 
before the Congress as a Tory." The clamor was so great 
that he finally consented to preach another sermon on the 
30th. This only made matters worse, and the Doctor says 
"a doleful smoke we have." To clear up the smoke he was 
obliged to call upon the committees of safety of Hanover, 
Lebanon, Plainneld, and Cornish, who completely ex- 
onerated Dr. Wheelock, and charged John Paine of Hanover 
with the responsibility for the slander. 

There were other Royalists quite as distinguished, as 
interesting, as picturesque, as nny I have mentioned, though 
perhaps not as available as types of certain classes. 
Among these were Col. John Fenton, member of the 
General Court from Plymouth, who took refuge in the 
house of Gov. Wentworth, and was persuaded to come 
forth' only by planting a cannon in the street before the 
house, and bringing it to bear on the front door; and Major 


Robert, Rogers, explorer, adventurer, soldier, and the best 
Indian fighter in New England, who has come down to us 
in story and legend as a hero of those strenuous days; but 
he was, in truth, a man sadly devoid of moral principle, of 
whom his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Arthur Browne 
of Portsmouth, said in her petition for divorce in 1778, that 
at the time of their marriage in June, 1761, he was "a 
person of some Character and distinction (tho' your peti- 
tioner married him solely in Obedience to the will of her 
parents, friends, etc.)." Then follows her sad story of de- 
sertion six days after the marriage, his infidelity, debauch- 
ery, and drunkenness, which the General Court found to be 
true, and granted the divorce. 

But we had other Royalists than our own in New Hamp- 
shire, and more of them. During the last three months of 
1776 231 Royalists, mostly from Albany and Dutchess 
counties, were exiled from New York to New Hampshire. 
Others were sent to Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Penn- 
sylvania. There were not prisons enough in New York 
to hold all those under arrest, and the committees for detect- 
ing conspiracies thought that by sending them away from 
their homes and scattering them abroad many conspiracies 
might be prevented, and the possibilities of organization 
much lessened. Before sending any to New Hampshire 
the committee asked the advice of Lieut. -Col. Joseph Welch, 
who was in command of two companies of Col. Thomas 
Tasli's regiment of New Hampshire militia, doing guard 
duty at Fishkill during the session of the New York con- 
vention. Col. Welch replied that he had no doubt the 
State of New Hampshire would willingly aid the State of 
New York in this matter to the extent of her ability. 

According to the statements made by these men. many 
of which are on file in our archives, they were arrested, in 
many cases without warrants, confined 'without specific 
charges against them, and sent without notice 250 miles 
on foot to Exeter without sufficient clothing, money, or any 
of the necessaries required on such a journey through the 
wilderness. They came in small parties under guard, and on 


arrival at Exeter were delivered to the State Committee of 
Safety for disposal. The commanding officer of each guard 
bore a list of the prisoners in his charge, and on these lists 
those considered by the New York committee as the most 
dangerous were marked for close confinement, and were 
committed to jail in Exeter, Dover, and Amherst. The 
others were allowed to take lodgings in any but the seaport 
towns on any terms they could make, and at their own 

The New Hampshire government was far more lenient 
in its treatment of the New York Royalists than of its own. 
Many were allowed under bonds to return home, or to go 
to friends and relatives in Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
When those in jail escaped they were not strenuously pur- 
sued. By the end of 1777 they were all gone. 

On the 18th of November, 1776, a party of more than a 
hundred New York Royalists passed through Worcester, 
Massachusetts, on the way to New Hampshire. The pitiful 
sight of these wretched, shivering, foot-sore exiles produced 
such an effect on the people of Worcester that the Commit- 
tee of Safety, sitting that day, passed a most remarkable 

This very long document says in part: " * * * as 
the resolve of the state on the 8th day of May, 1775, was 
a temporary provision, and has had its operation; as the 
resolution of our predecessors in office, disarming and 
confining to this town a number of its inhabitants, was 
expressly to pie vent their joining our avowed enemies, and 
to deprive them of the means of obstructing measures 
adopted for the common defense: * * * as this day's 
spectacle of wretched, deluded objects, the ruined, exiled 
grovelings, spued out from a sister State, is a serious warning 
to persons sporting with the feelings of an whole continent, 
be they whom, where, or what they may; and the Worcester 
jail, filled with the same engaging geniuses will remain a 
standing memento of future dangers to the unfriendly; as 
the Congress for the continent have supposed that there 
were some from weakness deceived, others from apprehen- 


sions that British power was irresistable, frightened into 
opposition, and have recommended such as subjects for 
kindness, reason, and reformation; * * * as, early in 
the dispute, when the expediency of measures was the topick 
of the day, possibly a mere difference in opinion was the 
too slender grounds of some hasty suspicions, and a sub- 
sequent change of sentiment and conduct may have laid 
the foundations for forgiveness and friendship, which are 
equally Christian and political duties; * * * as the 
restraining of an Englishman to a single town is in derogation 
of common right, depriving him of his arms an infraction on 
liberty, and recording him a Tory stamping him with in- 
famy, and cannot be justified but upon principles of publick 
necessity: * * * Therefore 

"Resolved, That it is inexpedient that the resolution 
of the late Committee of this town, disarming and confining 
a number of its inhabitants, be any longer in force, that 
such persons once more be put upon a standing with the 
rest of their fellow-Country men; that they be allowed the 
privileges of Englishmen, of friends to their country, of 
passing where and when they please, until they evidence by 
their conduct and behaviour a different character; and' 
that such as have arms in the possession of the Committee 
may receive the same b}' making application to Mr. Bald- 
win, their chairman. 

"2dly, Resolved. That it be recommended to all true, 
firm and tried friends to their country to endeavor to con- 
vince persons of every degree, character, and complexion, 
that, the cause we are engaged in is of too much dignity to be 
sullied by rashness, too important, too seriously important, 
to be weakened by tumult, divisions, and party strife; 
that liberty received strength and vigour from prudence 
and consideration; that justice, equity, regularity, and, in 
some instances, moderation, are her closest friends; that 
she courts virtue as her bosom companion, and shuns vice 
as her dangerous enemy; and therefore, equally avoiding 
feverish fits of political heat and cold, banishing from their 
breast all personal prejudices, private piques, narrow opin- 



ions, illiberal distinctions, and unbecoming jealousies; 
displaying a magnanimity proportional to the importance- 
and danger of the struggle, cultivating harmony of sentiment 
and unanimity of councils, and carefully distinguishing 
between the friend and the foe, that it is wisdom (acting 
discreetly," firmly, unitedly, and spiritedly) to receive all 
such to their favour, friendship, and confidence who will 
give ample and satisfactory assurances of their readiness 
to join in the defence of their much-injured country, and 
their steady, persevering attachment to her glorious cause; 
at the same time to exercise a vigilant attention to those 
who secretly influence under the principles of an affected 
neutrality, and those who may labour to conceal themselves 
under the despicable cloak of a cunning duplicity, if any 
such there be. 

"3rdlyj Resolved, That it be recommended to the good 
people of this town that they use their utmost endeavors 
immediately to equip themselves with every implement of 
war, as the necessary means of defence from a foreign attack 
or an internal insurrection/' 

A sad sight must have been seen, and a sad state of 
affairs must have been realized, to have brought forth, 
from a Committee of Safety, legally constituted guardian 
of the liberties of its constituents, such a powerful descrip- 
tion of the havoc wrought to the American cause by unjust 
and hasty suspicion, personal enmity, and unfortunate 
misunderstanding, ail masquerading in the garb of patriot- 
ism, and such a masterly exposition of the attitude of the 
Revolutionists as it should have been. A great sense of 
right and justice, and a strong belief in their final victory 
run through the whole, seeking to expand ideas which 
were narrow, and to overthrow methods begotten, of a first 
instinctive fear and consequent hasty action. 

It is not my purpose to attempt a partisan defense of 
the Royalist, but only to present some facts which seem 
to disprove the popular idea that he was a raging fiend with 
a cloven hoof and a forked tail. The Royalists were Ameri- 
cans, like the Revolutionists: socially, intellectually, morally, 



they were like their opponents, no worse, no better. They 
had no national, .state, or other civil organizations. The 
whole Royalist party in the colonies was made up of in- 
dividuals here and there, of all classes, of all stations in life, 
who did not wish, for various reasons, to dissolve their 
allegiance to the Crown. A general definition of the Royal- 
ist of the Revolutionary period would be one who did not 
agree with the majority on the main issue of the time; and 
the fact of that difference of opinion constituted him a 
traitor in the eyes of that majority. We forget, as our 
forefathers did, that it was the Revolutionist, not the 
Royalist, who w T as seeking to overthrow an established 
government, and that the Royalist was the man who re- 
fused to violate his oath of allegiance to the government 
under which he had been born and had grown to man's 
estate. . That the Revolutionists were justified we can have 
no doubt, but that did not deprive the Royalist of the right 
to hold to his own opinion so long as he did not interfere 
with the rights of others. When he did seek to interfere 
with the purposes of the Revolutionists by becoming active 
in the cause of the enemy, then, and not until then, did he 
become guilty of treason under American law. All the 
Revolutionists were traitors under English law, but they 
freed themselves from the operation of that law by their 
victory in arms. 

Viewing the Tory as our who opposed the government 
under which he lived in time of war, have we not had them 
in every war? I doubt if there has been a war in the history 
of civilization in which there have not been, in the territory 
of each side, some sympathizers with the enemy. To go 
no farther back than the memory of this generation, the 
Mexican war was opposed by the entire Whig party; there 
were Tories in the War of the Rebellion; they were called 
Abolitionists in the South and Copper-Heads in the North. 
In the Spanish and Philippine wars there were Tories, but 
they were called Anti-Imperialists. It is a great commen- 
tary on the change which growth, prosperity, and success 
have wrought in the spirit of this nation that the Royalists 


of the Revolution were arrested, tried, and imprisoned, while 
the Anti-Imperialists were allowed to publicly give moral 
aid and encouragement to an enemy in arms against the 
government of the United States without the slightest 
molestation, either official or private, while that govern- 
ment went on its chosen way with calm and dignified tol- 

It is to the credit of the people of New Hampshire that 
persecution of the Royalists never reached the extreme, 
never caused the loss of life nor permanent physical in- 
jury to any human being. There were no serious riots. 
Whatever abuses they suffered were due to that undercur- 
rent of lawlessness which exists in every community at all 
times, and always breaks forth in some degree in time of war. 
pestilence, fire, famine, flood, or any other great and over- 
whelming calamity. 

Henry Guy Carleton, in one of his plays, "Ye Earlie 
Trouble," a delightful play which was born in Boston and 
died there, caused one of his characters, an irascible old 
Tory, to say: "When rebels are successful they become pa- 
triots." There is much of truth in this cynical remark. 
All revolutions must begin in rebellion, in an uprising and a 
conflict against the existing order of things, an order which 
has so far failed to shape itself to the ways of human prog- 
ress as to create and foster a sense of discontent and dis- 
cord in the hearts of the people, which develops into 
appeal, protest, and finally war, when all other means of 
reparation have failed, and all other sources of justice have 
been exhausted. Then, if the rebellion is successful, the 
old order of things is swept away, giving place to new, and 
he who was active and helpful in the change is hailed as a 
patriot by the new government he has helped to establish,. 
and he is held in honor and esteem by his people. If a 
rebel is successful he becomes a patriot, but an unsuccessful 
rebel remains a rebel forever. 

Eighty-Ninth Annual Meeting. 

The eighty-ninth annual meeting of the New Hampshire- 
Historical Society was held in the rooms of the Society on 
Wednesday, June 14, 1911. at eleven-fifteen o'clock in 
the forenoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 

The Secretary read the records of the last annual meeting, 
and the adjournments thereof, which were approved. 

The Treasurer presented his report, which was accepted,, 
and ordered placed on file. 

treasurer's report. 
Receipts Credited to General Income: 

Income from Permanent Fund, 

New members, 


State appropriation, 

Income from Todd Fund, 

Income from Tappan Fund, 

Receipts Credited to Permanent Fund. 

Life memberships, 
Books sold, 







SI, 845. 40 






Expenditures Charged to General Income 

Salary of Librarian, 

Library expenses, 




Printing, binding, etc., 

Postage and envelopes, 

Books purchased, Todd Fund, 

Books purchased, Tappan Fund, 

Other books and magazines, 


Permanent Fund, (1910) 
Current funds, 











121. 9G 











To new account 
Permanent Fund, 
Current funds, 

William C. Todd Fund. 

To investments, $17,787.80 

Income, 734.64 

$18,522 . 44 

Paid for genealogies and histories, J 36 . 59 




Charles L. Tappan Fund. 

Balance from last year, $585 . 73 

Income, 24.46 


Paid for books, 20.00 

Balance on deposit in savings bank, $590 . 19 

IAst of Securities in the Hands of the Treasurer. 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co. debentures, 

$500.00 each, $1,000.00 

2 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. 

bonds, $500.00 each, 1,000.00 

1 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

bond, 1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. <k Lt. Co. bonds, 
$1,000.00 each" 2,000.00 

20 Shares Concord & Montreal 11. R. 

stock, 3,389.38 
5 Shares Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

FeR. R. stock, 500.00 
4 Shares Concord Electric Company 

stock, 400.00 

Deposit in savings bank, 4,818.17 

Deposit in national bank, 640 . 30 


William C. Todd Fund. 

1 Northern Pacific & Great Northern 

R. R. bond, $1,000.00 

2 Connecticut Ry. & Lt. Co. bonds, 
$1,000.00 each", 2,000.00 

2 Iowa Loan & Trust Co. debentures, 

$1,000.00 each, 2,000.00 

1 City of Laconia bond, 1,000.00 

Deposit in savings bank, 12,385.85 




Building Fund. 

As per last report, $578.71 

Income from same, 19 . 32 

Balance on deposit in savings bank, $59S . 03 

Respectfully submitted, 

William P. Fiske, 


We have this day examined the account of William P. 
Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
for the year ending June 13, 1911, and find the same cor- 
rectly cast and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. We 
have also examined the securities constituting the funds of 
the Society and find them correct. 

John C. Thornb, 
Giles Wheeler, 
Standing Co mmittee. 
Concord, N. H., June 14, 1911. 

The report of the Librarian was read, accepted, and or- 

dered placed on file. 

librarian's report. 

The Society has received during the year past the follow- 
ing gifts, exclusive of the library accessions: three old 
fashioned gowns and framed silhouette of Miss Electa 
Eaton of Bradford, presented by Mrs. Irene S. Miller; 
whale's ear from Hammerfest and model of kariol from 
Tromsoe, from Mrs. John Smith Fogg; pair of handcuffs 
found after the fire which destroyed the building occupied 
by Reed's laundry, formerly the workshop of the State 
Prison, by Master George McGilvray; manuscript sermons 
of Dr. Wood of Boscawen, by Rev. E. P. Tenney; fac-simile 
letter from Abraham Lincoln accepting a challenge for 
joint discussion with Douglas, from Seymour Morris; 
ivory sand-box, used by Paine Wingate when Senator in the 


first Congress; manuscripts of the Janvrin family, photo- 
graphs of Webster, Sumner, Lee, McClellan, Butler, and 
others, daguerreotype of machine for pitching seams of 
vessels, invented by Samuel Baker of Portsmouth, with 
medal received for same invention, from Dana W. Baker; 
photographs of soldiers of New Hampshire regiments in the 
Civil War/ from Capt. William L. Dodge; framed com- 
mission of William Moore as Lieutenant in Company of 
Foot in Col. Zaccheus Lovewell's Regt., 1758, from Frank 
A. White; file of Leavitt's Farmer's Almanac, 1810, 1811, 
1813 to date, with a number of duplicate copies, from Edson 
C. Eastman; family record (typewritten copy) from Rev. 
Alfred L. Elwyn; cemetery inscriptions of Troy, N. H., 
from Dr. M. T. Stone, of Millville, from Isaac N. Abbott, 
of Grasmere (Goffstown), from Edwin Flanders; a trunk 
bearing date 1684, from Miss Susan Woodman; duplicate 
numbers of the New Hampshire Registers from Will J. 
Drew. By far the most extensive gift was a collection of 
Americana made by the late James Rindge Stanwood and 
presented to the Society by the heirs in accordance with 
the expressed wish of Mr. Stanwood. The collection 
consists largely of manuscripts, commissions, maps, prints, 
etc., for the most part framed, with full explanatory note 
attached to each. Just this past week we have received 
from Miss Cynthia Walker of Lewiston, Me., Parson Walk- 
er's clock. 

The library accessions for the year have been 

Books by purchase 


" gift 


" " binding 




Pamphlets by purchase 


" gift 


" exchange 


Total 1224 

338 New Hampshire historical society. 

The routine work of the library has been carried on, and 
when the temperature has permitted the cataloging of the 
books upstairs has been continued, but that work has pro- 
gressed slowly with frequent interruptions, as the register 
shows some over three hundred names of visitors, of which 
number the greater part wish to see the collection of relics, 
which takes considerable time. 

There have been a fair number, too, who have made use 
of the library, and frequent inquiries come through the 
mail, which I try to answer unless too long a search is 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edith S. Freeman, 


The Necrologist reported the deaths of the following 
members of the Society. 

Active Members. 

Charles H. Carpenter, Chichester, November 30, 1910. 
Elnora E. Randall McCoIl ester, Marlborough, February 

Edson C. Eastman, Concord, March 9, 1911. 
Henry McFarland, Concord, May 15, 1911. 

Honorary Member. 
Henry Clay Angell, Boston, Mass., May 27, 1911. 

Correspon ding Member. 
Alfred Sandham, Toronto, Canada, December 25, 1910. 

This report was accepted, and ordered to be included 
in the records of the Society. 

The Standing Committee presented a report, which was 
accepted and ordered to be placed on file. 

Arthur H. Chase, for the Library Committee, made a 
verbal report, which was accepted. 

The names of the following persons were presented for 
membership in the Society, and they were duly elected: 


Active Members. 

Robert P. Bass, Peterborough. 
Clara Foster Bass, Peterborough. 
Alvin B. Cross, Concord. 
Jesse M. Barton, Newport. 
Arthur Eastman Clarke, Manchester. 
Harry Bouton Cilley, Manchester. 
Katherine Pecker Rollins, Concord. 
Harry Hubbard Dudley, Concord. 
Anne Minot Dudley, Concord. 
Mrs. Horace E. Chamberlin, Concord. 
Mrs. Howard F. Hill, Concord. 
William K, McFarland, Concord. 
Francis Coffin Martin, Roxbury, Mass. 
Timothy P. Sullivan, Concord. 
William AV. Thayer, Concord. 
William H. Sawyer, Concord. 
Dana Wingate Baker, Exeter. 
' Harlan P. Amen, Exeter. 

John Pender, Portsmouth. 
Louis Bell, West Newton, Mass. 
Benjamin T. Bartlett, Deny. 
Harry B. Preston, Henniker. 
A. Chester Clark, Concord. 
Herbert W. Denio, Hopkinton. 

Honorary Members. 

Daniel Chester French, New York City. 
David Cross, Manchester. 
Joseph Burbeen Walker, Concord. 

The chairman of the Building Committee, Benjamin A. 
Kimball, reported progress on the new building, and ex- 
pressed the hope that the building would be ready for dedi- 
cation in the early fall. 

Mr. Kimball also suggested the need of a revision of the 
constitution and by-laws to put the Society on a business- 
like basis, and moved that a committee, consisting of the 


President, Samuel C. Eastman, and Charles R. Corning, 
be appointed to consider this subject, and report at the 
next meeting of the Society. This motion was duly sec- 
onded, and declared unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman gave notice that at the next 
annual meeting he should move to amend the constitution, 
changing the time of the annual meeting from June to 

On motion of John C. Thorne it was voted that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed by the President to nominate a 
list of officers for the ensuing year. 

The president appointed John C. Thorne, Charles R. 
Corning, and William H. Jaques as such committee. 

On motion of William P. Fiske it, was voted that an 
assessment of three dollars be levied on each member for 
the ensuing year. 

On motion of Mr. William P. Fiske it was voted to have 
prepared and printed four hundred copies of the Manual. 

The President read a letter from Dr. Louis Bell offering 
to fulfill the provision in the will of the late Mrs. John Bell 
Bouton of Cambridge, Mass., giving to the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society her valuable collection of foreign- 
phot ogrpphs. 

On motion of Mrs. Arthur E. Clarke it was voted that 
they be accepted, and placed in the care of the Library 
Committee until such time as suitable provision be made 
for them in the new library building. 

John C. Thorne, for the Nominating Committee, re- 
ported the names of the following persons for officers of the 
Society for the ensuing year: 

President, Daniel Hall. 

, Frank W. Hackett. 

' I Frank S. Streeter. 

Recording Secretary, Henry A. Kimball. 
Corresponding Secretary, William H. Jaques. 
Treasurer, William P. Fiske. 
Librarian, Edith S. Freeman. 


Necrologist, Eli E. Graves. 

Standing Committee— J ohn C. Thorne, Charles R. 
Corning, Giles Wheeler. 

Library Committee — Arthur H. Chase, Frances C. 
Stevens, Charles R. Corning. 

Publishing Committee — Otis G. Hammond, John R. 
Eastman, Irving A. Watson. 

Committee on New Members — J. Elizabeth Hoyt Stev- 
ens, Elwin L. Page, Harry S. Holbrook. 

Committee on Speakers — Daniel Hall, Henry M. Baker, 
James 0. Lyford. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that the 
report of the Nominating Committee be accepted, and that 
the persons named by them be elected. 

Remarks were made by Charles R. Corning, Henry W. 
Stevens, and William F. Whitcher relative to the acceptance 
of historical and non-historical collections from individuals, 
and discussion ensued as to what collections could properly 
be accepted by the Society. This matter was referred to 
the special committee on revision of by-laws. 

On motion of William E. Chandler it was voted that the 
salary of the Librarian be increased to eight hundred dollars 
a year. 

On motion of Charles R. Corning it was voted that when 
the meeting adjourn it be to the 19th of July at eleven 
fifteen o'clock in the forenoon. 

Mr. John C. Thorne moved that a committee be appointed 
by the President to investigate and report on the feasibility 
of the Society's uniting with kindred societies in the State 
in the publication of their several proceedings in one volume. 
William II . Jaques and Samuel C. Eastman spoke in opposi- 
tion, and the motion was declared lost. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

A true record attest, 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary, 

. July 19, 1911. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society on Wednesday, 
July 19, 1911, at eleven-fifteen o'clock in the forenoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 

The Secretary read the record of the annual meeting, 
which was approved. 

The names of the following persons were presented for 
membership in the Society, and they were duly elected: 

Active Members. 

George E. Cummings, Woodsville. 
Fred C. Demond, Concord. 
John M. Gile, Hanover. 
Allen Hollis, Concord. 
I. Eugene Keeler, Concord. 
Mrs. Obadiah Morrill, Concord. 
Frank A. Musgrove, Hanover. 
Stanton Owen, Laconia. 
Joab N. Patterson, Concord. 
William D. Swart, Nashua. 
George H. Tiltori, Laconia. 
Robert W. Upton, P>ow. 

Honorary Members. 
James Bryce, London, England. 

The President read a letter from Fred M3 r ron Colby re- 
garding an ornithological collection of the late Dr. Cyrus 
Fiske of Warner, N. H. 

The President read a communication from the clerk of 
the municipal court of the city of Providence, Rhode Island, 
stating that this Society was a contingent beneficiary under 


the will of S. Millett Thompson, late of Providence, which 
will has been admitted to probate in that court. 

The President also read a communication stating that 
Mr. Edward A. Abbot would be pleased to present to the 
Society a marble bust of J. Stephens Abbot, one of the old 
members of the firm of Abbot & Downing of Concord. 
On motion of Mr. B. A. Kimball it was voted that the gift 
of Mr. Abbott be accepted, and the Secretary was instructed 
to make proper acknowledgment of the same to the donor. 

Samuel C. Eastman, for the committee on revision of 
by-laws, submitted a report containing the proposed 
changes. On motion of Elwin L. Page it was voted that 
the amendments to the by-laws proposed by the committee, 
as amended from the floor^ be accepted and adopted as 


Section 1. At the annual meeting of the Society there 
shall be chosen by ballot or otherwise a board of Trustees, 
to consist of the President, who shall be chairman ex- 
officio, and eight other members to be elected; a Committee 
on the Library, to consist of five members; and a Com- 
mittee on Publication, to consist of three members. The 
Society may at any meeting choose any additional com- 
mittee, as shall be deemed expedient. 

Section 2. A quorum for transacting business shall 
consist of seven members. 

Section 3. The President shall preside at each meeting, 
or, in his absence, a Vice-President, and in case neither the 
President nor a Vice-President should be present the Society 
shall choose a chairman pro tempore to preside. 



Section 1. Unchanged. 

Section 2. Books, manuscripts, historical objects, and 
works of art accepted by the Society shall be acknowledged 
by the President. Such gifts shall be duly recorded by the 



Librarian, and a report concerning them made at the annual 

Section 3.. Unchanged. 

Section 4- ' Unchanged. 

Section 5. Unchanged. 


Section 1. Unchanged,, except strike out in second line 
"Standing Committee'' and insert " Board of Trustees." 

Section 2. Unchanged. 

Section 8. Omit (covered by Art. II, Sec. 2). 

Section J+. Unchanged. 

Section 5. Unchanged. 

Section 6. Omit (covered by Art. II, Sec. 2). 


Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall have control of 
the library building and contents, and shall decide all 
matters relating thereto, subject to the will of the Society. 
They shall appoint from their own number a committee 
to take charge of the building and grounds, and a com- 
mittee to have charge and control of the finances of the 
Society, and said committee shall be controlled in their 
investments by the laws of the State relating to the invest- 
ment of trust funds. The Board of Trustees shall regulate 
the ordinary expenses of the Society, make such purchases 
and repairs as may be necessary, and draw their warrant 
upon the Treasurer for the payment thereof, and for all 
sums voted by the Society for any purpose. They shall 
also decide what articles shall be accepted by the Society. 

Section 2. The Board of Trustees shall solicit and 
receive donations for the Society. They shall, in case of 
death, resignation, removal from New Hampshire, or from 
any cause creating a vacancy in the membership of a com- 
mittee, or any other officer except President or Vice-Presi- 


dent, choose a successor, who shall hold office until the 
annual meeting. 

Section 8. The Board of Trustees shall appoint one of 
their own number, or any person, annually, to audit the 
accounts of the Treasurer. 

Section 4- The Board of Trustees are authorized to 
appoint any person or persons, as may appear necessary, to 
perform any duties connected with the Society and its 
property not otherwise provided. 

Section 5. The members of the Board of Trustees shall 
be chosen, in the first instance, two each for terms of one, 
two, three, and four years, and, as these terms expire re- 
spectively each shall be filled by the choosing of successors 
for the full term of four years, two members being thus 
chosen at each annual meeting. 

Section 6. The Board of Trustees shall make a full 
report at the annual meeting. 


Committee ox Publication. 
No change. 



Section, 1 . Unchanged, except in seventh line strike out 
"Standing Committee" and insert "Board of Trustees," 
Section 2. Unchanged. 

Section 3. Unchanged, except to substitute in second line 
for "by letter or otherwise," "by letter or by publishing 
such notice in a newspaper." 



Section 1. Unchanged, except strike out in second fine 
"Standing Committee" and insert " Board of Trustees." 
Section 2. Unchanged. 


Section 8. Unchanged, except strike out in third line- 
"Standing Committee," and insert "Board of Trustees,". 
and in place of last clause, "And make a report thereof 
with a full statement of the funds and investments, to the 
Trustees, which report and statement shall be presented to 
the Society by the Trustees at the annual meeting." 


Section 1. No addition, change, or amendment of the 
by-laws shall be made unless a quorum be present and votes. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that the 
new by-laws take effect upon the action of the Society at 
an adjourned meeting. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that when 
this meeting adjourns it be to September 27, 1911. 

Samuel C. Eastman submitted the following notice: 
"I hereby give notice that at the next annual meeting I 
shall move to amend the constitution so that a Board of 
Trustees may be appointed, and its number, mode of elec- 
tion, length of service, duties and powers of the Board may 
be fixed in the by-laws and ratify action already taken in 
tins direction." 

Charles R. Corning submitted a notice as follows: 
"I give notice that at the next meeting I shall offer this 
amendment to the constitution: that the constitution 
may be amended at any meeting of the Society, notice 
thereof having been given at a preceding meeting, and 
ninety days having elapsed." 

Benjamin A. Kimball stated that it was the opinion of 
Guy Lowell, the architect, and Daniel Chester French, the 
sculptor of the group over the entrance to the new building, 
that the Society should adopt a new seal more in conformity 
with the spirit of the group of which it is a part, and also 
stated that the Building Committee recommended the 
acceptance of the design of Mr. French, model of which Mr. 
Kimball submitted at the meeting. 


Upon motion of Mr. Thome it was voted that a new 
seal for the Society be adopted in accordance with the 
design of Mr. French, this day submitted. 

On motion of William H. Jaques, the following resolution 
was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved that the Society hefeby express to Mr. Daniel 
Chester French of New York City its thanks and deep 
-appreciation of the great interest manifested by him in the 
presentation of the design for a seal for the Society, which 
has this day been officially adopted. 

On motion of Benjamin A. Kimball it was voted that the 
Treasurer be authorized and directed to procure for the 
official use of this Society a seal in conformity with Mr. 
French's design, this day adopted. 

Ob motion of Benjamin A. Kimball it was voted that a 
committee of three be appointed by the President to 
confer with a committee from the New Hampshire Society 
of the Cincinnati relative to transferring the collections 
of that Society to the new building of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society. 

The President appointed as such committee Charles R. 
Corning, Samuel C. Eastman and Amos Tuck French. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that the 
offer of Mrs. C. A. Blanchard, submitted through Mr. Fred 
Myron Colby, be referred to the Library Committee. 

The meeting w r as then adjourned. 

A true record, attest. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 

September 27, 1911. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society on Wednesday, 
September 27, 1911, at eleven-fifteen o'clock in the forenoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 

The Secretary read the records of the last meeting, which 
were approved. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that the new by-laws be 
out ^n ^orce at this tinre. 

Mr. Charles R. Corning offered the following amendment 
to the by-laws, and moved its adoption: 

"Amend Art. IV, line 12, by adding after the words "for 
all sums," the words, "recommended by any committee," 
so that the twelfth line shall read, "and for all sums recom- 
mended by any committee or voted by the Society for any 

Mr. Eastman withdrew his motion. 

Benjamin A. Kimball seconded the motion of Mr. Corn- 
ing, and on a vote being taken the amendment was declared 
unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Eastman renewed his motion that the new by-laws 
be put in force at this time. After some discussion the 
motion was adopted. 

Upon motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted to 
proceed to the election of a Board of Trustees, and Mr. 
Eastman placed in nomination the names of the following 
persons : 

For one year, John C. Thome, John Dowst. 
For two years, Henry W. Stevens, Alfred F. Howard. 
For three years, Benjamin A. Kimball, Frank N. Parsons. 
For four years, John T. Busiel, Amos Tuck French. 


Mr. Otis G. Hammond placed in nomination the fol- 

For four years, Henry W. Stevens, Amos Tuck French. 
For three years, Benjamin A. Kimball, Frank N. Parsons. 
For two years, John R. Eastman, Charles R. Corning. 
For one year, Henry B. Quinby, Frank W. Rollins.' 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved the election of Henry W. 
Stevens and Amos Tuck French as Trustees for the term of 
four years, which motion was adopted, and they were 
declared duly elected. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved the election of Benjamin 
A. Kimball and Frank N. Parsons as trustees for the term 
of three years, which was unanimously voted, and they were 
declared duly elected. 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond moved the election of John R. 
Eastman and Charles R. Corning for the term of two years. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved the election of John T. 
Busiel and Alfred F. Howard for the term of two years. 

Judge Corning stated that because of being on other 
committees of the Society, he should decline to serve as a 
trustee. Mr. Hammond then nominated in his stead 
Reuben E. Walker. 

A ballot vote was taken with the following result: 

Whole number of votes cast 42 

Necessary for a choice 22 

Reuben E. Walker had 18 

John T. Busiel had 19 

Alfred F. Howard had 19 

John R. Eastman had 31 

and John R. Eastman was declared duly elected Trustee for 
two years. 

The President stated that another vote would be taken 
for the other trustee for two years. The result of the 
second vote was as follows: 

Whole number of votes cast 44 
Necessary for a. choice 23 


Charles Eastman had 1 

Reuben E. Walker had 13 

Alfred F. Howard had 30 

and Alfred F. Howard was declared duly elected Trustee for 
two years. 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond placed in nomination the names 
of Henry B. Quinby and Frank W. Rollins for election as 
Trustees for one year; Mr. Eastman nominated John C. 
Thorne and John Dowst as Trustees for one year. 

The result of the vote was as follows: 

Whole number of votes cast 46 

Necessary for a choice 24 

Thomas D. Luce had 1 

John C. Thorne had 18 

Frank W. Rollins had 22 

Henry B. Quinby had 22 

John Dowst had 22 

and there was no choice. 

The result of the second ballot was as follows: 

Whole number of votes cast 4.1 

Necessary for a choice 21 

Thomas D. Luce had 3 

John C. Thorne had 8 

John Dowst had 18 

Frank W. Rollins had 24 

Henry B. Quinby had 27 

and Frank W. Rollins and Henry B. Quinby were declared 
duly elected Trustees for a term of one year. 

The Secretary read a letter from Joseph B. Walker de- 
clining election as an honorary member of the Society; a 
letter from Daniel Chester French expressing his apprecia- 
tion of the action of the Society on the adoption of his design 
for a seal; and a letter from Right Honorable James Bryce, 
British Ambassador, accepting honorary membership in the 


Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that when the meeting 
adjourn it be to meet at this place at eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon of the first Wednesday in November, and the mo- 
tion was adopted. 

Mr. Arthur H. Chase moved that the chair appoint a 
committee of three to take into consideration the subject 
of towns printing their early records, and of the State fur- 
nishing aid to such towns as shall vote to print their records 
that shall be of an earlier date than the year 1850. This 
motion was seconded by Frank W. Hackett and declared 
adopted. The President stated that the committee would 
be announced later. 

Mr. Arthur H. Chase, as a member of the Library Com- 
mittee, moved that Samuel C. Eastman and Winston 
Churchill be appointed members of the Library Committee, 
which motion was adopted. 

Miss Edith S. Freeman, for the Committee on New Mem- 
bers, presented the names of Edson H. Mattice of Penacook 
and xVbbot Treadweli of Concord, for admission to the 
Society, and on a vote being taken they were declared duly 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman, the meeting was then 

A true record, attest 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


November 1, 1911. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the rooms of the Society on Wednesday, 
November 1, 1911, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 

The Secretary read the record of the last meeting, which 
was approved. 

The following names were presented for membership, 
and by ballot they were elected: 

Frank P. Andrews, Concord. 

Harold Hotchkiss Bennett, Portsmouth. 

Mrs. Frank E. Brown, Concord. 

Aretas Blood Carpenter, Manchester. 

Mrs. Martha E. Durgin, Concord. 

William W. Flint, Concord. 

Rev. Howard M. Folsom, Portsmouth. 

William A. Foster, Concord. 

William H. Foster, Concord. 

Frank L. Gertish, Boscawen. 

Jessie B. Harriman, Concord. 

Lyman Jackman, Concord. 

John W. Kelley, Portsmouth. 

Adelaide L. Merrill, Concord. 

Joseph S. Matthews, Concord 

Rt. Rev. William Woodruff Niles, Concord. 

George H. Rolfe, Concord. 

Willard Scuddcr, Concord. 

Ferdinand A. Stillings, Concord. 

Frank Jones Sulloway, Franklin. 

Rev. Lucius H. Thayer, Portsmouth. 

William R. Varick, Manchester. 

Ellen L. Wentworth, Exeter. 

H. Maria Woods, Concord. 


Mrs. Edson J. Hill, Concord. 
John H. Brown, Concord. 
Harriet J. Hall, Manchester. 
Arthur W. Hall, Dover. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that when the meeting 
adjourn it be to meet at the Council Chamber at the State 
House on Thursday, November 23, at ten o'clock in the 
' forenoon. 

Mr. Eastman announced that the Building Committee 
had decided on November 23 as the date for the dedication 
of the new library building. 

Mr. Samuel C. Eastman moved that Charles Francis 
Adams of South Lincoln, Mass., be elected an honorary 
member, and he was duly elected. 

Mr. Frank J. Wilder of Saratoga Springs, N. Y., in behalf 
of the New York State Historical Association, invited the 
members of the Society to attend a meeting of the Associa- 
tion at Saratoga Springs in the summer of 1912. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman the thanks of the Soci- 
ety were given to Mr. Wilder for the invitation. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

A true record, attest 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 

November 23, 1911. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the State House November 23, 1911. at 
ten-thirty o'clock in the forenoon. 

The meeting was called to order by Frank W. Hackett, 
First Vice-President. 

Voted that the reading of the records of the last meeting 
be omitted. 

The Secretary proposed the names of the following per- 
sons for membership, and they were duly elected: 

Harriet Stark Chase Atwater, Concord. 
William W. Burbank, Webster. 
Thomas F. Clifford, Franklin. 
Wilbert H. Gilbert. Tilton. 
Armenia White Hobbs, Concord. 
Barton P. Jenks, Concord. 
Edward G. Leach, Franklin. 
Elizabeth Albin Northcott, Concord. 
George L. Plimpton, Tilton. 
William A. Plummer, Laconia. 
Frank W. Sargeant, Manchester. 
Rev. Sidney B. Snow, Concord. 
Edward Spanhoofd, Concord. 
Annie McNeil Stark, Dumbarton'. 
Matilda S. Thompson, Concord. 
Willis D. Thompson, Concord. 
Armenia S. White, Concord. 
Benjamin C. White, Concord. 
Francis B. White, Concord. 
Mabel Chase White, Concord. 
Mary Parker Wood worth, Concord. 

On motion of Samuel C. Eastman it was voted that when 
the meeting adjourn it be to meet in the new library build- 
ing*on December 21, 1911, at eleven o'clock a.m. 


Thursday, the 23d of November, 1911, was the day ap- 
pointed for the formal dedication. The weather was mild 
and propitious, and the exercises and banquet were carried 
through with gratifying success. At eleven o'clock the 
members and the invited guests assembled at the State 
House, where they were received and welcomed in the 
Council Chamber by Governor Bass and Mr. and Mrs. 
Tuck. The Governor's staff, in full uniform, with their 
ladies, also assisted at the reception. An hour later one of 
the most distinguished companies ever seen in New Hamp- 
shire, numbering between five and six hundred, under the 
marshalship of Frank W. Hackett of Newcastle, moved 
from the State House across State Street to the beautiful, 
home of the Society, now opened for the first time. 

Called to order by Mr. Hackett, the exercises of dedica- 
tion were at once begun. Daniel Hall, President of the 
Society, introduced Benjamin A. Kimball, chairman of 
the Building Committee, who from the first had been the 
adviser of Mr. Tuck as well as a friend of many years. Mr. 
Kimball formally announced to Mr. Tuck the completion 
of the building, in these words: 

"The committee to whom has been entrusted the con- 
struction of this building has conformed to your wishes in 
(its erection, and now takes pleasure in delivering to vou the 

Mr. Tuck accepted the report of the chairman of the 
Building Committee in the following address: 



It is my part in the ceremonies of today formally to pre- 
sent this building to the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
preparatory to its official dedication. It is fitting that I 
should make the presentation through you, for having from 
the inception of our plans the benefit of your superior judg- 


ment in all matters pertaining to construction, of your 
artistic taste, your vigilant watchfulness throughout the 
work, and your public spirit in devoting to it your valuable 
time, I decided to provide for the erection of something more 
monumental and ornate than a simple library building. It 
is due to you, also, that" for its plan and construction we 
secured the services of the distinguished architect, Mr. Guy 
Lowell, who is with us today, and whose finished work we 
now admire. 

The satisfaction I have in giving to the Society a perma- 
nent home, in which its historical treasures may find all the 
security that human effort can ensure, is twofold. I am 
pleased to be able to present to the Society a building, the 
urgent need cf which has existed for so many years, one 
that it will possess in its own right, and that will be worthy 
of what is believed to be one of the most valuable historical 
libraries in the United States. It is an even greater pleas- 
ure to have this opportunity to testify to my loyalty to my 
native State by causing to be built in its capital city, and of its 
own imperishable granite, a structure which I have intended 
should be, in its perfection of artistic design and of material 
execution, a source of gratification and pride for all time 
to the people of New Hampshire. In the monumental 
sculpture over the portal of the building we have the grandest 
specimen of the artistic work of a son of our own State, one 
of America's most celebrated sculptors, Daniel Chester 

There are in the State of New Hampshire two institu- 
tions of which we, the sons of the State, have just reason to 
be especially proud, Dartmouth College and the Historical 
Society. First and chief is Dartmouth College, which, 
thanks to the liberal annual appropriation now made by the 
people of the State as represented by their legislature, and 
to private gifts, has entered upon a new period of accom- 
plishment and fame under the able administrations of 
President Tucker and of President Nichols. I trust that 
old Dartmouth may ever endure as a perfect example of a 
typical New England college, and that it may acquire an 


increasing celebrity, not so much for the number of its 
graduates as for the high quality and efficiency of the edu- 
cation it bestows,, and for the genuinely democratic spirit 
with which its students are imbued. 

"It is my expectation, Mr. Chairman, that the Historical 
Society, in its home which we are dedicating today, will 
take on new life and usefulness, that an awakened interest 
in it throughout the State will be made manifest by an 
increasing membership, and that its precious possessions 
will be largely added to, now that their security and preser- 
vation are permanently assured. I hope that the building 
itself will have in the future a high educational value to those 
students and lovers of art, from our own State and else- 
where, who may be unable to see and to study the best 
examples of ancient and modern architectural beauty in 
foreign countries. I hope, too, that the unique and in- 
valuable library of the Society, in the spacious accommoda- 
tion and orderly arrangement which this building affords, 
will become available for reference not only to historical 
students from New Hampshire, but to those who may come 
to consult it from all parts of the United States, and that 
the glory and renown of the Society throughout the coun- 
try will be as enduring in the generations yet to come as will 
be these granite and marble walls. With full confidence, 
Mr. Chairman, that these anticipations will be abundantly 
realized, I now present to the Society the building and hand 
to you its key. 



Mr. Kimball then presented the building to the Society, 
and unveiled an elaborate bronze tablet on the wall of the 
rotunda with this inscription in relief: 





Anno Domini 1910 

This Tablet 




In receiving the key Mr. Kimball said : 

"In the presentation of the key of this building by the 
hand of the donor we find in the act, as well as in the words 
which accompany it, a recognition of the excellence of the 
work done by the architect, the sculptor, the superintendent, 
artisans, and contractors who have faithfully co-operated 
with us in its erection. 

" In receiving the key of this building we express the hope 
that the memory of Edward Tuck may be as enduring as 
this magnificent edifice he has now presented to us. 

" In order to perpetuate our appreciation of his gift I have 
caused to be placed upon this wall a tablet of bronze as a 
testimonial of our gratitude to the donor, and commemora- 
tive of the greatest event in the history of our Society. 

"Mr. President, it now gives me pleasure to present to you 
the key of New Hampshire's Temple of History. " 


In the name and behalf of this Society, as its President, 
I receive this key in token of the possession and ownership 


of this beautiful building, to be hereafter devoted to the 
uses of the Society, and to the promotion of historical cul- 
ture in our State. 

This corner stone was laid on the 9th of June, 1909, and 
without haste, but without pause, the work of architect, 
contractor, and artisan has been pressed forward with such 
vigor that the building stands before us today substantially 
perfect in exterior and interior decoration, and complete in 
every detail, giving us what we have never had before, 
abundant accommodations for cabinets, stacks, and historic 
memorials which we are anxious to arrange, protect, and 
- preserve. 

The time available at this moment forbids any lengthy 
recital of the history cf the Society and its dwelling places 
hitherto. It is sufficient to say that, though organized 
nearly a century ago, the Society has never, till now, had 
a dwelling place adequate to its needs. Moving from one 
temporary abode to another during that period, it has, 
however, been under the constant guidance and patronage 
of the intellectual leaders of our State, has been cherished 
with a becoming State pride, and has maintained a fore- 
most rank among the learned societies and agencies of the 
time. Through all vicissitudes its library has steadily in- 
creased, till now we have nearly 20,000 bound volumes, and 
our pamphlets, manuscripts, files of newspapers, and cab- 
inets of antiquities, autographs, photographs, coins, por- 
traits, colonial, Revolutionary, and other relics, are very 
numerous and of priceless value. There are in our ar- 
chives many precious letters and mementoes of Webster, 
Lincoln, and other historical characters. To these will soon 
be added, now that we have a place for their shelter and 
orderly arrangement, many objects of historic and artistic 
interest, which will make a collection of inestimable value, 
and afford unrivaled facilities for research and the historical 
inquiries for which the Society exists. This development 
of its function and enlargement of its facilities should and 
will, we are confident, make this building the resort of 
scholars, legislators, antiquarians, historians, a place for 



investigation "in the still air of delightful studies," and for 
the extension and particularly the diffusion of knowledge 
and sound culture, especially in that field to which it is 
dedicated by its constitution, "to discover, secure, and 
preserve whatever may relate to the natural, civil, literary, 
and ecclesiastical history of the United States in general, 
and of this State in particular. " 

Mr. Tuck has well spoken of the great need we have felt 
for many years of a building like this for the housing of what 
he has justly termed "one of the most valuable historical 
libraries in the United States.'' It was this need to which 
his generous spirit has responded. 

When speaking of this work and its inception I ought not 
and will not forget to mention the obligations of the Society 
.and the State to one of my predecessors in this office, the 
Hon. William C. Todd of Atkinson, who, I believe Mr. 
Tuck will bear me out in saying, was the first person to 
bring this great benefaction to his attention. Mr. Todd was 
a most enlightened and liberal-minded man, and a life-long 
and zealous friend of this Society'. He endowed it with 
valuable gifts of money and wise counsel, but his crowning- 
service to us was this suggestion to Air. Tuck which first. 
kindled his interest in the Society. Mr. Todd died in 1903, 
but his word had not fallen upon stony ground, it fructi- 
fied, and the result is seen before us in this beautiful struc- 
ture, ornate and classical in design, but serviceable in the 
highest degree, and admirably adapted to all our wants. 
Mr. Todd's name has been fittingly engraved on the en- 
during bronze of yonder tablet, and his memory will not 

Tins tribute to Air. Todd detracts nothing from the 
credit due to our benefactor; for it was your mind, Mr. 
Tuck, which conceived this noble structure; ' your gen- 
erosity, guidance, and counsel which have presided over its 
erection and completion. The New Hampshire .Historical 
Society and the citizens of the State owe you a debt of 
gratitude which mere words have no power to express or 


But in addition to our own appreciation of this bene- 
faction you may, and surely will, take to yourself the high 
satisfaction, in your own modest phrase, of "giving to the 
Society a permanent home in which its historical treasures 
may find all the security that human effort can ensure," and 
of testifying in magnificent fashion to your lo} T alty to your 
native State by causing to be built in its capital city, and 
of its own imperishable granite, a structure which you have 
intended should be, in its perfection of artistic design and of 
material execution, a source of gratification and pride for 
all time to the people of New Hampshire. 

You may be assured, sir, that you have fully accomplished 
your purpose, and have done more, doubtless, than you had 
intended; for by these strong walls, exquisite carvings, and 
shapely columns, rising so harmoniously into the ordered 
grace and dignity which make this edifice "a thing of 
beauty and a joy forever" you have safely committed your 
own "name and memory to the next ages." 

Although you have not passed 3-our life entirely in our 
visible presence, but have seen and dwelt much in other 
lands as a citizen of the world, we are thankful that, unlike 
some others, you have not become expatriated, but that 
you left your heart in New Hampshire when you went 
abroad; and we who have kept our feet here on the granite 
hills, vie with you today in devotion to the old Slate of 
your nativity, one of the "Old Thirteen," whose annals 
are crowded with memorable heroic and romantic incidents, 
one of • the oldest of American commonwealths, whose 
three centuries of history have been filled with honor and 
heroism, from the beginning, through the early colonial 
days, through the fiery trials of the Revolution and the 
formation of the Constitution, "the greatest work ever 
struck off at white heat, by the mind and purpose of man," 
and through the unhappy civil strife which finally settled 
our form of government and consolidated the Union. 
While she has not kept her place and rank among the States 
in point of population, wealth, and political importance, 
in all the great elements of civilization she is not behind any 


of them today; but in education, in legislation, in liberal, 
political, social, and religious thought and institutions she 
is in the van of advance, and not inferior to the best States 
in the world. 

Such is the monumental story of New Hampshire which 
we wish to gather together, to preserve and give to the world, 
and to continue and honor by our emulation. 

We join with you, sir, in the "expectation-' which you 
have so felicitously expressed, that "the Historical Society, 
in the home which we are dedicating today, will take on 
new life and usefulness, that an awakened interest in it 
throughout the State will be made manifest by an increasing 
membership, and that its precious possessions will be largely 
added to, no^ that their security and preservation are 
permanently assured; and that the glory and renown of the 
Society will be as enduring in the generations yet to come as 
will be these granite and marble walls." 


The members of the Society and invited guests then pro- 
ceeded to the lecture room at the east end of the library, 
which was soon filled to overflowing, a still larger number 
being unable to gain admission. 

Upon the platform were the President of the Society, Mr. 
Edward Tuck, ex-President William J. Tucker of Dart- 
mouth College, and Hon. Samuel W. McCall, a representa- 
tive in Congress from Massachusetts. The President said: 

"We will now proceed with the dedicatory services of this 

occasion. I hold in my hand a gavel which has just been 

received from the distant State of Oregon. It was sent to 
i ..... 

us by the Oregon Historical Society, organized in 1S9S, 

with the request, with which we gladly comply, that it be 

used in calling our Society to order today. This gavel is 

most elaborately designed, and made of ten varieties of 

native woods selected for their historical interest, and is a 

piece of exquisite workmanship. It is accompanied by a 

careful and detailed account of each piece of wood used in 

making it, and its historv and historical significance, and 


also by a cordial and touching letter, with allusions to 
natives of New Hampshire who had a part in the early 
settlement of Oregon. 

" This is a beautiful present, and a most thoughtful and 
opportune reminder of the solidarity of New Hampshire 
people, that "once a new Hampshire man, always a New 
Hampshire man," and of the community of interest be- 
tween us and our sister society far off on our Pacific coast. 
In itself this gavel is worthy of a careful study on many 
accounts, and also as a token of the participation by one of 
the latest of American commonwealths in the highest culture 
of the land. We accept the gift with thanks, and will treasure 
it among our chief est historical possessions. We may be 
permitted to hope that our friends in Oregon will not apply 
to it their favorite principle of the " recall," but will allow 
us to keep and cherish it among our precious souvenirs of 
this important occasion. 

"I esteem it a signal honor that it devolves upon me to 
inaugurate the first exercises of this Society in our own 
house, with which we have become endowed within the last 
hour by the munificence of a son of New Hampshire of 
whom we are proud, and to whom our gratitude for this 
beautiful and substantial gift will always be felt and ac- 

"Mr. Tuck's princely liberality has been manifested by 

Ieven greater gifts bestowed upon other institutions, local- 
ities, and enterprises in his native State; but his bounty is 
equaled by his modest}', and he wishes to be excused from 
speaking at this time. He is, however, present with us, 
and I am glad to have you see him, as he is glad to see you." 

The President introduced Rev. Dr. William J. Tucker as 
follows : 

"One honored name and personality are so inseparably 
identified with our highest public activities and all that is best 
in New Hampshire, our efforts for progress and for better- 
ment in every direction in art. in education, in all works of 
civic pride, that an occasion of this sort would seem. to lack 
something of its due setting and illustration if it were not 



graced by the presence and participation of the first citizen 
of New Hampshire. We all rejoice that, overcoming by his 
will the ill health under which he has been suffering in these 
later days, he is able to give us the satisfaction of his presence 
at this time; and as a special personal friend of Mr. Tuck 
it gives me the greatest pleasure to present to you the Rev. 
Dr. William J. Tucker, ex-President of Dartmouth College. 7 ' 
Owing to the condition of Dr. Tucker's health he was 
not able to deliver this address in person. It was read by 
General Frank S. Streeter. 


In speaking at the dedication of the State Library build- 
ing I took occasion, as I recall, to dwell at some length upon 
the erection of that building as an illustration of "the 
revival of civic pride in the commonwealth." The State, 
though then acting in its corporate capacity and through its 
authorized representatives, really acted in response to pub- 
lic sentiment. It was no longer fit, in the judgment of our 
more thoughtful and responsible citizens, that the State- 
should remain without some visible and worthy expression 
of its concern for those more advanced civic interests which 
naturally center in a State Library. 

In the erection of this building we have an equally gratify- 
ing illustration of the more individual and personal ways in 
which we are allowed to serve the commonwealth. I say, 
in which we are allowed to act thus, for this more personal 
way of service is a part of the original New England idea 
and method of serving the State. The original New England 
conception of citizenship left very much room for the free 
play of public spirit. It created a race of public-spirited, 
in distinction from private-spirited citizens. It entrusted 
to men so trained the support of the higher part of educa- 
tion, the advancement of industry and the arts, and the 
diffusion of religion not only in its inherited forms but also 
in new applications to the social order. It set up every- 
where within our borders signs and testimonials pointing to 
the working of the principle. Such were the colleges, most 


of the libraries and museums, the churches, and not a few 
of the homes of business and of industry. 

True, this original idea of citizenship was not carried over 
completely into the newer States which New England men 
built in the West. The newer States, developed under 
New England influence, assumed more functions, and took 
larger control of public interests than the original States 
had then, or have since seen fit to assume or undertake. 
But there is plainly discernible, I think, throughout the 
Northwest a growing desire and purpose to recover and 
reestablish this somewhat neglected principle. Even the 
State universities are beginning to make their appeal for 
individual benefactions, not only for the money needed, but 
for the spirit which is more needed. The principle is cer- 
tainly vital and germinant even when overshadowed by 
other civic principles. We are all coming to learn, some 
for the first time and some over again, that the State, that 
institutions of every sort, must have that kind of loyalty 
which is allowed to work in personal ways and with personal 
distinction. Nothing, therefore, could be more timely than 
that now and here, within this group of civic buildings rep- 
resenting the municipality, the State, and the Federal gov- 
ernment, there should arise this building representing the 
more personal aspect of citizenship. 

We honor today, as always when we recall the record of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, the names of its 
founders and faithful supporters, names of very great 
significance to our State in other connections; but the 
distinction of the hour must fall, whether he will or not, 
upon our friend and guest who has given us in this building 
such an exemplification of the principle to which I have 
referred. I do not know how to discriminate, so far as the 
actual motive to this generous act is concerned, between 
the obligation to do such a thing which came upon him by 
inheritance, and the love of doing such things which has 
been developed by practice. No like instance occurs to me 
in which father and son have been so much at one in the 
purpose of their lives, and at the same time so successful 
in expressing this purpose in such different ways, as appears 


in the public careers of Amos and Edward Tuck. Amos 
Tuck gave to this State and to the country the rare personal 
gift of loyalty to conviction, a gift which contributed 
powerfully to the redemption of the State of New Hampshire 
from the political domination of the slave power, and ulti- 
mately to the redemption of the nation from the grasp of 
the same power. It was the most timely gift which any 
man at that time had in his power to bestow. When Amos 
Tuck as a young man broke from his party in his support of 
John P. Hale, and called a convention of independent men, 
he led the way, in this locality, into that great national 
movement which was to change the future of the country. 
The same principle of estimating himself according to his 
relation to the public good, which actuated the father, has 
manifested itself in the son through the unselfish and far- 
reaching use of personal possessions. The motive of personal 
action has been equally sincere. Absence from the country 
has not dulled the fine sense of loyalty, nor have the allure- 
ments of social life weakened the strong sense of duty. 
The gifts of Edward Tuck have always been, so far as I 
know, of his own motion, never solicited, the result of an 
intelligent and well-considered purpose, doubled at least 
in value by their timeliness, and evidently prompted by the 
impulse to bear his part in fulfilling the highest obligations 
and privileges of citizenship. In this last gift, as in those 
which have gone before, we have, therefore, not simply 
the occasion for appreciation and gratitude; we have here a 
striking witness to the value of those rights and privileges 
winch go with the more personal forms of public service, 
and no less an object lesson and example to all of us who 
wish that these especial rights and privileges may be per- 

The President introduced Mr. McCali in the following 
words : 

I now have the honor to present to you as the orator of 
the day a loyal son of our own Dartmouth College, a dis- 
tinguished scholar, publicist, and statesman, the Hon. 
Samuel W. McCali of Massachusetts. 

By Samuel W. McCall. 

The New Hampshire Historical Society is to be congrat- 
ulated upon this beautiful building, which, through the 
munificence of Mr. Tuck, is to be its home. All who are 
interested in the cause of learning will have a thought of 
gratitude towards the generous giver. The dedication of so 
noble a piece of architecture designed for so worthy a pur- 
pose forms a notable event in the history of the State. In 
its solidity and beauty it well typifies that history, the 
preservation and study of which it is intended to promote. 
It is fortunate in its location by the side of the State Capitol. 
There is much to be said in favor of the utility of having a 
well-regulated historical society planted by the side of 
every State House in the Union, while one at each corner of 
the Capitol at Washington would probably be none too 
many. They would at least serve to remind those charged 
with the responsibilities of government that there is an 
historical, if not a theological hereafter. They might lead 
our Governors and legislators to project themselves a little 
into the future, and regulate their conduct according to the 
great tests of time rather than by the popular passions of 
the hour. Our statesmen might look upon themselves 
with something of the vision of history's passionless eye. 
It is not too much to hope that this structure may thus 
serve the double purpose of contributing to exact learning 
and to the good government of New Hampshire. 

While the members of this Society may aim to have all 
learning for their province, I take it that the particular field 
which it has set aside for itself is that relating to the history 
of New Hampshire, to her government, her people, her 
institutions, and, so far as it is dependent upon them, to the 
history of the nation and the outside world. This is a rich 
field, and one which it is important carefully to cultivate. 
If your work shall be supplemented by that of similar insti- 


tutions in the other States of the Union, there is likely to be 
little of importance in the present or the future of the na- 
tion that will escape the attention of the historian, and 
many of the secrets of the past will be rescued which other- 
wise would be destined to perish. 

Professor Shotwell has well defined history as all the 
phenomena of human life and also of the natural world. 
The history of men acting individually and in their multi- 
tudinous relations to each other, and of the operations of 
Nature herself, leaves little to be covered in the entire do- 
main of learning, and affords a field broad enough to satisfy 
the most boundless ambition. In a rapidly moving age, 
filled with changes in methods of living, in architecture, in 
means of communication, and in social and political insti- 
tutions, the materials of history are found upon every hand. 
I imagine it is your primary purpose judiciously to select 
and to systematize and preserve this material, and especially 
such as would otherwise be in danger of perishing. As to 
whatever relates to laws you have at your service the ad- 
mirable collection in the neighboring library of the State. 
And it may generally be observed as to the records of laws 
that they are in our time indelibly graven, if not upon 
stone, yet in a hundred secure places, although this cer- 
tainty of permanence is in no way a proof of the fitness of 
some of them to survive except for a purely historical pur- 

The first process in the writing of history is the collec- 
tion of the raw material and the ascertainment of fact. 
The next process lies in the domain of art, and is concerned 
with the artistic presentation of the results of investigation.' 
The art, however, is to an extent restricted and trammeled 
by the necessity for the unvarnished narration of events. 
The exact portrayal of the lives of men and of the origin and 
development of institutions leaves little room for 'the em- 
ployment of the fancy, however much that faculty may be 
stimulated by the process. In proportion as the historian 
colors his facts he ceases to be an historian. He must 
banish the illusions which the imagination delights to chase. 



It is entertaining to read an historical romance in which 
some brilliant master draws upon his imagination for his 
material, and, in the absence of known facts, or in disregard 
of them, traces definite figures upon the unstable clouds. 
But such a work must not be confused with history. The 
historical imagination, whatever it may be, must be exer- 
cised with great caution, or the main end of historical writing, 
which is exact narration, will be defeated. And yet, if 
history is simply the record of unclothed facts and verified 
statistics, it will be as dry as a report of the Patent Office, 
and, wholly lacking in popular interest, its study will be 
given over to the specialist. There is ample room to 
reconcile the requirements of truth with the exercise of art. 
The hand of the artist may correctly preserve the lineaments 
of men, and yet make them breathe again. He may truth- 
fully reproduce stirring events, and yet with such vividness 
that one may see them as if they were enacted again under 
his eye. He may invest the true record with all the dramatic 
interest of the deed. There is room for vivid narration, 
rapidity of movement, splendid diction, always assuming 
that the writer who possesses these qualities will not yield 
to the temptation simply to display them. He must not 
play favorites. He must not furbish up the deeds of one 
man and darken those of another. He must adhere remorse- 
lessly to the truth, and while he may indulge in philosophy, 
if he has the faculty to do so, he must strictly subordinate it 
to the narration. Otherwise he may show himself a brilliant 
advocate or novelist, or poet, or anything, in short, but an 

History is becoming less and less the chronicle of an indi- 
vidual, who is made to serve as the lay figure of an age, and 
more and more the record of the people. It is becoming 
infused with the democratic spirit. Many a Jack-the- 
Giant-Killer story has been written as solemn history, and 
we have been regaled with the multitude of prodigies per- 
formed by one man, who has had gathered together under 
his name all the achievements of his time. With the spread 
of democracy and the diffusion of education history is ac- 


quiring a far broader base. Each man is coming into his 
own. More and more the name of the doer, however hum- 
ble, is linked to the deed. That wretched and bedraggled 
thing that has gone under the name of history, the record 
of wars waged to gratify one man's ambition, of court 
intrigues and scandal, of lying diplomacy, must keep its 
place in the past. It is out of tune with our time. There 
are today such abundant records of the lives of men as to 
form the rich material for a social science. What each 
man does may be known almost beyond his own power of 
concealment, and the momentous events of state are apt 
to be the outcome of the conflict between mighty popular 
forces, and have their roots deep among the masses of the 
people. The future historian of our time may exactly re- 
produce the life of our people from the material which this 
Society, and others like it, will collect and preserve. 

What shall be current at any given time, you will be likely 
to secure, but you have an important field of exploration in 
the past, and your intelligent membership will doubtless be 
able to rescue and to preserve in this central storehouse 
very much of moment in the history of towns, parishes, 
families, and individuals which might otherwise be lost. 
Thus your library, already rich in material, will be the 
necessary resort of scholars who are exploring your own 
peculiar field. Your publications, I venture to say, will 
be rather notable for their quality than their number, and 
you will not imitate the prodigality of some of your sister 
societies, whose fruitfulness in bringing forth volumes is 
only equaled by the frequent worthlessness of the progeny. 
It is doubtless a matter purely of individual taste, but, 
speaking with all deference, I must confess that I have 
occasionally failed to be diverted in reading the proceedings 
of some historical society. The sombre exterior which one 
of these volumes sometimes takes on would throw the most 
cheerful library into the deepest gloom, from the effect of 
which the interior would mercifully afford a rescue by in- 
ducing profound slumber. 

We have reached the point where the housing of books has 


raised a serious problem, the difficulty of which would be 
much lessened by improving their quality at an unsparing 
expense of numbers. Our education has led us to attach 
an exaggerated value to books simply as books, and a due 
amount of wood pulp, smeared over with printer's ink, 
attains a mystical importance, although its value might be 
greater if it had remained a part of the living tree. 

Lord Rosebery, in speaking at the dedication of a great 
library building, recently said that he did not propose to 
repeat any of the 220,000 platitudes uttered at the dedica- 
tion of the 2,200 libraries reared by Mr. Andrew Carnegie. 
On the other hand, he confessed to a feeling of depression in 
the presence of what seemed to him a cemetery for books. 
The volumes which even the most diligent and widely 
learned man would be able to master, or profitably to con- 
sult, in the course of a long lifetime would form only an insig- 
nificant fraction of those contained in any one of a hundred 
libraries. Due allowance must be made for the fact that 
great general libraries are not established merely to respond 
to the needs of one man or group of men, and that the largest 
single capacity is by no means the standard by which. to 
judge. They should be adequate to supply the possible 
demands of all men. Even under the latter test some of the 
largest collections of books seem excessively large. It is 
said that the library of the British Museum, with its millions 
of books, contains many miles of shelves upon which the vol- 
umes slumber under the dust of years, and the repose of which 
is not likely to be disturbed so long as the collection shall en- 
dure. It may be granted that the few world-collections of 
books should contain every author. They are the reservoirs 
of all learning, and the branches of rarer knowledge are likely 
to suffer injury if the popularity of a book is in any degree 
made the test by which to determine whether it shall be pre- 
served. There is, for example, only a very slight demand in 
this country for the originals of Russian history. And yet 
the managers of our Library of Congress had the wisdom to 
secure a great Russian collection, and, with the exception of 
a few vast libraries in Russia itself, there is no place in the 


world where one, writing a history of that empire, can find 
a richer wealth of material than at Washington. Reduced 
to a basis of mere utility the writing of. Russian history in 
America may not be important, nor fraught with moment 
to the happiness of the nation. But if we set up in all 
things the standard of utility, civilization would very greatly 

But I imagine a case like that which I have mentioned is 
clear. The difficulty comes where books have no discern- 
ible value. Printing has grown into a place among the 
great manufacturing interests, such as the making of shoes 
or cotton goods. The presses must be kept running. Each 
year hundreds of thousands of acres of noble trees are made 
to bow before the axe in order to furnish a part of the mate- 
rial of the industry. Much of this material is not greatly 
enhanced in value by the messages it is made to bear, and our 
large libraries are in danger of adding to their normal 
functions that of the mere storehouse for lumber, unless 
some judicious process of selection shall be applied in choos- 
ing books and newspapers. As to the latter, whether the 
first duty in any given case would, be one of suppression or 
preservation, one has but to imagine what would be the 
result if, by some great convulsion of nature, all the records 
of our time should be destroyed except those contained in the 
files of a given newspaper, and the learned men of some far 
distant age should study this record with the reverence and 
care which we bestow upon the Babylonian inscriptions. 
From one type of newspaper which has an existence today 
those wise men would feel certain in the discovery of an 
age of self-exploiting criminals, whose charities were as 
ostentatious as their crimes, an age which delighted in 
flaunting its worst men by putting them in public office, an 
abnormal and unbalanced age, the gross wickedness of which 
was relieved only by the superlative goodness of a mys- 
terious institution called the people, whose bodily existence 
was made manifest in the deeds and utterances of perhaps a 
half-score of men. New Hampshire is very likely deficient 
in newspapers of that sort. It can probably not boast of 


one which would generally mislead a future writer, unless 
possibly as to the character of the editor of its rival. The 
files of your newspapers are invaluable as sources of current 
history, and they are certainly indispensable to the preser- 
vation of local events. 

It is interesting to speculate upon what books should be 
preserved, keeping the boundaries widely extended even 
beyond the limit of use. I imagine there would be no 
question that those which contain the materials of history, 
in the broad sense of that term, or those which were scien- 
tific in their time, however obsolete their learning may have 
become, should be preserved. Those which have a literary 
purpose, and base the claim of the right to exist upon purely 
literary grounds, must be judged to an extent, at least, by 
the standards of that art. Of such books two types may be 
noted, which, while nominally of the same class, lie at such 
opposite extremes as not to be bedfellows of each other. 
The first type includes some of the so-called "best sellers," 
which after a brief vogue, commonly attained by every 
device of puffery, pass on to the oblivion of the neglected 
shelf. Some of them we would very willingly let die. The 
same summary fate should be visited upon the filth and 
rubbish far too often put out under the name of fiction, 
which teach bad morals in questionable grammar and in a 
vicious' style. But the work of suppression should be 
pursued with caution, for so many-sided a thing as truth 
may have some one of its aspects caught and reflected in the 
mirror of some muddy pool as well as upon the broad ex- 
panse of a lake. 

At the other extreme may be found the choice and master 
spirits of their times, rarely popular in comparison with their 
ephemeral fellows of the moment, but immortal in their 
currency. They live on from age to age, and are the su- 
preme expressions of the literary art. They are the classics 
not merely of Greece and Rome but of every land. They 
lie at the foundation of libraries as their study lies at the 
foundation of the truest culture. Any system of higher 
education which omits them fails in one of its most important 


ends. Our better natures are apt to assert themselves in 
spite of any system of training in books or schools, but 
operating alone, a system which has for its sole purpose to 
make man an efficient instrument in attacking the forces of 
nature, may lower him to the plane of the forces with, which 
he contends, and reduce him to the level of materialism. 

Between the extremes to which I have referred, grading 
from the best on the one side to the most useless on the 
other, he a great mass of books, some of which are very 
good and none wholly bad, and they form a valuable part 
of the world's aggregate of literature and learning, impor- 
tant to be transmitted to the future. It is possible that 
the ingenuity of man may hereafter devise some effective 
method for extracting the juices from books, and taking 
from them what is really vital and useful in them. If 
that shall be done there will be a great mortality among 

But I should do only scant justice to this occasion if I 
neglected to refer to the noble history which is in your 
special keeping. And when I speak of your history I need 
hardly say that the term is far broader than the official 
transactions of the State, and that it comprehends the life, 
the character and achievements of her people, and the 
growth and development of the institutions with which her 
name is associated. The first settlement of New Hampshire 
did not have the dramatic features to make it the splendid 
historical event seen in the landing at Plymouth. Indeed, 
it w T as to an important extent an offshoot of the Pilgrim 
colony and that of Massachusetts Bay, and the founders of 
New Hampshire were chiefly of that same stock; they had 
the same virility, the same firmness of purpose, the same 
love of a freedom regulated by law, the same intellectual 
and moral qualities. The stock at an early day was modi- 
fied, and certainly not impaired, by a strong infusion of the 
Scotch-Irish and other bloods. The race spread over your 
valleys and hills from the ocean to the White Mountains, 
and by the time of the K evolution these hardy pioneers had 
developed all the essentials of a stable, self-governing State. 


From that time to the present there has been no part of the . 
Union where the great ends of government have been more 
steadily and efficiently secured. Her sons were in the fore- 
front at Bunker Hill and Bennington, and upon the other 
fields of the Revolution, and there has been no hour of peril 
to the country or its institutions when they have not glo- 
riously performed their part, whether in peace or war. She 
has not, indeed, been one of the prolific hives from which 
myriads of emigrants have swarmed to people other States 
and countries. Pier population has not been great enough 
for that. But she has^performed a higher part, and has 
sent forth men who have greatly helped in shaping the 
political institutions of the nation, who have guarded the 
destinies of great States and have aided in founding new 

If you try to trace the influences that have made the 
America of today, you touch the mainsprings of the nation's 
history when you come to the hillsides of New Hampshire. 
Let me recur to just a few particulars. Horace Greeley 
first saw the light upon a small and barren farm in Amherst. 
Chase was born in the valley of the Connecticut, upon a 
farm across which the western sun throws the shadow of 
Ascutney. When the mighty forces were ranging which 
were to determine the issue between freedom and slavery 
upon this continent, what influences were more potent in 
moulding opinion in favor of freedom than those wielded by 
the great statesman and by the great journalist whose 
names I have just spoken? 

And there is the supreme classical instance which the 
flight of years has but served to make brighter. America 
had received no clear mandate to be a nation. Amid the 
jumble of clashing sovereignties, the conflict of sections, and 
the growing differences over slavery the Union seemed likely 
to crumble. It needed that a mighty word should bespoken, 
and spoken as man almost never before spake. That word 
was uttered by a great son of New Hampshire. It had in it 
the strength of her mountains. It had in it the beauty of 
her lakes and valleys, the depth of her forests, and the inusi« 


of her streams. All over the North men heard it. They 
were charmed by it. They caught it up and repeated it 
again and again. It entered into their lives. It caused the 
sun of the nation to shine. It inspired millions of men upon 
the battlefield. It bore the message that saved the Union. 
And the saving of the Union was necessary to the destruction 
of slavery. Lincoln and the glorious things for which he 
stood, and will forever stand, were made possible by your 
own Webster. 

And then we must not overlook the story of the founding 
and growth of your college, whose very foundations have 
been strengthened by the same generous hand that reared 
this building. It is at the summit of your admirable insti- 
tutions of learning and your system of public instruction. 
From the time when Wheelock planted it in the wilderness it 
has grown in influence and strength, and it has aided in 
carrying the name of New Hampshire around the world. 
What transcendent good fortune has been hers to be as- 
sociated with world-history events! In her own name, and 
because of her pathetic circumstances and the immortal 
eloquence of her advocate, was established the doctrine that 
the charter of a corporation was a contract with the State, 
and thus came under the shield of the national constitu- 
tion. Under this palladium that marvelous instrumentality 
of industrial development, the modern corporation, has 
been perfected, with all its evils, if you will, but also with 
all its benefits. Many of those evils have been cured, and 
the rest will yet be dealt with by the intelligence and sense 
of justice of the people. But the vast benefits are here. 
The wealth of the country has been many times multiplied, 
its population has been greatly increased. Vast regions 
which a century ago were unknown have been overlaced 
with railroads, great commonwealths have sprung into 
being, and the country has beeu made an industrial and 
commercial, as well as a political unit. There may be those 
w T ho will tell you it would be better if it were a smaller 
country. But a smaller country it would surely be, had the 
court laid down the opposite doctrine in the college case. 


Before the people recognized the value of the co-operation, 
made possible on a large scale by the corporation alone, and 
while the prejudice still existed against that creature without 
a soul, its development would have been arrested a hundred 
times by hostile legislation. It is a strange destiny that a 
New England college, struggling in the depths of poverty, 
should have been an important source out of which was to 
spring the most rapid and the most fabulous development of 
wealth which the world has ever known. And then through 
her great son her name will be forever linked with nation- 
ality and the preservation of the Union. 

There are some of us who love her for her less refulgent 
glories, those who are of her own household and know the 
splendid democracy which she teaches, her inspiration to 
learning and to noble living, and who have felt the spell and 
the witchery of her beauty. Long may the gentle sway of 
this queen of the peerless Connecticut rest lightly and lov- 
ingly upon the throngs of generous and happy youth whom 
she shall gather about her upon her wide-spreading meadows 
and among her sun-kissed hills. 

Such is the character of the history which you are es- 
pecially to cherish. It is not the sterile story of a political or 
an intellectual province. This little commonwealth, with 
her own history, her own traditions, and her self-centred 
growth, giving richly as well as receiving from the nation of 
which she is a part, shines serenely with her own light. It 
is your province to do what you can to make perfect the 
record of her splendid past and, let us hope, of her not less 
splendid future. It is a high and noble trust that is put in 
your keeping. 


At the conclusion of Mr. McCall's address the President 
invited the members and guests to a banquet given by the 
Society in honor of Edward Tuck, to be immediately served 
at the auditorium of the City Hall. 

The procession was again formed, and marched to the audi- 
torium, where members and guests to the number of five 
hundred assembled at the tables. Grace was said by the 
Rt. Rev. William W. Niles, D. D., Bishop of New Hamp- 

At the conclusion of the banquet the President said: 

" Greeting and welcoming you most cordially as guests of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, it gives me pleasure 
to introduce to you a well-known and most zealous friend 
and member of the Society as toastmaster for this occasion, 
the Hon. Samuel C. Eastman of Concord." 


The New Hampshire Historical Society extends a cordial 
welcome to you who today honor us by your presence. The 
occasion is one of great importance to the Society. To dedi- 
cate our new building is to enter upon a new life, to open a 
new field, and to establish new standards for the future 
activities and usefulness of the Society. We are encouraged 
by the attendance of so large a number not only of our own 
members, but also by the presence of our guests, who have 
come from a distance to manifest their interest in our wel- 
fare, and to join with us in this social hour in honor of our 
chief guest. 

The New Hampshire Historical Society was formed May 
23, 1825, at a meeting of representative citizens of our State. 
Among them were Ichabod Bartlett, Nathaniel A. Haven, 
Jr., Samuel Dana Bell, Jacob B. Moore and John Farmer, 
and the first President was William Plumer, with Levi 
Woodbury as first Vice-President, names still held in honor 


as solid, safe, and eminent men. It has been said that real 
history can only be written by men of vivid imagination. 
This supplies that occasional flash of genius which so often 
enlivens the pages of Macaulay, and enables us to realize 
the past in a way that no mere chronicler of bare facts can 
make possible. The men I have named and those associa- 
ted with them, the founders of this Society, were men of that 
stamp. Though born and bred in the somewhat chilly atmos- 
phere of Puritanic asceticism, they unconsciously, perhaps, 
imbibed from some source the inspiration of an enthusiastic 
imagination, and laid down a broad and liberal foundation 
for the Historical Society. In the preamble to the act of 
incorporation their aims and character are shown in the 
following words: 

" Whereas the persons hereinafter named have associated 
for the laudable purpose of collecting and preserving such 
books and papers as may illustrate the early history of the 
State, and of acquiring and communicating the knowledge 
-of the natural history and botanical and mineralogical 
productions of the State, as well as for the general advance- 
ment of science and literature, and whereas the object of 
their association is of public utility and deserves to be en- 
couraged, therefore be it enacted,'' etc. 

In the words of an almost contemporary New Hampshire 

"No pent-up Utica contracts [their] powers." 

The whole field of cultured life and duty was before them, and 
they entered upon the discharge of that duty with fidelity 
and zeal. Their idealism is shown in the high standards 
which they set up, imposing upon us, their successors, duties 
as yet unfulfilled. They clearly realized that if you think 
nobly, noble action will surely follow. 

Yet if one of those founders had taken a nap in the attic 
room in which I first remember the archives of the Society, 
where the cobwebs hung dimly from the bare rafters over the 
scantily furnished shelves below, and drestf&d that the 
Society dwelt in marble halls, not even the heathen god of 


dreams could have so excited his imagination as to have 
pictured the home in store for it which we have just left, and. 
which we have dedicated to history, science, literature, 
botany, and mineralogy, to follow the words of the scheme 
laid down for us eighty years ago. No one ever lived and 
prospered on negation. * Our progenitors were positive and 
hitched their wagon to a star, and we are enjoying the 
fruition of their ambition. 

It does not seem proper that this occasion should pass by 
without a tribute to the beautiful, classical design of our new 
building, which adds so much to the attractiveness of the 
square in which it stands. We owe this to the eminent 
architect, Guy Lowell of Boston. The universal verdict is 
that it is a gem of priceless value. 

Nor should the artist w T ho modeled the group over the 
main entrance fail to receive his due meed of praise for the 
artistic skill with which he has performed his task. He has 
many works of art to his credit, and has added greatly to his 
reputation as a sculptor by this, his latest achievement. I 
regret to say that with that modesty to which great artists 
so often yield, he refuses to allow his name to be placed on 
the list of speakers. Even if he is silent his works speak for 

Both building and group are cut from our own Concord 
granite and they will long remain as enduring monuments to 
the genius of their authors. 

Mr. Timothy P. Sullivan, who has faithfully watched over 
the work day by day, deserves commendation for the fidelity 
with which he has guarded against imperfections in material 
and mechanical execution. 

The building, compared with what we now have, may at 
first sight seem large for the uses of the Society. How shall 
we ever find books enough to fill the shelves, and works of 
art enough to adorn the exhibition room? The purposes of 
the Society, as you have seen, are comprehensive. We 
must collect anything and everything relating to the State 
of New Hampshire, its towns and its people. All printed 
books, pamphlets, and even broadsides have a place here. 


The utmost catholicity of taste should guide the librarian, 
who, indeed, if endowed with the spirit of his calling, will 
find it difficult to reject any printed book or manuscript 
bearing even in the most trivial manner on our State, or on 
the people, their life and customs. Just as the Mahomedan 
was said to be unwilling to step on a piece of paper for fear 
that he might dishonor the name of God, so the librarian 
Is afraid to reject what may sometime be earnestly sought 
for. Professor Saintsbury once asked Dr. Richard Garnet 
of the British Museum, " What do you do with that rubbish?'' 
The answer came with a quaint smile: "Well, you see, it is 
very difficult to know what is rubbish today, and quite im- 
possible to know what will be rubbish tomorrow." We 
need have no fear of too much space to fill, but rather of 
too little. Indeed, it has always seemed to me that no 
library should ever be built without a plan and ground for 
enlargement as soon, as the roof is on. 

The erection and completion of the building has been slow 
but thorough. For this latter quality, and indeed for care- 
ful, diligent, and laborious oversight and planning too much 
praise cannot be given to the chairman of the Building 
Committee, Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball. He has been 
untiring in his devotion to the work, and no detail has been 
too small for his supervision. With unstinted self-sacrifice 
he has given more than tw r o years almost wholly to the 
Society, and we are glad to record our recognition of its 

The land on which it stands has been fully paid for by 
contributions from persons interested in the Society, aided 
by a large addition to the fund by Mr. Tuck. 

The donor, Mr. Edward Tuck, has exacted a promise that 
he shall not be called upon to speak at this banquet, even in 
response to a toast. We think that he is far too modest and 
greatly underrates his gifts. We must, however, respect his 
wishes and allow him to listen to us who are less worthy. 

He forgot, fortunately, to pledge me not to speak of what 
he has done. The whole cost of this building, constructed 
from foundation to roof to last for centuries, absolutely 


fireproof, and admirably adapted to the purposes for which 
it is designed, as well as of a part of the land on which it 
stands, is his gift to the Society. As he has said, it is a 
token of his love for his native State. 

I can at least ask you to join with me in showing your 
appreciation of the gift he has bestowed upon the Society 
(turning toward Mr. Tuck, all those present rising), and 
to you, Edward Tuck, and to your esteemed wife, whose 
advice, good taste, and countenance have at all times been 
freely at your service and contributed so much to the end at 
which you both aimed, we now one and all tender you our 
hearty thanks and our best wishes for many years of health 
and happiness. 


I am touched by the honor that has been given to me to- 
day, and by the very kind and hearty manner in which you 
have mentioned my name. After the eloquent addresses 
to which we have listened — and there are others which are 
to come — I will not venture more than to say simply 
"Thank you", and to say that this occasion will remain 
always fresh in my memory as one of the most gratifying 
of my life. I thank you. 

The Toastmaster: The New Hampshire Historical 
Society is a society of the whole State. If it has not a 
member in every town it ought to have, and I hope soon 
will have. All our citizens are interested in its purposes and 
objects. For this and other reasons our first toast is to 
"The State of New Hampshire, cherished by us all." His 
Excellency Plobert P. Bass, Governor of New Hampshire. 


It falls to the lot of but few men in my official position to 
represent their State on such a happ}- occasion. This build- 
ing, which we have just dedicated, will serve as a link to 
bind the best of our history and traditions in the past with 
those achievements of the future which we so confidently 
expect. For this generous gift our distinguished guest, 


Mr. Edward Tuck, should receive the thanks, not only of 
the members of this Society, but of all those interested in the 
welfare of our commonwealth. I am here as chief magis- 
trate of the State to convey to him in some measure the 
gratitude felt by all good citizens of New Hampshire. I 
cannot but realize the inadequacy of words for this task, 
and I am convinced, knowing as I do the altruism of the 
man, that the greatest proof of our appreciation will be 
the high purpose to which we devote this building. 

It would seem most fitting that we should recall at this 
time the many important services rendered by that able, 
loyal, and public-spirited citizen, Mr. Amos Tuck of Exeter, 
father of Mr. Edward Tuck. He held many offices of trust. 
He was for six years a member of Congress, and his connec- 
tion with the public affairs of the State and nation was 
both long and influential. It is indeed a pleasure on this 
day to do honor to his memory. 

It is my opinion that this beautiful structure will furnish 
inspiration to historical students for generations to come. 
But it will do more. It will provide the means for perpetu- 
ating an intimate memory, not only of those great men of 
whom we are so justly proud, but also of the men unknown 
to fame who have contributed their substantial share toward 
making New Hampshire all that she now is. Furthermore, 
it will bring us in closer relation to the history of our State 
in the making. The beauty of this building, with its har- 
monious relation and proximity to the State House, forms 
a happy analogy from which we may gather the work which 
will be expected from members of this Society in the future. 

From the laboratory of the student of history and govern- 
ment will come the formulas which legislators must use in 
constructing the laws. The experience of mankind, as col- 
lected in history, furnishes the material for that laboratory. 
The science of government ought to be an exact science, 
drawn from the accumulation of accurate and complete 
historical data. The difficulty in the past has been that too 
frequently this data has been inexact, fragmentary, and 
colored by the opinions and passions of men actually en- 


gaged in political or social conflict. Historians have too 
often considered that their work lay exclusively in the 
records of the past, and have ignored the fact that history 
is making every day, and that there is at hand material in- 
valuable to the future of humanity which, if not gathered 
together at once, will vanish forever, leaving behind only 
vague memories. 

Official acts, public records, letters and speeches of in- 
dividuals will remain, but that is not enough. The success 
or failure of the different branches of government, executive, 
legislative, even judiciary, lie interwoven in a vast number 
of incidents, which must be gathered, sifted, and analyzed to 
reach accurate conclusions. It is only through the conscien- 
tious accumulation and co-ordination of such fleeting data 
that the true atmosphere may be known in which our great- 
est historical movements find birth. The historian should 
get this material by original research, and not leave that 
work to chance. When he has done that he will become 
an even more vital force in the community, for to him must 
turn the men who are doing the work, who have not time 
in the turmoil and heat of active life to analyze and ad- 
equately construct. 

May this building be symbolical not only of New Hamp- 
shire's important part in the past history of the nation, but 
also of the place she will maintain for herself in the future. 
Let the achievements of New Hampshire's sons in the days 
to come justify our donor's expectations as shown in the 
richness, the completeness, and generosity of this gift. 

The Toastmaster: We owe much to Massachusetts, 
which at one time exercised dominion over a large part of 
our State, and imposed upon us laws which have very much 
perplexed our courts in late years, especially when applied to 
regions which were never a part of that commonwealth. 
We have tried to pay the debt by sending them Senators, 
Governors, members of Congress, judges, lawyers, and doc- 
tors, so that the balance is now on our side. We have also 
followed the lead of Massachusetts in many ways. The first 



historical society was formed in Massachusetts, and is 
more vigorous now than ever before. We took pattern 
therefrom. It is, therefore, eminently proper that we should 
hear from the Massachusetts Historical Society today, and 
the President, a gentleman eminent as a scholar, a soldier, 
a historian, and a stateman, has consented to honor us by 
his presence. I give you "The Historical Societies of 
other States," and present Hon. Charles Francis Adams, 
President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 


In the course of his most illuminating dedicatory address 
this morning, Mr. McCall made reference to Lord Rosebery, 
or the Earl of Midlothian, as I suppose he should now be 
called, and the commotion recently caused by him in British 
library circles. It was, you will remember, at a dedication 
similar to that of today, and he referred to public libraries 
as " cemeteries of dead books. " And Lord Rosebery other- 
wise at the same time fluttered the librarian dovecotes by 
commenting in tones closely resembling despair upon the 
present tendency to accumulate " literary rubbish ", a 
term I remember myself using some two years ago at 
Worcester, upon the laying of the corner stone of the 
building of the American Antiquarian Society, applying 
it to the indiscriminate collection of printed matter. More 
recently, at the opening of the Bishopsgate Library in 
London, his lordship has reverted to the subject, declaring 
that the British Museum must in time — and not a very long 
time — become a sort of town in the middle of London; and 
he then added: "If the doctrine of grasping librarians be 
sound this extension must go on at a vast and fruitless cost, 
enough to set the man who is not by nature bookish against 
everything in the form of literature." 

A tolerably sweeping indictment, this suggestion is undeni- 
ably germane to the present occasion, for we are here to 
dedicate yet another library building; but I want to call 
Lord Rosebery's attention, as also the attention of our 
orator of the day, to the fact that these references to libraries 


as "cemeteries of dead books" are by no means new. 
Henry Hallam, the author of the " Literary History of 
Europe" and "Europe in the Middle Ages," was, as a writer 
of a period close upon a century gone, not greatly given to 
figures of rhetoric; he is deemed even what is termed dry, 
distinctly lacking in those imaginative qualities to which 
Mr. McCall has made a not altogether approving reference. 
But, nevertheless, there is a passage in Hallam's "Europe in 
the Middle Ages" [Vol. Ill, p. 426] the words of which, 
striking my fancy when I first read the book as a college 
student over fifty years ago, have abided in my recollection 
ever since. The somewhat prosaic if very erudite historian 
there suddenly broke into poetry, exclaiming, — " The history 
of literature, like that of empire, is full of revolutions. Our 
public libraries are cemeteries of departed reputation; and 
the dust accumulating upon their untouched volumes speaks 
as forcibly as the grass that waves over the ruins of Babylon. 
Few, very few, for a hundred years past, have broken the 
repose of the immense works of the schoolmen." And 
referring to those same ''schoolmen''' in yet another passage 
even more rhetorical in character, he, in his "Literary 
History of Europe" [Vol. I, p. '373] calls them the "cham- 
pions of a long war," adding: "These are they, and many 
more there were down to the middle of the seventeenth 
century, at whom, along the shelves of an ancient library we 
look and pass by. They belong no more to man, but to the 
worm, the moth, the spider. Their dark and ribbed backs, 
their yellow leaves, their thousand folio pages do not more 
repel us than the unprofitableness of their substance. Their 
prolixity, their barbarous style, the perpetual recurrence, in 
many, of syllogistic forms, the reliance by way of proof on 
authorities that have been adjured, the temporary and 
partial disputes which can be neither interesting nor always 
intelligible at present, must soon put an end to the activity 
of the most industrious scholar." 

I do not propose now and here to venture further into the 
recesses and among the gravestones of this "cemetery." 
My time is limited, and I propose to confine myself to it, 


nor is this the place for treatises. Moreover, I have on this 
topic already said my say, which those curious on the sub- 
ject may, if they choose to look, find in its proper place in 
the publications of the American Antiquarian Society. 
But yet, before passing to other subjects, I do want to say 
that I cannot regard the accumulation of printed matter as 
constituting a problem quite so insoluble as it seems to be 
in the opinion of Lord Rosebery or of Mr. McCall. To use 
somewhat long words, it is, in my opinion, merely a question 
of differentiation and co-operation. That any one library, 
either the Congressional or the British Museum, should have 
and retain on its shelves all printed matter is absurd to sup- 
pose. The accumulation buries itself in its own bulk. It 
gets beyond humor, ingenuity to handle it in such a way as 
to render its contents available. Today, even, the refer- 
ence room of the New York City Library contains four 
millions of cards, and the volume of those flowing daily in, 
numbered by hundreds, is, as the elder Weller once remarked 
in a wholly dissimilar connection "a swellin wisibly before 
my wcry eyes." Think, then, of the future; for even this is 
but the beginning. As a remedy, and obvious remedy, for 
this distinctly dropsical condition, we already differentiate 
to a degree; but, as yet, libraries almost wholly fail to co- 
operate. The Boston Athenreum, for instance, to which I 
propose to refer more particularly somewhat later, under- 
took, when it was started a little over a century ago, to 
collect law, theology, science, medicine, and in fact to con- 
stitute itself a receptacle of knowledge on all subjects in 
addition to a collection of general literature. This idea was 
long since abandoned; and, today, no student or investigator 
in the different professions or callings thinks of going for pur- 
poses of research to any library except one devotfd to his 
specialty. In the not remote future this differentiation will 
be carried much further, and co-operation will be reduced to 
a system. That will go far to solve Lord Rosebe^'s prob- 
lem; one copy of a book or periodical will be kept in its 
proper place, and the ninety-nine other copies will go to their 
own place, probably the furnace. The time is now near 


when, for instance, nearly all periodical literature will drift 
into collections specially devoted to their keeping. These . 
will constitute depositaries by themselves, to which other 
libraries will refer. I look forward, therefore, with confi- 
dence to the time when in our libraries there will be periodi- 
cal clearances of dead books; and books condemned as dead 
will not. as is usually supposed, be consigned to the flames 
or sent to the pulp-mill, but after careful winnowing, they 
will be sent to that especial library or institution — wherever 
it may be — which devotes itself to the particular form in 
literature to which the dead book in question belongs. 
There they will repose in quiet, one copy sufficing; whereas 
now the effort is to keep perhaps five hundred uselessly 
shelved in different localities. 

Under such a system, what will then be the province of 
historical societies, such as ours in Massachusetts, the 
mother of them all, or of this here in New Hampshire, one 
of its earliest children? My theory is that neither the 
Massachusetts Historical Society nor the New Hampshire 
Historical Society is, properly speaking, a library at all. It 
is rather a catch-basin. Its specialty is to collect, receive, 
and preserve the raw material of histor3 r , whatever that may 
be. If books, they are books never read and rarely con- 
sulted. The Historical Society library is, in a word, a recep- 
tacle and clearing house of data, especially of manuscripts, 
whether records, diaries, or correspondence. Yet of this vast 
mass of imprinted matter it is safe to say not one per cent. 
has value. None the less, that one per cent., the grain of 
wheat in the bushel of chaff, needs to be carefully winnowed 
out; and to winnow it out is the function of the historical 
society. To that function it should in future more especially 
confine itself. Beyond that, it is for it, in so far as it can, 
to find room for the vast accumulation of printed matter, 
the output to no small extent of the government press, made 
up of journals of the day, historical studies, and that in- 
describable and immeasurable miscellaneous volume of such 
matter for which place cannot be found in the general public 
library, much less in any private collection. 


After accumulation, safety is the great desideratum for 
which costly provision must be made. And now let me 
improve the occasion by an example. Today we have in 
Boston a collection of infinite value, exposed daily to the 
utmost risk. Like the New York State Library, it may 
tomorrow go up in smoke. I refer to the Boston Athenseum. 
Owing to the sentimental feelings and pernicious activity, 
as I cannot but call it, of certain Boston ladies who had 
from childhood looked upon the Athenaeum building on old 
Beacon Street as one of the city's most precious architectural 
monuments, the Athenseum collection, the loss of which 
would be wholly irreparable, is kept in one of the most in- 
geniously ill-arranged of library buildings and, incidentally, 
a thorough-going fire-trap. It is but necessary to go there, 
and, guided by the courteous librarian, to- look about, to 
reach the conclusion that the edifice is not only a very bad 
fire-risk, but by no possible expenditure of money, no matter 
how freely used, could it be converted into a library structure 
either modern or convenient. I myself well remember the 
laying of its corner stone, nearly seventy years ago. I 
distinctly recall seeing, as a boy, President Quincy, then a 
man of seventy-five, delivering an open-air address to the 
not large number of people gathered on Beacon Street to 
listen to him. In those days builders had no conception 
of what is now known as fire-proof construction; and the 
convenient interior arrangement of a public library for the 
reception and use of a large collection of books was a thing 
as yet wholly undeveloped by architects. On the other 
hand, that Athenaeum building now contains a collection 
which, if lost, simply could not be replaced, a collection 
absolutely unique. 

The other day a volume of the Gutenberg Bible was sold 
for $30,000; a copy of the first folio of Shakespeare com- 
mands, I believe, some $0,000. Valuable as curiosities, 
no loss would be sustained from any practical point of view 
if either or both of those highly prized volumes passed out of 
existence. Themselves reproduced through modern facsim- 
ile processes, their contents exist in countless republications. 


Copies can be obtained of any desired shape and size, and at 
prices to suit the most exacting collector or modest pur- 
chaser. It is altogether otherwise with any file of an eight- 
eenth century newspaper. That, if lost, is gone, and it can- 
not be replaced. Impossible of reprinting, it can neither be 
facsimiled nor copied. Its reproduction is out of the ques- 
tion. Money cannot buy a duplicate. Yet today, while 
in view of the extreme inflammability of the building a 
number of pamphlets and manuscripts of the Boston 
Athenaeum, every one of which is in print elsewhere or could 
be reproduced or copied, have been placed in a fire-proof 
safe, its files of newspapers, numbering many thousand 
volumes, are deposited in rooms from which, in case of 
conflagration, their removal would be impossible. It would 
be merely a question of their being reduced to ashes or to 
pulp, destruction by fire or destruction by water. As 
one of the proprietors of the Boston Athenaeum I have 
repeatedly said in public, and now say again, such a storing 
of a body of printed matter, the replacement of which if 
destroyed is out of the question, is in these days, in every 
respect except law, a continuing breach of trust. It is 
morally criminal, though not a statutory offense. The 
owners have no right to expose it to such a risk. Remember 
the recent conflagration at Albany! Every day that the 
collection of the Boston Athenaeum, though a private col- 
lection, is retained where it is, a fresh burden of responsibility 
rests upon the heads of those female sentimentalists, who, 
years ago, made impossible its removal to a place of secu- 
rity, where it could be properly consulted. 

I have now improved the present occasion by bearing 
public witness on a matter concerning which I feel strongly. 
At least it is gratifying to think that whatever you may here 
collect — and the collections of the New Hampshire Histori- 
cal Society are most valuable — they are, thanks to Mr. 
Tuck, safe within the building this day dedicated, from the 
two great enemies of historical material, fire and dampness, 
and permanently accessible to the investigator and student. 
I wish most devoutly that your counterpart, Mr. Tuck, 



would today not only put in an appearance, but, from what 
he both sees and hears, would drink an inspiration as the 
benefactor as well as a proprietor of the Boston Athenaeum. 

The Toastmaster : There is no part of the civilized 
world, ancient or modern, where buildings erected for 
public purposes are not the most interesting and instruct- 
ive of the works of man. It is the architect who furnished 
the knowledge and the genius which inspired and secured 
the erection of these buildings. Without him we might have 
had a shelter in which to take refuge, but not the monu- 
mental pile which inspires awe, admiration, and veneration. 
Our building is one of the class which will long be visited, 
admired, and revered. In it the architect has given us the 
result of his best studies and ertorts. It will always be a 
work to which he and his children can point with pride. I 
am glad that we are to hear from him. I give you "Archi- 
tecture, the most enduring memorial of the past." I pre- 
sent to respond our architect, Guy Lowell of Boston. 


It gives me very great pleasure today when all of us have 
uppermost in our mind the duty that is imposed upon us to 
hand down to posterity the priceless records and memorials 
of the past, to be called upon to speak on architecture as 
"the most enduring memorial of the past." I think those 
words of Mr. Eastman are expressive, because in so far as 
architecture has been enduring in the pas_t, history has been 
enduring, and the history of architecture is the history of 
civilization. The first builder, when the human race was 
primitive and nomadic, was called on only to build a shelter 
against the weather, but as time went on man's life became 
more civilized and his institutions became stable. Then the 
first architect who practiced architecture as a fine art tried 
to add to his building something besides practical utility. 
He tried to add beauty. He tried, in other words, to ex- 
press an idea; so, little by little, architects have shown, in 
doing the work of what you might call their trade, a desire 


to add beauty and to express some of the emotions. So 
today, in looking back into the past we find that there has 
been added to the utilitarian, first, beauty of decoration; 
and then that the architect, by means of beauty and decora- 
tion, has often tried to tell a story; and that with the assist- 
ance of the painter and of the sculptor he has succeeded in 
handing down monuments which are lasting records of 
what men have accomplished in the past. We get a sense 
of the power of mankind, a knowledge of the institutions he 
has established, his power in accomplishing deeds almost 
entirely from his buildings and monuments, just as we get 
a sensation of the grandeur and the majesty of the Almighty 
from nature. 

We have tried in this building to express an idea, and it is 
successful in so far as it does express the simplicity and the 
dignity and the straightforward character of the men who 
have made history in this State, and of those men, who, in 
perpetuating it, have shown that they carried deep in their 
hearts a love for their country and for their State. 

As La Rochefoucauld says in his two hundred and fiftieth 
maxim that true eloquence consists of saying that which is 
necessary, and leaving out that which is superfluous, I am 
going to sit down. 

The Toastmaster: The small college that " there are 
those who love' 7 has grown to be a large college with its thou- 
sands of graduates who not only love but almost worship 
it. Our constitution enforces the nurture of institutions of 
learning, and the State is beginning to recognize its duty to 
Dartmouth, of whose success and high rank we are all so 
proud. There is a reciprocal relation and influence which 
cannot be too often or too strongly emphasized. Our next 
toast is "Dartmouth and the State: what would one do 
without the other?" I regret to announce that President 
Nichols who was to respond for the College has been ordered 
to the seclusion of a dark room by his physician. He has 
deputed Hon. Samuel L. Powers, a member of the Board 


of Trustees, to take his place, and I have the honor of now- 
presenting him to you. 


Whenever you observe me sitting at the head table on a 
great occasion like this, and called upon to make a speech, 
you can well understand that someone is ill. If I may be 
permitted to use a football phrase at this season of the year, 
I belong to what is called the second team. I never get 
into play in a great game unless someone on the first team is 
injured. For the past two weeks I have been following the 
fortunes, or rather misfortunes, of football. Following my 
team to Princeton I saw it lose by misfortune. Following 
my team to Cambridge I saw it lose by another misfortune, 
and I come here today to find that the old College has met 
with another serious misfortune, and must go down to 
defeat on this occasion because the official head of the insti- 
tution is not present. I regret quite as much as anyone can 
that Doctor Nichols is not here today to speak for Dart- 

The toast which you have assigned, or did assign, to Presi- 
dent Nichols is the State of New Hampshire and DartmOtith 
College. Can anyone think of one without thinking of the 
other? The College is twenty years older than the State, 
and for nearly a century and a quarter they have gone on as 
a married couple, and have had but one family jar, and that 
is pretty good for more than a century of married life. As 
I look back to that difficulty which arose between the Col- 
lege and the State so many years ago, I am reminded that 
it occurred early during the married life of the College and 
the State, and I am rather inclined to think that the College 
was more responsible for that trouble than the State. Flad 
the trustees not been in controversy with each other, and in 
controversy with the President, the State undoubtedly 
would not have interfered, and my feeling is that the inter- 
ference on the part of the State was purely in the interest 
of the College. The State interfered because it loved the 
College, and wanted to see it prosper. However, when the 


decision was reached by the highest judicial tribunal in the 
land, it settled forever the controversy between the State 
and the College, and that decision not only proved of the 
greatest value to Dartmouth, but to every educational 
institution in America. Permit me to say to the Governor 
that I believe that the State of New Hampshire has no fault 
to find with Dartmouth College at the present time. 

During the past fifteen years, covering the efficient and 
brilliant administration of Doctor Tucker, and including the 
limited portion of the administration of his successor, I 
think you will agree with me in saying that Dartmouth has 
been doing great work. 

Dartmouth is proud of New Hampshire, and New Hamp- 
shire is proud of Dartmouth. The College is not alone edu- 
cating New Hampshire boys. Four fifths of all the students 
at Dartmouth come from outside the limits of New Hamp- 
shire, and nearly one half are now coming from outside the 
limits of New England. We are not alone educating the 
boys of this State, but we are educating the boys from every 
part of the Union. What is true of Dartmouth is also true of 
two of the great preparatory schools located in the State. 
I refer to your splendid school here in Concord, St. Paul's, 
and to the ancient academy located at Exeter, where at 
least four fifths of ail the boys come from outside of New 
Hampshire to be prepared for college within this State. 
Surely New Hampshire has made her impression upon the 
country as a State devoted to education. What is it that 
makes a great State or a great college? Greatness of this 
character is not to be measured by commerce or wealth. 
A State becomes great by reason of the character of its 
people, and not by reason of the wealth of its population. 
And what is true of the State is equally true of the college. 
A college becomes great because it represents character, 
and the work which Dartmouth and New Hampshire are 
doing today is in the development of character in sending 
forth to the world strong and reliant men. 

I said a moment ago that it is difficult to even think of 
New Hampshire without thinking of the College. In the 


Statuary Hall at Washington this State has placed two 
statues representing its two foremost men. One is of 
General Stark, the other of Daniel Webster. You cannot 
think of General Stark without thinking of New Hampshire. 
You cannot think of Daniel Webster without thinking of 
Dartmouth College. They truly represent both the State 
and the College, and we can name many men now living 
who fairly represent both the State and the College. I see 
before me one man well advanced in years, but still a youth 
in mental and physical action, whose love for New Hamp- 
shire and for Dartmouth has always been of the,, most in- 
tense character. I never look into the face of David Cross 
without being reminded both of New Hampshire and Dart- 
mouth College. 

Let me say to you, Mr. Tuck, that the College as well as 
the State recognizes the great obligations under which they 
have been placed by your munificent and timely gifts. 
These gifts have made Dartmouth more efficient, and have 
made its sons more loyal and devoted to its cause. You 
have taught us what a loyal son, who has the means and the 
disposition to act, can do for the College. Your generous 
gift to the Historical Society of New Hampshire proves 
your devotion to your native State, and has made every 
citizen of New Hampshire feel a little prouder of his own 
State, and inspired him with greater loyalty to it. May 
what has already been said prove true, that you and also 
Mrs. Tuck, who has joined you in this great work, both live 
long and prosper, and be the happier by reason of what you 
have done. 

Mr. Adams has suggested that while you are engaged in 
this character of work you come to Massachusetts and con- 
tinue the work there. My suggestion, however, is that you 
do not start out on the mission suggested by Mr. Adams 
until you have fully completed what you had in mind to do 
for Dartmouth and New Hampshire. 

■-■ """- ' H I 


The Toastmaster : We have no reason to be ashamed of 
New Hampshire's place among the poets of our nation. 
While Bewail, from whom I have already quoted, in his 
book of 300 pages wrote only two lines that have made him 
known, Miss Proctor has written many poems which are 
read and loved. She is always faithful to her native State, 
and is one of our guests today, and has consented to recite 
her poem, "The Mountain Maid." I introduce to you 
Miss Edna Dean Proctor. 


There is. an ancient saying: u He who honors his birth- 
place honors himself." What honor, then, has the guest of 
today who has enriched. New Hampshire's historic College 
and royally housed her records? From Canada to the sea 
New Hampshire is a poet lyric, epic, but I like to represent 
her as 


O the Mountain Maid, New Hampshire! 

Her steps are light and free, 
Whether she treads the lofty heights 

Or follows the brooks to the sea. 
Her eyes are clear as the skies that hang 

Over her hills of snow, 
And her hair is dark as the densest shade 

That falls where the fir-trees grow — 
The fir-trees slender and sombre 

That climb from the vales below. ' 

Sweet is her voice as the robin's 

In a lull of the wind of March 
Wooing the rosy arbutus 

At the roots of the budding larch; 
And rich as the ravishing echoes 

On still Franconia's lake 
When the boatman winds his magic horn 

And the tongues of the wood awake, 
While the huge Stone Face forgets to frown 

And the hare peeps out of the brake. 


The blasts of stormy December 

But brighten the bloom on her cheek, 
And the snows build her statelier temples 

Than to goddess were reared by the Greek. 
She welcomes the fervid summer, 

And flies to the sounding shore 
Where bleak Boar's Head looks seaward, 

Set in the billows' roar, 
And dreams of her sailors and fishers 

Till cool days come once more. 

Then how fair is the maiden, 

Crowned with the scarlet leaves, 
And wrapped in the tender, misty veil 

Her Indian Summer weaves! — 
While the aster blue, and the goldenrod, 

And immortelles, clustering sweet, 
From Canada down to the sea have spread 

A carpet for her feet; 
And the faint witch-hazel buds unfold, 

Her latest smile to greet. 

She loves the song of the reaper, 

The ring of the woodman's steel, 
The whir of the glancing shuttle, 

The rush of the tireless wheel. 
But, if war befalls, her sons she calls 

From mill and forge and lea, 
And bids them uphold her banner 

Till the land from strife is free; 
And she hews her oaks into mighty ships 

That sweep the foe from the sea. 

O the Mountain Maid, Xew Hampshire! 

For beauty and wit and will 
I'll pledge her, in draughts from her crystal ^springs, 

Rarest on plain or hill! 
New York is princess in purple 

By the gems of her cities crowned; 
Illinois with the garland of Ceres 

Her tresses of gold has bound, 
Queen of the limitless prairies 

Whose great sheaves heap the ground; 



And out by the vast Pacific 

Their gay young sisters say: 
"Ours are the mines of the Indies, 

And the treasures of far Cathay"; 
And the dames of the South walk proudly 

Where the fig and the orange fall 
And, hid in the high magnolias, 

The mocking thrushes call ; 
But the Mountain Maid, New Hampshire, 

Is the rarest of them all! 

The Toastmaster : Constructive statesmanship is no 
ordinary gift. New Hampshire has a long line of illustrious 
men who in this field have sustained the reputation of our 
State as one of the thirteen colonies which carried on the 
War of the Revolution and made the constitution. To the 
toast "New Hampshire's Place in the Senate of the 
United States, " I call on our senior Senator, the Hon. Jacob 
H. Gallinger, to respond. 


I have been asked to briefly speak to the toast of "New 
Hampshire in the Senate," and it would be ungracious of 
me did I not improve the occasion to express my deep appre- 
ciation of the honor bestowed upon me by the people of the 
State in repeated elections to that body. When I think of 
the long list of able men who have represented New Hamp- 
shire in the Senate of the United States, the extent of the 
confidence my fellow-citizens have shown me intensifies 
the gratitude I have always felt for their generous considera- 

The Senate of the United States has engaged the attention 
•of writers and speakers from the beginning of the govern- 
ment to the present time, and doubtless will continue to do 
so as long as the republic lasts. Of late years men like the 
late Senator Hoar of Massachusetts have eloquently de- 
fended the Senate, contending that it was completely 
fulfilling the purpose of its founders, while the sensationalist 
and the muck-raker, in New Hampshire as well as elsewhere. 


have called it the Millionaire's Club, and have charged it 
with almost every iniquity that could possibly attach itself 
to a legislative body. After twenty years' observation I 
believe the Senate is composed of men who equal in ability 
and integrity the membership of any other similar body in 
the world, while unquestionably its habits of deliberation 
and conservatism are of the highest value to the best in- 
terests of the country. Separated in a measure from popular 
clamor, it is largely free from influences that might other- 
wise sway it, and thus it can be relied upon to stand for 
measures and policies that sometimes are unpopular, and 
that the future alone can vindicate. 

"New Hampshire in the Senate" is a theme that calls up 
both personal recollection and historical fact. From the 
beginning of the first Congress to the present time New 
Hampshire has had her representatives in the Senate, and 
they have favorably compared with those who represented 
other sections of the country in that great forum. Before 
calling attention to some of them it may not be amiss to cite 
the fact that New Hampshire has contributed to other 
States some of the ablest Senators that have ever held 
seats in that body. For instance, we gave Daniel Webster 
to Massachusetts, Salmon P. Chase to Ohio, William Pitt 
Fessenden to Maine, Zachariah Chandler and Lewis Cass 
to Michigan, and James W. Grimes to Iowa, a galaxy of 
names hard to match anywhere. 

The first two Senators from New Hampshire were John 
Langdon and Paine Wingate, the commencement of their 
service being Match 4, 1789. John Langdon was the first 
president pro tempore of the Senate, in which position he was 
shortly followed by Samuel Livermore, another New Hamp- 
shire man, and later by Daniel Clark of Manchester. No 
man in our history has a record that excels that of John 
Langdon. As I pointed out on a former occasion, shortly 
after General Stark's resignation from the army the cause of 
independence was in the greatest possible danger. Washing- 
ton was driven from post to post. Philadelphia, abandoned 
by Congress, was taken by the British. A strong British 


army was marching from Canada, threatening all New 
England. The outlook was desperate. New Hampshire 
had done all that she could, and, as public credit was at a low ' 
ebb, it was doubtful if another regiment could be raised and 
supported. The authorities of Vermont had notified New 
Hampshire that unless speedy assistance was forthcoming 
the contest must be abandoned. The New Hampshire 
Assembly, which had adjourned only a short time before, 
was speedily convened, and the condition of the country was 
laid before that body. In this important crisis John Lang- 
don, a merchant of Portsmouth and speaker of the Assem- 
bly, immortalized himself by saying: 

"I have three thousand dollars in hard, money. I will 
pledge my plate for three thousand more. I have seventy 
hogshead of Tobago rum, which shall be sold for the most it 
will bring. These are at the service of the State. If we 
succeed in defending our firesides and homes I may be remu- 
nerated. If we do not the property will be of no value to 
me. Our old friend Stark, who so nobly defended the 
honor of our State at Bunker Hill, can be safely entrusted 
with the conduct of the enterprise, and we will check the 
progress of Burgoyne. *' 

These patriotic words gave new life to the cause of the 
struggling colonists. The entire militia of the State was 
formed in two brigades, one to be commanded by John 
Stark and the other by William Whipple. The battle of 
Bennington shortly followed, concerning which Washing- 
ton said " One more such stroke and we shall have no great 
cause of anxiety." The "one more stroke" came speedily 
in the surrender of Burgoyne. In view of this incident is it 
not safe to say that one of the first Senators from New 
Hampshire by his patriotism and generosity turned the 
tide at a critical moment, and made American independence 
a reality? 

It would be interesting, did time permit, to call the roll of 
the men who have represented New Hampshire in the 
Senate of the United States. I can only name a few at 
random. Samuel Livermore, Nicholas Gilman, Henry 


Hubbard, Levi Woodbury, William Pluraer, Samuel Bell, 
Jeremiah Mason, Isaac Hill, Franklin Pierce, Joseph Cilley, 
John P. Hale, Charles G. Atherton, Daniel Clark, Aaron H. 
Cragin, Henry W. Blair, James W. Patterson, Bainbridge 
Wadleigh, Austin F. Pike, Edward H. Rollins and William 
E. Chandler. In this list are the names of several great 
lawyers, at the head,of whom stands the name-of Jeremiah 
Mason, of whom Daniel Webster once said: "If you were to 
ask me who was the greatest lawyer in the country I should 
answer John Marshall but if you took me by the throat, and 
pinned rne to the wall, and demanded my real opinion I 
should be compelled to say it was Jeremiah Mason." 
Others might well be added, but those I have named will 
serve to demonstrate the fact f hat New Hampshire has been 
well and ably represented in the upper branch of Congress. 

Within my recollection other strong men like Amos Tuck, 
Aaron F. Stevens, Orren C. Moore, James F. Briggs, Charles 
H. Burns, Mason W. Tappan. and Thomas M. Edwards have 
aspired to a place in the Senate. Flad any one of them been 
elected he would have graced the position, and their defeat 
in no degree dimmed the lustre of their services to the State 
and nation. Of these men Amos Tuck, the father of our 
honored guest, deserves special mention. 

After distinguishing himself in the practice of law Mr. 
Tuck was elected to the national House of Representatives 
in 1847, where he served with much distinction for six years, 
j Formerly a Democrat, he was then known as an "anti- 

slavery independent, " and in 184S he made a famous anti- 
slavery speech in Congress. 

Mr. Tuck was always independent in his political views, 
and if any man in our State deserved the name of "Pro- 
gressive" it was he. In connection with his Congressional 
career it is interesting to recall the fact that more than sixty 
years ago he offered in Congress a resolution in favor of in- 
ternational arbitration, a subject that is now being warmly 
discussed by the American people, and which is before the 
Senate in the shape of treaties. 

Mr. Tuck stood by John P. Hale when the latter was vio- 


lently assailed for his Free Soil views, and he was among the 
first, if not the first, to advocate the abolition of slavery in 
the District of Columbia. 

While in Congress Mr. Tuck made many speeches which 
attracted attention, and it was said of him that when he left 
that body he had conferred lasting distinction on his State, 
and that his name had the right to be carved with that of 
John P. Hale as New Hampshire's earliest champion of the 
cause of human freedom. 

In 1853 Mr. Tuck was instrumental in calling a meeting at 
Exeter, at which meeting the Republican party was born, 
Mr. Tuck suggesting the name for the new organization. 
In 1856 he was elected a delegate to the National Republican 
Convention at Philadelphia, which convention nominated 
Fremont, and he was also a delegate to the National Conven- 
tion of 1860, at which time he renewed his earlier acquaint- 
ance with Abraham Lincoln, whose election he warmly 
espoused. Mr. Lincoln had in mind the selection of Mr. 
Tuck as the New England member of his cabinet, but ulti- 
mately the, place was given to Mr. Welles of Connecticut. 
Shortly after, however, Mr. Tuck was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln to the honorable position of Naval Officer of 
Customs at the port of Boston, which place he ably filled. 
When that service was ended Mr. Tuck retired to private 
life, devoting his time to business, educational, and charitable 
affairs, and in 1879 he passed away, honored and respected 
by the people of the State. Such a man would have been a 
worthy associate in the Senate of the great men who made 
up that body during the stirring period preceding and follow- 
ing the Civil War. 

In thus recalling to your minds the able men who have 
represented New Hampshire in the Senate I cannot forego 
the opportunity of remarking that all of them were men of 
moderate means, who were the natural selection of their 
fellow-citizens because of their fitness for this exalted posi- 
tion. For nearly a century and a quarter we have been 
electing Senators from this State, and during that time there 
has never been a scandal connected with any senatorial 


election. In some instances the choice has brought keen 
disappointment to the supporters of candidates who sought 
this high honor, but that disappointment has not been em- 
bittered by the thought that corruption had influenced the 

New Hampshire senators have acted well their part in 
every emergency. John Langdon rose to the occasion when 
the colonial army was in sore straits; John P. Hale valiantly 
fought the battle of freedom and liberty in the days that 
tried men's souls; Henry W, Blair was a tower of strength 
in matters of legislation regarding temperance and educa- 
tion, while in the struggle to save the nation, to reconstruct 
the Union, to resume specie payments, to defeat the fallacy 
of the free and unlimited coinage of silver and secure the 
adoption of the gold standard, to uphold the doctrine of 
protection to American industries and American labor, in 
these and similar crises the Senators from New Hampshire 
have never flinched, or hesitated to do what they conceived 
to be for the best interests of the American people. With 
such a record our past is secure, and we can confidently 
feel that the future is full of promise so far as the material 
and moral interests of our State are concerned. Our plain 
duty is to be loyal to the traditions and the institutions 
which have made us a free, happj^, prosperous, and en- 
lightened people, and we need have no apprehensions that 
our representatives in the Senate will not always prove 
themselves worthy of the confidence and esteem of their 

It is undeniable that the tendency of the times is toward 
a change in the method of electing Senators. Something 
new is demanded. In the place of representative govern- 
ment it is proposed to create something approaching a pure 
democracy. History teaches us that democracies have their 
perils. Therefore, we who have been guided by the lamp of 
experience, and who have been taught to venerate the 
work of those who won our independence and created from 
the chaos that followed the Revolutionary War a plan of 
government that commanded the admiration of mankind, 


should hesitate to make radical changes in the existing 
system in response to a demand from any quarter. In this 
matter, as in some others, it may be better to bear the evils 
that exist, if any do exist, than to fly to those we know not of. 
If the people of this State have been slow to change the 
constitutional method of electing Senators by taking from 
their representatives in the legislature the power of selec- 
tion and placing it in the hands of the electors, it has been 
undoubtedly due to the results attained under our system 
of government as established by the fathers of the republic. 
The very able men who have been my predecessors in the 
Senate from New Hampshire have thus far satisfied our 
people that the founders of our government acted wisely in 
the scheme that they, af cer great deliberation, agreed upon, 
and no change from that method should be made without 
the most careful and thorough consideration. 

A single word more. What a- splendid example Mr. Tuck 
has set in his benefactions to Dartmouth College and in the 
erection of this beautiful structure for the New Hampshire 
Historical Society. Money was never more appropriately 
or wisely spent. Long after Mr. Tuck's useful career has 
come to an end the people of his native State, upon which 
he has shed so much lustre, will bless and honor him for his 
noble and generous deeds. May he long be spared to con- 
tinue to teach the lessons of love of home, of State and na- 
tion, so profoundly and beautifully exemplified in his own 
life of simplicity, of lofty ideals and splendid achievements. 

The Toastmaster: The American Philosophical Society 
of Philadelphia is the oldest of our allied associations. It 
was founded and fostered by Benjamin Franklin, and was 
the recipient of the earliest reports of his discoveries. It 
celebrated its hundredth anniversary not many years ago; 
our Society had the honor of an invitation, and participated 
in the exercises by the presence of one of our members. 
The Society has in turn sent its delegate to our dedication, 
and I am glad to present Prof. George L. Kittredge and 
proffer our good wishes for the continued prosperity of the 


old but ever young "American Philosophical Society: Our 
Oldest Ally." 


One of the eloquent men who preceded me began his re- 
marks by observing facetiously that, whenever he arose to 
speak you might be sure that somebody was not well. My 
case is worse than his. The personage whom I represent 
today is dead. For I stand here as the humble representa- 
tive of Benjamin Franklin, who went to his reward some 
years ago, though his spirit, I presume, is hovering over us 
on this occasion. 

The name of the American Philosophical Society, as whose 
humble delegate I appear, is rather terrifying. Why, 
ladies and gentlemen, I have actually been accused, as I 
sat here at this table, of being a professor of philosophy — 
which Heaven forbid! The fact is, as you know, that in the 
old days when the Philosophical Society was founded by 
Benjamin Franklin, the term "philosophy" covered almost 
as much as the charter of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society covers. It covered all knowledge. In particular, 
the American Philosophical Society was established for the 
promotion of useful knowledge. Now I come before you, 
ladies and gentlemen, not as a representative of useful 
knowledge, for very little that I know is of practical use to 
anybody, but as an advocate of useless learning. One of 
the purposes of an historical society, I take it, is to store 
up things that seem to be useless, to foster the investigation 
of subjects that are of no immediate moment, and inci- 
dentally to ameliorate the condition of the human race. 
Of course, in describing myself as an advocate of useless 
learning I employ the term in a high sense, in an exoteric 
sense, which (if any of you feel doubtful about it) I must 
leave you to excogitate for yourself. As Shakespeare says, 
"the search," at all events, will be "profitable." And to 
search is undoubtedly the function of all historical societies. 
That is a golden motto of Shakespeare's — the search is 
profitable. A man goes out to shoot a rabbit, or he goes out 


to catch a trout. What he brings home may be of slight 
practical utility. It is the by-products of his little expedi- 
tion that do the man good. 

There are two points that I should like to speak of. 
Brevity, however, is imperative; for my time is strictly 
limited. One of these is the question, propounded by your 
toastmaster, whether Massachusetts has furnished New 
Hampshire with a number of laws which your learned jurists 
find some difficulty in interpreting. Very likely that is the 
fact. But in the neighborhood of Boston, when I am at 
home, it is commonly supposed that Dartmouth College 
has furnished the Suffolk Bar, and Massachusetts in general, 
with a considerable body of lawyers who find it worth their 
while to interpret the laws of Massachusetts as they are, and 
as they think they ought to be. 

The other point (and this is all I have time to say, in addi- 
tion to bringing you the greetings of Benjamin Franklin and 
of the American Philosophical Society) — the other point is 
this matter of sifting, which a previous speaker has adverted 
to. One hears a great deal nowadays about the necessity 
of sifting the materials that accumulate. "Sift, sift, sift!" 
is the advice constantly given to librarians and to the cus- 
todians of documents. Now sifting, in the sense here used, 
implies rejection — it implies destruction as well as preserva- 
tion. And that thought should give us pause. Are we 
quite sure that we know exactly what we ought to throw 
away? For my own part, I should be perfectly willing to 
see a general sifting of all the historical material that is 
piled up in our libraries and our archives, if we could find 
any sifter who knows how to sift them as people five hun- 
dred years hence will wish they had been sifted, if sifted 
at all! 

The Toastmaster: The City of Concord, first Penacook, 
then Rumford, naturally has always been largely represented 
in the Historical Society. We who live here are proud that 
our city is the capital of the State and the center of many of 
the important interests of our community, and we strive to 


see that high standards of schools, churches, and other in- 
struments of culture are maintained. 

I am going to present to you to respond for the city one 
who has been several times elected Mayor, a gentleman of 
scholarly tastes, and an efficient laborer in the field of 
historic research. He is also the author of a thoughtful and 
faithful sketch of the life and services of Amos Tuck, of 
whom Senator Gallinger has spoken, the father of Edward 
Tuck, which alone would entitle him to your favorable 
regard. Judge Charles Ii. Corning will speak to you of 
"Concord, the Home of the New Hampshire Historical 


To speak for Concord is always a pleasure, but on this 
occasion I esteem it an honor. As a native of Concord I 
confess to a feeling of pride in responding to this toast. 

It is not permitted us, I believe, to select our birthplace, 
and if it were permitted, I can assure you that I should in 
no way have changed the course of nature. Therefore, let 
me frankly acknowledge my pride and satisfaction to claim 
New Hampshire for my native State and Concord for my 
native town. 

As American towns go, Concord has graced our map for 
almost 200 years, for it was in 1725 that the General Court 
of Massachusetts granted the charter of Penacook, which not 
long afterward gave way to the more euphonious name of 
Concord. From the beginning this community has been an 
epitome, a not unfaithful representation of the history of 
New England towns — the pioneers penetrating the un- 
broken wilderness, the early appropriation for the meeting 
house and the school house, the long and vexatious litigation 
arising from conflicting boundaries imposed by the General 
Court of Massachusetts and of New Hampshire, the settle- 
ment of these difficulties, and then the natural bent toward 
politics and the coming of successive legislatures. At last, 
in 1816, Concord became the capital of the State. Yet all 
these things happened within the first hundred years. 


Commerce began with the stage coaches keeping open the 
commercial intercourse between Canada and tide-water. 
Then followed the picturesque era of the canal boat and its 
passing in favor of the railroads; then the shock of war and 
noble sacrifices, making Concord an armed camp for four 
awful years; then peace, and following in its train progress 
and prosperity. And yet Concord with all this has not 
builded altogether along the lines that characterize so 
many New England towns. In many respects our material 
development has been very unusual. For some reason the 
founders of the great cotton industries stopped at a point 
below us on the river, and there began the gigantic industry 
which today has become one of the wonders of the age. 
And yet the music of the Merrimack dancing over Sewall's 
Falls sounded in their ears as it has sounded since dawn of 
time in Concord's ears, but it possessed no siren call. 

To explain the silence of the loom and the spindle in Con- 
cord is not for us today. Concord, as we see it, is in its 
sixth or seventh generation, an attractive picture of moder- 
ate achievement. Strangers visiting us are wont to ask 
what supports Concord. Statistics even in a historical 
society are not wholly fascinating, but I want you to know 
that we have more than fourscore industries, turning out 
finished products amounting to §7,000,000 yearly, and em- 
ploying between three and four thousand wage earners. 
Let it be said that all this is the aggregation of non-intensive 
industries and let it go at that. I wonder where the savings 
of the people express thrift better distributed than in this 
city. It is an interesting revelation. The population of 
Concord is 21,500, and w T e have here four savings banks. 
The amount in these four savings banks belonging to Con- 
cord residents is $7,534,418.68, and the number of resident 
depositors is 14,662. 

Politically Concord has had a prominent position in the 
annals of the State and nation, as is natural in a region 
largely inhabited by orators and politicians, as was remarked 
once upon a time by a jealous New York statesman. I re- 
joice to say that neglect of one of New England's strongest 



traits, support of the common schools, has never been 
charged to Concord. Schools, the touchstone of American 
heart and hearth, have ever been precious to out people 
from the earliest times, and never more precious and beloved 
than now when one third of all the levied taxes goes to our 
common schools. 

Wealth, as popularly understood, has never been indige- 
nous in our community. Probably no millionaire citizen has 
ever walked our streets, yet the well-to-do among us are 
astonishingly numerous, as I have already shown, and these 
perhaps are some of Concord's distinctions which I may 
properly mention. 

Ladies and gentlemen, Concord welcomes you all on this 
benign occasion. In the spirit of Auld Lang Syne, which 
after all should be the spirit actuating our venerable Society, 
Concord gives you her good right hand, and particularly 
does Concord welcome this distinguished and generous son 
of New Hampshire who today confers upon the city her 
richest jewel, a gem amongst the choicest gems that glorify 
the cities of men. Nor do we forget at this moment the 
gracious lady, whose love of the beautiful has found expres- 
sion in the magnificent gift of her husband. Concord will 
never forget this day and its splendid gift, nor cease tc 
cherish the honored name of Edward Tuck. 

The Toastmaster: It is not the first time that Frank B. 
Sanborn has contributed to the instruction and entertain- 
ment of the New Hampshire Historical Society. He was 
born in Hampton Falls, the home and burial place of Mes- 
chek Weare, not far from the home of Mr. Tuck. He has 
been both a maker of history and an author of a valued 
history of his native State. He is eminently qualified to 
speak on " New Hampshire Historians and History Makers. " 
I present Mr. Frank B. Sanborn. 


Following the example of my presiding officer in the Mass- 
achusetts Historical Society, Mr. Adams, I shall not make 



the speech which I wrote for this occasion. I shall, how- 
ever, present it to the Society with a little story which I 
learned many years ago from the father of the distinguished 
sculptor who sits at my right hand. Judge French, who lived 
for a while in our Concord, came back from Washington on 
one occasion, and he said: "What do you suppose the boys 
in the city of Washington say about Greenough's statue of 
Washington which is represented in the classic form, almost 
naked, holding his sword in his hand? The boys make the 
Father of his Country say: ' Here is my sword. My clothes 
are up at the Patent Office.' " 

My speech will be found in the archives of the Historical 
Society, subject to the sifting process of which several gentle- 
men have already spoken. I shall confine myself to the 
Subject of my discussion, which was "New Hampshire 
Historians and History Makers." I make a distinction. 
Although 1 am not quite sure, I believe I am the only living 
person who has actually written and published a history of 
New Hampshire. Other historians wrote their books and 
died, but here I am. By historians I mean the persons who 
engage in works of inagination, for history is a work of 
imagination. When historians like Mr. Bancroft, or others 
that might be named, rise so high in their flights of im- 
agination that they get an appreciable, and sometimes an 
inappreciable distance from the facts, they are then brought 
down, as a balloon is brought down by its rope, to the 
historical society, and there they find the facts they have 
been romancing about. 

Now, my examples of history-makers in New Hampshire 
are confined, I think, to four who succeeded each other 
chronologically. One was my ancestor, Edward Gove, who 
had the distinction, I believe, that no New Hampshire man 
ever enjoyed before or since, of having been a prisoner in the 
Tower of London for three years for high treason. He was 
convicted of high treason on a little island which is now 
called Newcastle, near Portsmouth. He was sentenced to 
be hanged, drawn, and quartered, and although a good many 
of his descendants have deserved at least a portion of that 


sentence, yet it was the duty of the Royal Governor, Edward 
Cranfield, who was certainly one of the greatest scoundrels 
that ever appeared in New Hampshire, to send him to 
England, and there have him executed by King Charles II. 
He was sent over, put in the Tower, and supported 
there at the expense of the King of England for about 
three years, and then James II, finding him perfectly harm- 
less and a good citizen, pardoned him and sent him back 
to his home in what is now the town of Seabrook, and 
ordered that his estate, which had been confiscated—and 
that was the principal reason for convicting him of trea- 
son, the Governor wanting to make a considerable sum 
out of his property — should be ascertained and restored 
to him. But so careless had Ko en the Massachusetts au- 
thorities, "I am sorry to say, that upon investigation we 
are unable to find on record anywhere in Massachusetts 
how he got his estate back. His family, however, possess- 
ing that quality which Mayor Corning has spoken of, 
knowing how to save property when they once got it, the 
sons and daughters of my ancestor, contrived to take the 
property into their own hands, or a considerable part of it, 
so it should not come under confiscation. Governor Cran- 
field says in two or three letters to his patron in England, 
Mr. Blathwayt, that he can only get hold of two hundred 
pounds of that property, and that not payable for a year 
to come. In fact, Cranfield was required to get out of the 
Province, followed by the execrations of all the people, be- 
fore he received more than a hundred pounds from my 
ancestor's lands and house. 

I pass him by and come .to Colonel Weare, who has been 
mentioned in history several times. He belonged to a 
family more distinguished than any other in the first cen- 
tury of the existence of New Hampshire as province and 
State. His grandfather was one of the justices of the Prov- 
ince; was sent on a mission to England in Cranfield's time; 
and I suppose it was Justice Weare who obtained, by his 
presence and by applying a few pounds to officials in the 
neighborhood of Whitehall, and by persuading the Earl of 


Halifax, then President of the Privy Council, that Cranfield 
was dismissed a year from the time when Weare was there. 
Colonel Weare, the grandson, was in some respects the most 
remarkable of New Hampshire politicians. He held public 
office in his town and in the province and the State longer, 
I think, than any one, holding every office possible, both 
in town, province, and State for more than forty years. 
He died in 1786, poorer than when he entered active life; 
made no money out of his long public service, left what little 
property he had to his children, and that family is now ex- 
tinct. I think there is no person now bearing the name of 
Weare descended from the old Colonel, but he contributed 
more than any individual on the battlefield to the success 
of the Revolution, so far as New Hampshire is concerned. 

Then I come to General Stark. Now, we know a great 
deal about General Stark's service in the field, but here is a 
little anecdote, giving a record of one of his conversations, 
which I think is worth reading. It comes from the re- 
cently published diary of Reverend Doctor Bentley of 
Salem, who in 1810 made a journey from Salem to Manches- 
ter, then called Derryfield, to visit General Stark, and this is 
his record: 

"May 31, 1810. At Gen. Stark's. I delivered him some 
wine which I told him came from Mt. Olympus, the seat of 
the heroes after they became gods. 'Yes,' said he, 'after 
they began to enslave the men they saved. Just like our 
drunken Arnold's promise, — part, and then betray.' Stark 
said 'he knew no religion but Virtue: drank no wine but 
that of his own country: was no god among men. They 
should accept from Heaven no gifts but Liberty and Virtue.' " 

Bentley added, — ' 'Stark's conversation has no refinement, 
but deep sincerity. His independent mind gathered little 
from the history of Religion, but everything from his own 
generous disposition. His researches from History were 
small, and his memory of them careless; but he spent ail 
his enthusiasm in favor of Virtue and Patriotism. He said, 
T flatter no man, — he who flatters me disputes with me; I 


do not flatter myself, — I have as much pride in my opinions 
as any man, for they are the heart and soul of me.' 

"I dined with him upon the shad of the Merrimac below 
his house, and lodged in the family. We talked much; he 
said, 'The worst embargo is upon the plow and the spin- 
ning-wheel. A free people never think themselves depend- 
ent upon any people. They exchange, but sell themselves 
in no bargain.'" 

Stark was a man who, when a special State flag was pro- 
posed about the year 1785, after the Revolution, said that 
it should bear the legend " Freedom and not Conquest," a 
motto that the United States may well remember. 

As Colonel Weare was dying in my native town in 1786, 
Daniel Webster was growing ud in childhood at the town of 
Salisbury (what is now called Franklin), and Webster is my 
fourth history-maker. These men, Gove, Weare, and Stark, 
had a good deal to do with the history of New Hampshire, 
and Stark and Weare with the history of the country. Web- 
ster held a different position. I differ from some of the 
speakers and writers about Webster. Webster was a very 
distant cousin of mine, so I have every right to speak ill of 
him; as Wendell Phillips said: "You may safely abuse any 
man to his cousin." With all his powers of intellect, Web- 
ster was one of those over whose defeat history is made, 
rather than by their chosen leadership in a successful path. 
He was the champion of losing causes; at first of the separa- 
tist Federal party, which could not bear to see power pass 
away from New England and South Carolina to Virginia 
and Kentucky; then of the commercial class in New Eng- 
land, contending vainly amidst the clamor of high tariff 
against Clay and Pennsylvania; then in behalf of the bank- 
ing interest against the masterful popularity of Andrew 
Jackson; then against the annexation of Texas — defeat in 
all these causes; and finally in a desperate effort to check 
the rising tide of anti-slavery sentiment, determined to 
restrict and then to destroy negro slavery. To offset all 
this negation — sometimes right, and often wrong, but 
always defeated — Webster is to be admired, and now, per- 


haps more than ever, for his splendid oratory and his 
magnificent leadership, with the intrepid support of Jackson 
in the cause of union and liberty against secession and 
slavery. Webster did not live to see the final triumph of 
that righteous cause; he even did something in his old age 
to retard it; but his arguments and noble words were in- 
centives to contest and victory, while he slept in his lonely 
tomb at Marshfield. 

I want to say a few words about my old friend, Amos 
Tuck, whom I knew many years ago, and who was all that 
has been said in his praise by the orators today. Amos Tuck 
led in a movement which rescued the State of New Hamp- 
shire from the control of the pro-slavery democracy. He 
and one of his friends called the first convention that led to 
the organization of what were then called " Independent 
Democrats, " and he properly became their representative in 
Congress afterwards. He was a very genial, amiable, and 
pleasant companion, and he had a great many good stories. 
He also is a cousin of mine. Mr. Edward Tuck does not 
know that I am his fifth cousin on both sides. I found, when 
I looked up our genealogy, that my father by one inter- 
marriage was the third, and by another marriage he was the 
fourth cousin of Amos Tuck, so I have a sort of a half and 
half relation to Mr. Edward Tuck. His father was not 
born in the old town of Hampton; he was born in Maine, 
but came to Hampton to be educated; and the Hampton 
stories he told me, I think, have some reference to the 
objects of the New Hampshire Historical Society. One of 
them relates to the shape of the earth, and the other to the 
propagation of truth. He said there was an old carpenter 
in Hampton when he was fitting for college at Hampton 
Academy, who had not been instructed by the American 
Philosophical Society. As he was hewing a log one day, 
while young Tuck was going to the academy, he stopped 
Mr. Tuck (being a genial person) and also stopped his hew- 
ing, and he said: "What be they teachin' on you up to the 
'cademy? They say the world's round. If I had 'em here, 
I'd stick mv broadaxe into 'em." 


The other story is a parable for historians, and I find they 
frequently need it. Mr. Tuck said there was a little boy in 
Hampton — I didn't inquire his surname, for fear it might 
be a distant cousin; his front name was Sam, and he was 
very much given to romancing. One day he came to his 
mother and told her one of these great stories, and she said: 
"Sammy, I don't know. what's going to happen to you if you 
go on telling such lies. Don't you remember what I read 
you out of the Bible the other day about Ananias and Sap- 
phira, how they told a lie and fell down dead." 

" Oh, yes, " said Sam. " I 'members; I was at the funeral." 
I have met historians (I belong to that class myself) 
who seem to have taken lessons in the same school with little 
Sam; and I hope the New Hampshire Historical Society will 
prevail upon such persons to examine the facts before they 
publish their books. . 

The meeting was then adjourned to December 21, 1911. 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 


December 21, 1911. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the lecture room of the new library 
building December 21, 1911, at eleven o'clock in. the fore- 

In the absence of the President and the Vice-Presidents, 
the Secretary called the meeting to order. 

On motion of William P. Fiske, Samuel C. Eastman was 
-elected Chairman pro tempore. 

Miss Edith S. Freeman, for the Committee on New Mem- 
bers, presented the names of the following persons for 
membership in the Society, and they were unanimously 

Active Members. 

Albert S. Baehellor,. Littleton. 
John J. Bartlett, Concord. 
Hev. Samuel S. Drury, Concord. 
Albertus T. Dudley, Exeter. 
William P. Farmer, Manchester. 
George W. Gay, M. D., Brookline, Mass. 
William F. Harrington, Manchester. 
Mar} r R. Jewell, South Berwick, Me. 
Mario n T. Shepard, Ponkapog, Mass. 
Rev. John Knox Tibbits, Concord. 
Elbert Wheeler, Nashua. 
Elizabeth F. Woodman, Concord. 
Edward K. Wood worth, Concord. 
Anna G. Blodgett, Franklin. 
Clara E. Rowell, Franklin. 

Honorary Member. 
Jean Jules Jusserand, Washington, D. C. 


An invitation was received to attend the 27th annual 
meeting of the American Historical Association, to be held 
in Buffalo December 27 to December 29. The matter of 
sending a delegate or delegates was left with the Chairman 
pro tempore. 

On motion of William P. Fiske it was voted that when 
the meeting adjourn it be to Thursday, January 25, 1912. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

A true record, attest, 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 

January 25, 1912. 

An adjourned meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society was held in the lecture room of the new library 
building on Thursday, January 25, 1912, at eleven o'clock 
A. M. 

In the absence of the President and the Vice-Presidents, 
the Secretary called the meeting to order. 

On motion of Henry W. Stevens, Samuel C. Eastman was 
chosen Chairman pro tempore. 

The Seeretanr read a letter from the French Ambassador 
to the United States, M. Jean Jules Jusserand, accepting 
honorary membership in this Society. 

The names of the following persons were presented for 
membership in the Society, and they were duly elected: 

Mrs. Albertus T. Dudley, Exeter. 
Burns P. Hodgman, Concord. 
Mrs. Burns P. Hodgman, Concord. 

Mr. Otis G. Hammond offered the following resolution: 

"Whereas, considering that the library of this Society 

will soon be removed to the new building; that the Society is 

possessed of a large number of relics, antiquities, curiosities, 

etc., for which, with the natural increase of such things, 


there will be no place in the new building; that there is a 
prospect of large additions to this collection in the near 
future; that such things are instructive and valuable, and 
worthy of collection, preservation, and classification in some 
suitable place convenient of access to the public; that such 
a collection would aid greatly in attracting public interest 
and support to this Society; that there are, in the State, a 
number of patriotic, hereditary, and historical societies 
without permanent headquarters, whose close association 
with such an institution would be appropriate, desirable, 
and valuable to both; that the building now occupied by 
this Society is one of the historical landmarks of Concord, 
of architectural merit worthy of preservation, and easily 
adaptable to such use; and that such an institution would be 
of great interest and value to the members of this Society, 
the people of Concord, and all the people of New Hampshire; 

Resolved that the land and buildings now occupied by 
this Society be not sold or otherwise disposed of, but be 
retained, adapted, and used for the purpose of a historical 
museum in such manner as the Trustees of this Society may 
deem best; and that the said Trustees are hereby authorized 
to provide room in the said building for the New Hampshire 
organizations of the Cincinnati, Colonial Wars, Colonial 
Dames, Sons of the American Revolution, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, or any other societies of a patriotic, 
historical, or genealogical nature, according to the judg- 
ment of the said Trustees, and on such terms as may be 
agreed upon by the parties concerned. 

Resolved that the Trustees be requested to thoroughly 
investigate all matters necessary to the establishment of 
such a historical museum, and the relations which may be 
established with such societies as are herein mentioned or 
included, and to report thereon as fully as possible at the 
regular annual meeting of this Society to be held in June 

On motion of Otis G. Hammond it was voted that the 
resolutions be referred to the Board of Trustees, with the 


suggestion that investigation be made and report presented 
to the annual meeting in June, as requested in the second 
section of the resolution. 

Mr. Hammond moved that notice be given in the call for 
the annual meeting of action to be taken in relation to the 
use of the old library building, which was voted. 

General discussion followed on the increase of the endow- 
ment fund for the maintenance of the Society. Mr. A. S. 
Batchellor moved that the matter be committed to the 
Board of Trustees. This motion was seconded by Henry 
W. Stevens, and it was unanimously voted. 

Mr. Benjamin A. Kimball spoke of increased membership 
as one of the vital elements of the welfare of the Society, 
and suggested that each of the persons present bring in one 
or more names to be voted on at the next meeting. 

Mr. Edward A. Grover of Concord presented a pamphlet 
to the Society entitled a "Memorial of the Society of 
People of Canterbury in the County of Rockingham, and 
Enfield, in the County of Grafton, commonly called Shak- 
ers," dated June, 1818. 

Voted that when the meeting adjourn it be to the last 
Thursday in February. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

A true record, attest, 

Henry A. Kimball, 
Recording Secretary. 



Abbot, J. Stephens, bust of. . .343 

Acworth 287 

Addresses by 

Charles Francis Adams. . 3S5 

Robert P. Bass 382 

Marvin D. Bisbee 72 

Louis H. Buckshorn 28 

Charles R. Corning. .123, 407 

Samuel C. Eastman 378 

Henry F. French 272 

Jacob H. Gallinger 398 

Daniel Hall ....210,228,358 

Mrs. Daniel Hall 235 

Otis G. Hammond 2S3 

William H. Jaques 251 

George Lyman Kittredge .405 

Fred W. Lamb 91 

Guy Lowell 391 

James O. Lyford 262 

Samuel W. McCall 307 

Samuel L. Powers 393 

Henry B. Quinby 221 

Frank B. Sanborn 73, 409 

Victor C. Sanborn 172 

John Scales 131,240 

Edward Tuck 355 

William J. Tucker 364 

Frederick P. Wells 59 

Alstead 301 

Amesbury, Mass 134 

Amherst 56, 14S, 273, 301, 310 


Andover 92, 251, 264 

Annapolis, Md 75 

Antrim 287 

Atkinson. 119,287,360 

Auburndale, Mass 213 

Ayer, James, sketch of 106 

Bachiler, Stephen, address on . 172 

Back River 238, 250 

Baltimore, Md 213 

Bangor, Me. 259 

Barnet, Vt 64 

Barnstead 287 

Barre, Mass 259 

Bartlett, Caroline B., sketch of. 39 

Thomas, address on 131 

Bellamy River 238 

Bethk-hem 212 

Bisbee, Marvin D., address by. .72 
Bixby. Augustus H., sketch of. .40 

Books, disposal of 12, 25 

Boscawen 91, 103, 336, 352 

Boston, Mass 23, 27, 74, 75 

153, 183, 187, 198, 199,202 

211, 213, 251, 259, 260, 280 

313, 318, 319, 338, 380, 391 


Bouton, Mrs. John B., legacy 

from 340 

Bow 122,287,342 

Bradford 336 

Bradford, Mass 166 

Bradley monument 7 

Brentwood . 212, 299 

Bristol, R. 1 59 

Brookline 287 

Brookline, Mass 55, 416 

Brooklyn., X. Y 16, 213 

Buffalo, N. Y 417 

Building, new 11, 121, 128 


cornerstone laid 216 

dedication of 355 

old, utilization of 417 

Building committee, report of . 10 



Burlington, Vt 56 

By-laws, revision of . 339, 343, 348 

Cambridge, Mass 74, 75, 154 

184, 229, 252, 315, 324, 340 

(Newtown) 184, 187 

Canaan 24, 30, 287, 289 

Candia v 287 

Canterbury 97, 262, 264 


Casco, Me 196, 199 

Cataloguer, employment of . 25, 36 

Center Harbor 116 

Charlestown 61, 62, 69 

150-152, 301, 306 

Charlestown, Mass 145 

Chester 171, 270, 272, 287 

address on 272 

Chicago, 111 213 

Chichester 212,338 

Cincinnati, N\,H. Society, col- 
lections of 347 

records of. 214,226 

Claremont 116, 118, 212, 252 

260, 301, 302, 305, 306, 308 

Cocheco River 238 

Collections, publication of. . . .120 

Columbia, Conn 74 

Columbus, death of, anniver- 
sary of 26, 28,30 

Committee, building, report of. 10 
disposal of books, report of 12 

library, report of 24, 36 

standing, report of 7 

Committees, election of 4, 57 


Concord 3, 15, 21-24, 26, 36 

37,55,56,90, 118, 121-124 
128, 163, 170, 171,206,207 
253, 258, 260, 262, 264, 209- 
271, 2S2, 287, 301, 312-317 
338, 339, 342, 351-354, 378 
394, 406-409, 416, 417, 419 

Concord, Mass 73, 171 

Constitution, amendment of. .339 
340, 346 

Conway 287 

Cornish 91, 171, 306, 326 

Croydon . . . , 15, 91, 92, 206 

Danville 287 

Dartmouth College 13, 14, 56 

60, 63, 64, 68, 72, 73, 162 

163, 219 

Founders and Hinderers. .73 

Historical Sources of 72 

Dedham, Mass 74, 194 

Dedication of new building. . .355 

Deerfield 1 63 

Deny. • 171,270. 339 

Derry, Ireland 15 

Detroit, Mich 259 

Digby, N. S 326 

Dodge, Isaac B., sketch of . . . 107 

Dover. ... 14, 22, 79, 12S, 130, 170 


240, 243-246, 24S, 253, 270 


Dover Point 238 

Dracut, Mass 2S0 

Dublin. 170,287 

Dunbarton 301,354 

Durham 133, 144, 145, MS 

225, 226, 229. 232 

235, 236, 23S, 271 

Durham Falls 22S 

East Pond 238 

Effingham 287,319 

Enfield 287,419 

Eppimg 157, 163, 257 

Epsom 103,207 

Exeter.... 3, 73, 79, 80, 116, 127 
133, 145, 151, 152, 154-156 
158, 163, 169-171, 190, 196 
198-200, 231, 266,267,301 
309-311, 322, 326-328, 339 
Exeter River 238 



Fairlee, Vt 57, 59, 69-72 

Falltown, Mass. . 323 

Farcnington 128, 252 

Farrar papers 56 

Field day.... 22, 24, 47, 72, 120 
122, 169, 213, 225, 260, 270 

Flint, Mich 259 

Fore River 23S 

Fort Dummer 61 

Fort William and Mary 144 

145, 158, 228 
Fox Point . 235, 240, 242-244, 247 

Francestown 3, 301 

Franklin, Benjamin, birth of, 

anniversary of 2S 

Franklin 352, 354, 416 

Franklin City 2.3S 

Frink, John S. H., sketch of . . . 107 
Fryeburg, Me 259 

Germany and Holland, address 

on 28 

Gilmanton .288 

Gilsum 55, 287 

Goat Island 236, 237 

Goffstown 337 

Gove, Maria L., sketch of . . . .108 

Grand Rapids, Mich 259 

Great Bay. 238,242 

Greenland 56, 79 

Groton, Mass 304 

Haddam, Conn 61 

Hampton.... 165, 193, 194, 196- 

(Winnicunnet) 192, 193 

Hampton Falls 79, 299, 409 

Hanover 13, 47, 60-6-1, 72, 81 

113, 118, 212, 220, 306, 326 

Hardwiek, Mass 323 

Haverhill 27, 60, 61, 63-66, SI, 212 
Haverhill, Mass. 60, 136, 191, 246 

Hebron, Conn 61 

Henniker 27, 116, 252, 339 

Hillsborough 27 

Hilton's Point 238 

Hinsdale 301 

Holderness : 252 

(New Holderness) 305 

Hollis 21, 301, 304, 324 

Hopkinton . . 15, 55, 257, 270, 339 
Hudson 90, 207 

Isles of Shoals 157, 200 

Jamaica Plain, Mass 27,259 

Jones, John F., sketch of 41 

Keene 117, 226, 260, 301, 324 

Kensington 287, 288 



Kittery, Me .200, 201 

Laconia. 214,251, 342, 354 

La Crosse, Wis 212 

Lakeport 23,212 

Lamprey River 238 

Lebanon 61, 62, 287, 306, 326 

Lebanon, Conn 59-61, 74, 78 

Lee. . 136,143,257 

Lempster 287 

Lewiston, Me 337 

Librarian, report of. . . .15, 30, 50 

resignation of 23 

salary of.... 58, 120, 214,260 


Library committee, report of 24, 36 

Lincoln 252 

Lincoln, Abraham, birth of, 

anniversary of 170 

Linehan, John C, sketch of . . . 109 

Little Bay 235, 238, 240 

242-244, 247 

Little Harbor 192 

Littleton 22,61,416 

London, Eng 342 

Londonderry. . . . 270, 273, 2S1, 301 
Londonderry, Ire 259, 276 



Long, Mary 0., sketch of 42 

Longmeadow, Mass 74 

Los Angeles, Cal 259 

Loudon 287,288 

Lyme 61,62 

Lynn, Mass 185, 186, 188 

(Saugus) . . . 185, 187, 188, 190 

Madbury 225 

Maiden, Mass 116 

Manchester 15, 23, 27, 90, 118 

171, 207, 212, 226, 258, 260 

287, 339, 352, 353, 399, 412 


Mansfield, Conn 78 

Manual, publication of . .57 

213, 2oO, 34U 

Marietta, Ohio 259 

Marlborough . . .226, 324, 325, 338 

Meaderis Neck 235, 244 

Medfield, Mass 74 

Medford, Mass 146, 158 

Meeting, annual, 1905 3 

1900 47 

1907 113 

1908 124 

1909 200 

1910 253 

1911 333 

Meetings, monthly . v 26 

Members, election of 22, 23 

26, 2S, 56, 90, 118, 122, 123 

12S, 169, 171,211,226,251 

260, 270, 339, 342, 351-354 


Membership, increase of 26 

Mendon, Mass 74 

Meredith 226, 2S7 

Merrimack 301 

Middieton 31S,319 

MtUville 337 

Milwaukee, Wis 213 

Montreal, Can 259 

Monument, Bradley 7 

Plains .9 

Morey, Israel, address on 59 

Samuel, letters patent of 227 
Morrisfcown, N. J 149 

Nashua 21,122,251,342,416 

Necrologist, report of 3, 56 

US, 128,212,258,338 

Nelson 301,323-326 

New Haven, Conn 213 

New Holderness (Holderness) . 305 

New Ipswich 301 

New London 91, 90, 97 

New London, Conn. . . .76-78, 258 
New York, N. Y 27, 28, 71 

116, 117, 146,213, 339. 34 7 

Newbury, Mass 131, 132. 134 

loo-Li^, 140, 152, loo 

165, 188, 190-193, 249, 250 

Newbury, Vt 57, 5^-61, 64-07 

Newburyport, Mass. 132, 236, 280 

Newcastle 229, 253, 25'.*, 288 


Newcastle, Me 213 

Newielrwannoek River 238 

Newington 235, 236 

Newmarket 158, 301 

Newport 116, 118, 287, 339 

Newtown, Mass. (Cambridge) .187 

Norfolk, Va 213 

North Hampton 287 

North Yarmouth, Me 259 

Northumberland 60 

Northwood 2x7 

Norwich, Vt. . ' 66 

Nottingham 130, 131, 133, 134 

136-138, 140-142, 141-116 

14&, 153-155, 158, 163, 165- 

Odiorae's Point, house on . .23, 26 

Officers, election of . . . .4. 38. 56 

119, 129, 214, 253, 340, 3 is 

Omaha, Neb 259 

Ordway, John C, sketch of .43 
Orford 57, 59-6-1, 69-71 



Ossipee . . . ^ . . . 252 

Oyster River 238, 240 

Oyster River massacre, address 

on 240 

Paris, France 211,212,219 

Pelham 207,280 

Pembroke 128, 252, 258, 301 

Penacook 27, 56, 351 

Peterborough . 23, 73, 287', 301, 339 
Philadelphia, Pa. . . .207,258,259 

Piermont 61,63,287 

Piscataqua River . . .235,238,244 
Piscataqua Bridge, address on . 235 

Pittsfield 127 

Plainfield 326 

Plymouth 304, 326 

Poem, Edna Dean Proctor .... 396 

Point Shirley, R. 1 59 

Ponkapog, Mass ■ . .416 

Portland, Me 212 

Portsmouth 22-24, 27, 79, 117 

118, 144, 145, 155-158, 163 
212, 229-231, 235, 236, 243 
252, 258, 260, 2S0, 293-295 
323, 327, 337, 339, 352, 410 
(Strawberry Bank) . . 198-200 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 258 

Proceedings, publication of . . . .90 

US, 213 

Providence, R. 1 342, 343 

Revolutionary rolls, publica- 
tion of 251 

Richmond 2SS 

Rindge 287,301 

Rochester 251, 252, 287, 318 

Rochester, N. Y 252, 259 

Rock Island 236 

Rowley, Mass 191 

Roxbury, Mass 187, 339 

Rye 23,26,287 

Ryegate, Vt 63, 64 

Salem 56 

Salem, Mass 187, 191, 412 

Salisbury 102, 104, 207, 413 

Salisbury, Mass. 191 

Salmon Falls River 238 

San Francisco, Cal 271 

Sandown 289 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. .226, 353 

Saugus, Mass (Lynn) .... 185, 187 

188, 190 

Scoville, John, tombstone of 24, 30 

Seabrook 192, 287, 299 

Seal, new 346,347 

Secretary, report of 3 

Shute memorial 260 

Sidney, C. B 308 

Sornersworth 79 

South Berwick, Me 416 

South Hampton 289 

South Lincoln, Mass 353 

Springfield, Mass 27 

Stratham 3, 117,226 

Steamboat, first, address on . . . 251 

Morey's patent for 227 

Strawberry Bank (Ports- 
mouth) 198-200 

Sullivan cemetery 271 

Sunapee 91-93, 96, 2S7 

Surry 287 

Sutton 55,91,98 

Swampscott River 23S 

Tablet, presentation of 358 

Temple 289 

Thompson, S. Millett, will of. .343 

Three Oaks, Mich 213 

Tilton 15, 207, 226, 354 

Todd, William C, bequest of 12S 

portrait of 10,119 

Togus, Me 117 

Tories of New Hampshire, 

address on 2S3 

Tornado of 1821, address on. . .91 

Toronto, Can 338 

Town histories, address on . . . 262 




Town records 351 

Treasurer, report of . . . .5, 47, 113 

Troy 337 

Trustees, election of 348 

Utica, N. Y 212 

Wakefield 238, 287, 319 

Warner 90, 91, 93, 98, 103, 104, 342 

Warren 27, 55 

Washington, D. C 23, 259, 416 

Waterbury, Vt 15 

Watertown, Mass 182, 193 

Waupun, Wis 258 

Waverley, Mass .213 

W T eare 287,299 

Webster. . .. 354 

Wenham, Mass 323 

West Newton, Mass 339 

West Point, N. Y.. .14S, 149, 317 

Westfield, N. Y 259 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 258, 259 

Willimantic-, Conn 271 

Winchester 301 

Winchester, Mass 259 

Windham, Conn 74 

Windsor, Vt 68 

Wingate, Joseph C. A., sketch 

of 44 

Winmcunnet (Hampton) .192, 193 

Winter Hill. . 145, 140 

Woburn, Mass 312, 314, 315 

Wolfe-borough 312 

Woodsville 22, 342 

Worcester Mass. . . .223,221, 32S 

Yarmouth, Mass 190 


Abbott, Edward A 343 

Frances M 16,50,251 

Isaac N 337 

J. Stephens 3-13 

JohnB 226 

Achiricloss, Thomas 293 

Adams, CD 89 

Charles.. .242 

Charles Francis . 353, 385, 395 

George H 50 

George S 16 

Samuel 225,242 

Winborn 133, 14S 

Ahern, William J 16 

Aiken, Edwin J. 50, 270 

Albin, JolmH 22G 

Allen, Ethan 130 

Francis 258 

Amen, Harlan P 16, 50, 339 

Anderson, Asher 16, 50 

Henry W 171 

Mrs. Henry W 171 

WilbertL." 16 

Andrews, C. C 50 

Frank P 352 

Israel W 259 

John 200 

Angell, Henry C : .338 

Armstrong, Esther A 50 

Arnold, Benedict 149 

Atherton, Charles G 273, 401 

Charles H 273 

Joshua 273,321 

Atkinson, Theodore 321-323 

Theodore, Jr 321 

Atwater, Harriet S. C 354 

Austin, Nicholas 318, 319 

Ayer, Franklin D 16 

James 56, 106 

Ayers. Samuel G 16, 50 

Ayling, Charles L 27 

Bachelder, Nahum J 16, 50 

Bachiler, Mary 201-203 

Nathaniel 180, 196 

Stephen 172-205 

Bacon, John L 50 

Bagley, James 135 

Bailey, see also Bayley. 

Philip 293 

Baker, Dana W. 116, 127, 337, 339 

Henry M 4, 9, 11, 15, 50 

116, 119, 122, 129, 170, 215 

RufusH 170 

Samuel 337 

Sarah J 55 

WalterS 251 

Balch, William L 51 

Bancroft, Charles P 171 

Barker, Charles 15 

Barnwell, James G 51 

Barrett, Mary E 51 

Barttelot, Adam 132 

George B 132 

John 132 

Walter B 132 

Bartlett, see also Barttelot. 

.Albert 136 

Benjamin T 339 

Betsey 137,140,165 

Bradbury 137,141,165 

Caroline B 3,39 

David 137,165 



Bartlett, see also Barttelot. 

David L 134 

Edwin J 89 

Enoch. 135, 137, 140, 153, 165 

Ichabod 217,378 

" Israel 132-137,140,165 

Jacob C 137, 165 

John C.... 143 

John H 122 

John J .416 

Jonathan 137, 165 

Joseph 137, 165 

Joseph H 135, 136 

Josiah 135-137, 157, 165 

Love 135,136 

Mary 134-136 

Michael 101 

Patty C 137,165 

R. F 51 

Richard 132, 133 

Samuel 133 

Sarah.... 133, 135-137, 148 

164, 165 

Thomas .. .130, 131, 135-168 

Thomas B 166 

Bart ley, Joseph D 56 

Barton, Je^e M 339 

Bascom, Robert 51 

Bass, Clara F .339 

Robert P 339, 355, 3S2 

Batchelder, see Bachelder, 
Bachiler, Batcheller, 

Batcheller, Breed 323, 324 

John 323 

Batchellor, Albert S 4, 51 


Bates, George W 51 

Battles, Frank 207 

Baxter, Chester J 16, 51 

Bayley, Jacob . .60, 65, 66, 68, 307 

Beard, William 243 

William S 271 

Beckwith, A. C 16 

Bedel, Timothy . . .60, 05 

Beetle, Mary 201 

Belknap, Jeremy 162 

Bell, Charles H 217 

James 277 

John 273,276 

Louis. 277,339,340 

Luther V 277 

Samuel 275,401 

Samuel D 217,276,378 

Bennett, Harold H 352 

Bentley, William 412 

Benton, Joseph 51 

Josiah H 251 

Bickford, Thomas 247 

Binet, Maude B , 00 

Bisbee, Marvin D 47. 72 2!»> 

Bi.-ocil, George 11 . .Li 

Bixby, Augustus II. 3, 10 

Blair, Henry W 401, 403 

Blake, Charlotte A 212 

Harold H 212 

Mrs. James M 23 

Blanchard, Amos 212 

Anna A 16 

Mrs. C. A 347 

Grace 16 

JohnS 123, 129,260,. 271 

Blodgett, Anna G 416 

Blomberg, Anton 16 

Bogert, Henry L 16, 51 

Bolton, Charles K 260 

Boltwood, Lucius M 259 

Mrs. Lucius M 51 

Bouton, Mrs. John B 340 

N. Sherman 213 

Boyd, John 55 

Bradley, Israel B 259 

Brainard, Sarah B 167 

Brant, Joseph 78 

Mary 78 

Brennan, James F 23 

Briggs, Frank O W 

James F 401 

Brigham, Johnson 16 

Brintnell, R. II 16, 51 



Brown or Browne, Abby D . . . 206 

Arthur 79, 309, 327 

ElishaH 26,243 

Elizabeth 327 

Ernest 21 

Mrs. Frank E 352 

George W 260 

Henry A 27 

JohnH.. 353 

JohnM 212 

Brownell, C. W 51 

Bryant, H. W 16 

Bryce, James 342, 350 

Buckshorn, Louis H 16, 23 


Bunker, James 245 

Burbank, William W 354 

Burke, John 323 

Burleigh, John 135 

Burnham, Henry E 27 

Major 146 

Marion 207 

Robert 24S 

Burns, Charles H 401 

Burpee, Theodate 23 

Busiel, John T 251, 348, 349 

Buss, John 247 

Butler, Benjamin 145 

Butterfield, Henry L 258 

Byles, Mather 75 

Cabot, Henry B .16 

Caldwell, William II 16,51 

Calvin, Samuel 16 

Cameron, Angus 212 

Capon, Samuel B 51 

Carman, see also Herman. 

John 188,190 

Carpenter, Aretas B 352 

Charles H 338 

Frank P 226 

Josiah 226 

Philip 27 

Carr, Clarence E 251 

Carroll, Lysander H 16 

Carruth, James 287 

Carter, Clark 16, 51 

Hattie G. 16 

Nathan F 4, 16, 21-24 

26, 27, 29, 30, 36, 38, 50, 51 

55-59, 72, 90, 118-120, 122 


Mrs. Nathan F 51 

Solon A 16 

Carver, W. L 51 

Cass, Lewis 399 

Caswell, Nathan 61 

Gate, Eliza J 258 

Cavis, Harry M 128 

Chadwick, C. K 16 

William P : 16 

Chamberlain or Chamberiin, 

Henry- 213 

Horace E 128 

Mrs. Horace E 339 

William P 226 

Chandler, Nathaniel 149 

William D 16,51 

William E 341,401 

Zachariah 399 

Chapman, Mary E 127 

Chase, Arthur H. .4, 24, 26, 37, 38 
58, 118-120, 128, 129, 211 
213, 214, 253, 33S, 341,351 

Charles P 90 

JohnC 270 

Salmon P 399 

William M 4,14 

Childs, Mrs. Curtis B 27 

Church, John 63 

Churchill, Winston 171, 351 

Cilley, Harry B 339 

Joseph. ...110, 127, 142, 147 
14S, 104,401 

Joseph, Jr 154 

Sarah 137, 140, 164, 165 

Clark or Clarke, A. Chester. . .339 

Arthur E 339 

Mrs. Arthur E 127, 340 

Daniel 399,401 



Clark or Clarke, Harrison 51 

Mercy . 165 

Stephen ,...145 

Clay, Henry 207 

Cleeves, George 183, 184 

Clephane, Walter C 1G 

Clifford, Thomas F 354 

Cobb, Levi H 16,51 

William H 16 

Coburn, Agnes G 116 

Coe, Richard 226 

Coffin, Peter 146 

Colby, Fred Myron . . 16, 342, 347 

Mrs. H. B 206 

Ira 212 

Widow 101 

Cole, Samuel 306-30S 

Collamer, Newton L 16 

Comerford, Sarah P 207 

Comins, Edward S 27 

Comstock, John M 16, 51 

Conant, Charles S 216 

Cone, Kate M 16 

Congdon, George F 16, 51 

Conn, Granville P 16, 51 

Connor, W. A 116 

Cook, George 22 

Howard M 4, 16, 21, 36 

38, 5S 

Coolidge, Templeton 22, 24 

Cooper, Deacon 92 

MilonC 206 

Samuel 75 

Corning, Charles R 4, 16, 28 

57, 5S, 119-121, 123, 129 

130, 170, 214, 253, 270, 271 

340, 341, 346-349, 407 

Cossitt, Raima 306-30$ 

Cotton, John 1 87 

Couch, Benjamin W 251 

Cousins, E. M 16,51 

Cox, William V. Z 16 

Cragg, Thomas 16 

Cragin, Aaron H 401 

Cranfield, Edward 411, 412 

Cross, Alvin B. . '. 22, 339 

David 339,395 

LucyR. H .16 

Richard 62 

Crump, William C 258 

Cummings, Charles H 226 

George E 342 

Currier, Hannah A 212 

Mary M 16 

Curtis, M. T 206 

Dalton, Timothy 194-196 

Dam, William 250 

Dana, Edmund L 258 

Samuel H 169, 170 

Mrs. Samuel H 169 

Sylvester 58, 72, 258 

Danforth, George F 259 

Daniels, A. H 51 

Darling, Charles W 212 

Davenport, James 74-77 

Davis, Gherardi 116 

James 51,244,246 

Jefferson 257 

John 96, 246 

JohnE 55,116 

Josiah 90 

Dean. John 241,245 

Dearborn, Henry 134, 141 

142, 144, 154 

Mrs. J. Henry- 9 

Delaney, J. B 16 

Demeritt, Albert 226 

Jennie M 251 

John 229 

Demond, Fred C 312 

Denio, Herbert W 339 

Derby, James C 26 

Dewey, Sarah 59 

Dexter, Timothy 279, 280 

Dickens, Curtis H 22, 24 

Dike, Samuel W 16 

Dodge, Isaac B 56, 107 

James 16 

William L 337 



Donnelly, Richard A 16 

Doremus, S. D 51 

Douglass, Orlando B 26 

Dowst, John 4, 10, 58, 119 


Drake, Colonel 159 

Drew, Andrew 235 

Francis 242 

Joseph 250 

Tamsen 242 

Thomas 242 

Thomas, Jr 242 

Will J 337 

Drury, Samuel S 416 

Dudley, Albertus T 416 

Mrs. Albert us T.. . . 417 

Anne 133 

Anne M 339 

Ariana S 212 

Harry H 339 

Samuel 133 

Thomas 133 

Dummer, Richard 182, 183 

1S8, 190, 192 

Durgin, Martha E .352 

Dye, Franklin 51 

Eastman, Charles F 51 

E. G 16 

EdsonC 4, 10, 57, 118- 

120, 126, 129, 130, 169, 211 

JohnR 4, 58, 119, 120 


MaryC 25 

Samuel C 3, 4, 11, 15, 16 

23, 25, 26, 28, 38, 51, 56-58 
89, 118-123, 126, 130,213- 
215, 226, 227, 253, 254, 260 
261, 271, 340, 341, 343, 346- 
351, 353, 354, 378, 416, 417 

Easton, Nicholas 192 

Eaton, Electa 336 

Eddy, Mary Baker 9 

Edgerly, Henry D 51 

Edgerly, Thomas 242, 243 

Zachariah 242 

Edmunds, James M 259 

Edwards, Thomas M 401 

Eikin, Mrs. William W 270 

Elliott or Eliot, George M 259 

John . 1S7 

L. H 15,16 

Elwell, Edward H 212 

Elwyn, Alfred L 24, 26, 337 

Emerson, Charles F 51 

Estabrook, Fred W 251 

Evans, Alfred R 207 

Alonzo II 16 

Benjamin 104 

J. D ..51 

Stephen 147, 148 

Farmer, John 257, 378 

Miles F 257 

William P 416 

Farr, Charles A 22 

Farwell, John L US 

Fassett, James C 122 

Felch, Sylvester S 55 

Felker, Mary D 251 

Samuel D 251 

Fellows, Joseph W 27 

Felt, Jonathan 324 

Fenton, John 326 

Ferguson, Henry 212 

Fernald, George A 27 

Josiah E US 

Ferrier, Francis 51 

Ferrin, James 9S, 104 

Stephen N 9S 

Fessenden, William P 399 

Fiske, Abba G 16 

Cyrus 342 

William P 4,7,10,27,37 

47,49, 56, 57, 115, 119, 126 

12S, 129, 170, 171,211,213 

214, 227, 253, 257, 260, 336 


Fitts, Mrs. James II 16, 51 



Flagg, Ebenezer 272 

Flanders, Edwin 337 

Ezekiel 104 

Mary 101 

Moses 2S9 

Peter 101,104 

Phoebe 101 

True 101 

Fleetwood.. F. G 16 

Fletcher, Almira M 116, 271 

Flint, William W 352 

Fogg, Mrs. John S 330 

Folger, Allen 51 

Folsom, Albert A. . . 16, 51, 55, 213 

Howard M 352 

Jeremiah 145 

Mortimer D 207 

Nathaniel 156, 157 

William H 170 

Foss, Milton C 116 

Foster, A. P 16 

Grace E 22 

Herbert D 89 

William A 352 

William H 352 

Fox, D. Warren 27 

Franklin, Benjamin . .28, 404, 405 

Freeman, Edith S 36, 37, 50 

56, 119, 120, 127, 129, 130 

171,208, 214, 253,258, 33S 


Leverett X 170 

French, Amos Tuck 171, 260 


Daniel 27S 

Daniel Chester 339, 346 

347. 350, 356 

Henry F 270, 272 

Frink, John S. II 56,107 

Frost, Lucy J. H 16 

Margaret B 226 

Fulton, Robert 71 

Gage, Asa. . . 
General . 



Gage, John 148 

Gains, George 147 

Gale, Tyler K 126 

Galiinger, Jacob H 13, 16, 21 


William H 207 

Gannett, Henry 16 

Gardner, John 149 

Ruf us P 51 

Garrison, Winton C 16, 51 

Gates, General 147 

Gay, George W. 416 

George, John P 122 

Gerould, E. A 16 

E. P 51,207 

Samuel L. . .- 16,21 

Gerrish, Enoch 116 

Frank L 352 

Gibbs, William D 16,51 

Gibson, Richard 199 

Gilbert, Wilbert H 354 

Gilchrist, David S 16 

Gile, JohnM 342 

Gill, Charles G 16 

Gillett, Frederick H 51 

Gilman, Daniel 169,214,226 

Daniel C ,. ...213 

David 146 

John 169 

Major 79 

Minnie C 169 

Nicholas 145, 159, 169 

304, 400 

Gilson, Eivina E 259 

Glazier, B. J 257 

Glidden, John M 213 

Goddard, George A 16 

Gooding,' Alfred 260 

Goodwin, Charlotte 99, 101 

Foster 104 

M. F 93 

Ruth 99,104 

Gookin, John W 259 

Goold, Nathan 16 

Gorges, Edward 191 




Gorges, Sir Ferdinando. . 180, 183 
Gould, see also Goold. 

Sylvester C 5i;258 

Gove, Edward 410 

Maria L 56,108 

Grant, Ulysses S 15 

Graves, Eli E 4, 7, 56, 57, 119 

128, 129, 212, 214, 253, 341 

Gray, Samuel . . . . 146 

Greeley, Nathaniel 104 

Green, James M 16 

Mary 165 

Samuel A 16, 51 

Griffin, Mrs. A. G 116 

Griffis, William E 17, 261 

Grimes, James W 27, 399 

Grouard, Miss 169 

Grover, Edward A 419 

Roy M 15 

Hackett, Frank W 119, 121 

129, 214, 253, 260, 340, 351 
354, 355 

Wallace .252 

Hadley, Amos 128 

HaffenrefTer, R. F 27 

Hale, John P 366, 401-403 

Moses 273 

Haley, Sarah M 257 

Hall, Arthur W 353 

Daniel 4, 56, 113, 119 

121, 123, 129, 130, 169-171 

213-216, 22.5-228, 253, 254 

340. 341, 355, 35S 

Mrs. Daniel 225,235 

Dwight 212 

E. W 17 

Edward 137 

Frances S 212 

Harriet J 353 

Joseph 133,134,137 

Love 132-136 

Sophia D 170 

Hallett, Frances P 212 

Hamilton, Alexander 75 

Hammond, Otis G 4, 119, 122 

129, 130, 211, 214, 253, 254 

260, 261, 267, 282, 2S3, 341 


Hardy, W. A. W .17, 51 

Harrington, William F 416 

Harriman, Jessie B 352 

Walter 93 

Harris, Mary B 51 

Harvey, Alexander 64 

JaneR 169 

Levi 97 

Robert 140 

Widow. 97 

Harwood, William 98, 104 

Haskell, Edwin B 213 

Hastings, V. C 17 

Haven, John 304 

Nathaniel A., Jr 37S 

Hawley, Mrs. John M 257 

Hayley, Caroline S 207 

Hayward, Silvanus 17, 51 

Hazelton, George C 51 

Hazen, John 60, 65 

Hazlett, Charles A 24, 26 

Hedges, Sidney M 51 

Henry, George A 51 

John II 252 

Herbert, Alma J. .17, 21, 207, 212 

Herrick, Jonathan .96 

Nathan 97 

Hewett, Alfred 51 

Hicks, William 280 

Hildreth, H. A ! 212 

Hill, Mrs. Edson J 353 

Ella H.J 26,212 

Howard F 4, 58,89, 120 

130, 253, 200 

Mrs. Howard F 339 

Isaac 123, 401 

James 158 

Hobart, Harrison C 213 

Hobbs, Armenia W 354 

W T . J 17 



Hodges, George 252 

Hodgman, Burns P .417 

Mrs. Burns P 417 

Holbrook, Harry S. .171,254,341 

Holden, Luther L 259 

Hollis, Allen 342 

Holmes, Clay W 51 

Hotchkiss, William H 213 

Houston, John 287 

Hovey, Henry E 22, 24 

Howard, Alfred F. . .212,348-350 
Howe, Mark 149, 160 

Salina A 17, 51 

Hoyt, see also Stevens. 

J.Elizabeth 4,58,120 

Hubbard, A. S 17 

Henry 401 

Huguet-Latour, L. A 259 

Humphrey, Samuel F 259 

Hunt, Woodbury E 252 

Huntington, W 104 

Huntoon, John H 92, 95 

Hurd, John 64, 65, 307 

Hussey, Christopher 1SS-190 

197, 203 

Hutching, Stilson 23 

Hutchinson, Ann 189 

E. C 51 

Ingalls, Walter 257 

Ives, Joel S 17 

Jack, David K 17 

Jackman, Lyman 352 

Jameson, Ephraim 213 

Jaqucs, William H 251, 340 

341, 347 

Jefferson, Thomas 73 

Jenks, Albert E 17 

Alfred E 51 

Barton P 354 

Jenness, John S 259 

Jewell, Mary R 416 

Johnson, Sir William 78 

Johnston, Charles 65, 66 

Johnston, Robert 65 

Jones, George M 17 

JohnF 3,41 

Stephen 244 

Jordan, John, Jr 259 

Robert 198 

Jusserand, Jean Jules. . . .416, 417 

Keeler, I. Eugene 342 

Kelley, John W. , 352 

Kent, Amos 273 

Jacob 60, 61, 65 

Prentiss M.. 23 

Kerman, see also Carman. 

John 184 

Keser, George 149, 160 

Kibbey, Amelia S 71 

Killeen, James M. . .3, 10, 11, 12S 

Kimball, Benjamin A 11, 121 

214, 223, 339, 343, 346-349 

Charlotte G .26 

Clarion H 15 

David P 211 

Edward P 26, 25S 

Henry A 3,22,24,26,29 

38,57,72,89, 105, 119-123 
129, 130, 170, 171,214,215 

Herbert M 270 

John 17,90 

Kingsbury, Frank B 17 

Kittredge, Benjamin 275 

George L 404,405 

Knowiton, John G. W 170 

Knox, Charles S 257, 261 

Kummell, Henry B 17, 51 

Ladd, Maria F 51 

Simeon 311 

Lamb, Fred W.. . . .17, 23, 90, 91 

Lane, E. F 51 

Edward B 17 



Lane, Thomas W 17, 51 

Langdon, John . 229, 230, 399, 403 

Samuel 80 

Woodbury 235 

Lanphere, George N 17 

Larkham, Thomas 196 

Larkin, Josephine C 17, 51 

Leach, Edward G 354 

Leahy, William A 17, 51 

Leathers, Edward 243 

Leavitt, Ashley D 212 

Lee, Guy L 51 

John 77 

Leighton, George B 170 

Lewis, Hannah 59 

Lincoln, Abraham ... 170, 336, 402 
Linehan, John C. . . 17, 51, 56, 109 

Linsford, Margaret 59 

Little, Benjamin 104 

George P 128 

George T 17,51 

Jesse 104 

Lorra 104 

Livermore, Arthur 65, 278 

Samuel 399,400 

Livingston, Chancellor 71, 82 

Long, Mary 3, 42 

Longfellow, Jonathan 165 

Nathan 165 

Sarah 164, 165 

William 165 

Lord, JohnK 56,89 

Nathan 217 

Lovewell, Zaccheus 337 

Lowell, Guy 346, 380, 391 

Luce, Thomas D. . 350 

Lund, LydiaF 271 

Lunt, Joshua 135 

Lyford, James O 227, 253 

254, 261, 262, 341 
Lyon, Clara P 17 

McAleer, George 51 

McCall, Samuel W 362, 366 

367, 378 

McCIary, Colonel 159 

McClure, William 259 

McCobb,Ella 17 

McCollester, Elnora E. R. 226,338 

Sullivan H 226 

McDonald, John R 51 

McFarland, Asa 55 

Henry ... 10, 55, 118, 227, 338 

William K 339 

McGann, Edward W 17, 51 

McGilvray, George 336 

McGlenen, E. W 51 

McMaster, James ,293 

Maguire, Irving E . 17, 51 

Maltby, Widow 74 

Mann, John 62 

March, Clement 79 

Marden, George N 17 

Marshall, John 73,401 

Marston, George W 257 

Simon 159 

Martin, Francis C 339 

Mason, Jeremiah 217, 401 ' 

Mathes, Fannie P 17 

M. P 51 

Matthews, Mrs. CD 17 

Joseph S 352 

Mattice, Edson H 351 

Meade, William W 22, 24 

Meader, John 244 

Means, Emily A 17, 51 

Meier, Jennie H 51 

Merchant, Sarah 280 

William 280 

Merrill, Adelaide L 352 

Elijah H 271 

Louis C 12S 

Samuel 259 

Merrow, Lyford A 252 

Met calf, Henry H 260 

Miller, Irene S 336 

Kent 51 

Morton L. 51 

Minor, Edward F 223 

Minot, Mrs. James 17, 51 



Mitchell, Henry- 17, 51 

I. Alfred 17, 51 

JohnM 212 

Mrs. W. B 51 

Moody, Joshua . . . 243 

Moore, Jacob B 378 

Frank 213 

OrrenC 401 

William 337 

Willis L 51 

Moorhead, James M 17 

Morey, Darius 70 

George : 59 

Israel 57,59-72,307 

Israel, Jr 70,71 

John ; .... 59 

Linsford 59 

Martha 61,70 

Moulton 70 

Samuel 70-72, 227 

William 70 

Morrill, Enoch 104 

Jonathan 104 

Mrs. Obadiah 342 

Morris, Gouverneur 82 

Seymour 336 

Morrison, Henry C 226 

Moore, Julius N 117 

Moseley, Eliza R 257 

Moses, William H 226 

Munro, John J 17 

Murray, E. W 51 

Musgrove, Frank A 342 

Richard W. 17,51 

Neale, Walter 191 

Nealiey, George K 166 

Nelson, William 17, 51 

Newcomb. H. T 52 

Nichols, Ernest F 226, 356 

John H 52 

Moses 148 

Niles, Mary 271 

Nathaniel 70 

William W 352,378 

Ninas, Alice 52 

Northcott, Elizabeth A 354 

Noyes, Mrs. John W. .271 

Nute, Eugene P 128 

Occom, Sampson 78 

Olcott, Peter 66 

Olin, William N 52 

Oliver, William M 17 

Ordway, John C. . 3, 43 

Mrs. John C 57 

N. G 90 

Owen, Stanton 342 

Page or Paige, Calvin 252 

Daniel 146 

EivvinL 17, 52, 171, 214 


Frank E 52 

Laura M 27 

William 323 

Paine, John 326 

Palmer, John 100 

John J 104 

Lowell M 52 

Martha 60 

Phoebe 100 

Timothy 236 

Parker, Edward M 89, 90 

James 199 

Joel 217 

M. G 17 

P. Ilildreth 207, 257 

Samuel S 252 

Thomas 191 

Parsons, Calvin 259 

Frank N 121,348,340 

Parvin, Newton R 17 

Patrick, William 266 

Patterson, George W 259 

James W 401 

JoabN 342 

Samuel F 17,52 

Peabody, Thomas 148 

Pearson, Edward N. . . . 17, 21, 252 



Peaslee, John B 17 

Pecker, J. Eastman 4, 25, 47 

Peirce, John: 309 

Peter. .+ 309 

Pender, John 339 

Penhallow, Mrs 24 

Perley, Ira 217 

Perry, Martin 149 

Peter, Hugh 187, 196 

Peters, John 307 

Samuel 307 

Philbrick, Ellen B 15 

JohnD 206 

Phillips, II. C 52 

John. 80 

PLilput, John 148 

Phipps, Sir William 240 

Pickering, Charles W 207 

Pidgeon, Charles F 17, 52 

Pierce, Franklin . . . .217,257,401 

Frederick C 212 

Marshall 17 

Pike, Austin F 401 

Edwin B 212 

Pfflsbary, Frank J 21, 226 

Rosecrans W 270 

Plimpton, George L 17, 354 

Plumer, A 17 

William 73,217,378,401 

Plummer, John 31S 

William A 354 

Poor, Enoch 116, 127 

Porter, Asa 65 

Potter, Frank P 206 

Powers, Mary A 52 

Peter 65 

Samuel L. . 392,393 

Prescott, Mrs. B. F 52 

Joseph 147,148 

Mary L 226 

Preston, George C 252 

Harry B 339 

Proctor, Edna Dean 15, 396 

Quimby, Charles E 17 

S. E 257 

Quinby, Henry B 212, 221 

349, 350 
Henry C 117 

Quint, Alonzo H 232 

Randlett, James E 258 

Ransom, Catherine A 206 

Reed, George H 4, 24, 25, 36 


Revere, Paul 229 

Richards, William 204 

Richardson, Anna 101, 102 

William M 280 

Rigby, Alexander . . .183, 1S4, 198 

Riley, Anna M. C 260 

Rindge, Isaac 309 

Roberts, Daniel C 4, 23, 27 

29,47,50,72, 113, 128,224 

Robinson, Julia A 171 

Rogers, George. 201,202 

James G 17 

Robert 309,327 

Rolfe, Benjamin 312 

George H 352 

Sarah 312 

Rollins, Daniel 259 

Edward H 401 

Frank W 349,350 

Katherine P 339 

R,omero, Felix 23 

Root, Axariah S 17, 52 

Rose, Samuel 55 

Rounds, Ellen S 226, 250, 271 

Rowell, Clara E 416 

Mrs. W. E 17 

Rugg, Josephine 324 

Rumford, Count, see also 

Thompson, Benjamin. .312 

Russell, Eleazer 319, 320 

Rust, Henry B 257 

Ryder, Wheelock 252 



Sabin, J. P 97 

Safford, Martha A 252 

Sanborn, Frank B 17, 52, 73 

171, 409 

M.Ray 52 

Stephen 199 

Victor C 171,172 

Sanders, Charles H 214 

Loren A 26 

Sandham, Alfred 338 

Sanford, Elias S 52 

Sargeant, Frank W 354 

Sargent, Anthony 97 

O. C 17, 23, 52 

Peter 97 

Savage, James W - 259 

Savory, Daniel Q Q ; 99, 104 

Elizabeth , . . .98 

Emily B 99 

Jesse 99 

Laura L 99 

Leonard' N 99 

Robert 99,100,104 

Samuel 9S 

Widow 104 

Sawyer, Charles H 12S 

William H 339 

Scales, Betsey T 168 

John 130,131,227,240 

Scammell, Alexander .... 229, 230 

Scammon, John 226 

Schiff, Jacob H 52 

Scott, Clarence W 225 

Henry K. W 56 

Scoville, John 24,30 

Scudder, Willard 352 

Searight, T. B 52 

Sewall, Ann 165 

Samuel 165 

Seward, Josiah L 260 

Shaw, John L.T ".212 

Mrs. X. S 127 

Sheaf e, James 309, 320 

Shearer, Augustus H 118 

Shepard or Shepherd, Frank E. 170 

Marion T 416 

Thomas 187 

Sherburne, Henry 79 

Miss f; 24 

Sherman, Charles E 52 

Shumway, William 224 

Shute, Henry A 170 

Silliman, Professor 71 

Simpson, John C 17 

Sise, Frederick 52 

Slafter, Edmund F 17 

Smiley, Albert K 17, 52 

Smith, Cyrus P 213 

Elizabeth 246 

Forrest S 245 

Jeremiah 73, 169, 217 

Joseph 245,246 

Sarah 274 

William 79 

Snow, Sidney B 354 

Spanhoofd, Edward 354 

Sparhawk, John 161 

Spencer, John 192 

Stanwood, James R 337 

Stark, Annie M 354 

John 147, 395,399,400 


Stavers, John 309 

Stearns, Josiah 157 

Stedman, Edmund C 213 

Stevens, Aaron F 401 

Mrs. Daniel B 167 

E. Ellis 17 

Frances C 4, 37, 58, 119 


Henry W 121,341,348 

349, 417, 419 
J, Elizabeth Hoyt, see also 
Hoyt. .. .129, 130,213,214 

Mrs. John B 207 

Lyman D 4,23,30,58 

Margaret F 271 



Stevens, Moses 104 

Samuel. 289 

William L 226 

Stiles, Ezra 83 

Stillings, Ferdinand A 352 

Stone, M. T 337 

William L .....213 

Straw, James B 104 

Streeter, Frank S 214, 253 

340, 364 

Thomas W 22 

Sullivan, George 117 

John. .117, 144-148, 156, 163 
225, 223-230, 292, 293, 316 

Margery 117 

Timothy P 339,380 

Sulloway, Frank J 352 

Sumner, Benjamin 306 

Swain, L. L 89 

Swainson, Robert 14S 

Swan, Robert T 17, 52 

Swart, William D 342 

Sweeney, Bryan 305 

Symonds, Joseph E 27 

Tappan, Eva M 17 

Mason W 401 

Tash, Thomas 327 

Taylor, John 82 

John'P 17 

Tebbetts. Noah 16 

Tennant, James B 212 

Tenney, E. P 336 

M.J 17 

Terry, J. Franklin 206 

Thayer, Kate M 17,52 

Lucius II 352 

William F. : 226 

William W 339 

Thorn, Isaac 273 

Thomas, Mrs. A. P 52 

Douglas H 17 

Thompson, Benjamin, see also 

Rumford, Count 312 


Thompson, David 192 

Ebenezer 157, 229, 230 

232, 237, 238 

George W. W 117 

MaryP 232 

MatildaS 354 

S. Millett 343 

Willis D 354 

Thome, John C. .4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 22 
25, 28-30, 38, 50, 52, 56 
57, 116, 118-123, 126, 129 
170, 171, 206, 211, 214, 227 
336, 340, 341, 347, 348, 350 
Thornton, Matthew. .65, 157,271 

Thorpes, John . . . . : 116 

Tiivvaites, Reuben G 52 

Tibbetts, Charles W. . . 17, 52, 226 

Tibbits, John K 416 

Tiller, Samuel 104 

Tilton, Abigail B. B 15 

Alexander 15 

Charles E 226 

George II 342 

Titcomb, Elizabeth . 133 

Tittmann, O. H 17, 52 

Todd, William C 10, 12, 32 


Treadway, James 2S9 

Treadwell, Abbott 351 

Nathaniel 309 

True, Caleb 103 

Jabez '. 104 

Joseph 102-104 

MaryS 103 

Trumbull, Jonathan 59 

Tuck, Amos. . . .366, 383, 401, 402 


Edward. . . .211,219-221,223 

233, 355, 358, '360, 362, 363 

366, 367, 37S, 3S1-3S3, 395 

404, 407, 409, 414 

Julia Stell 212,355,395 

Tucker, Gilman H 171 



Tucker, William J. . 72, 89, 212, 356 

362-364, 394 

Tufts, James A 17, 52 

Upham, J. Duncan 252 

Upton, Robert W 342 

Van Horn, Isaac 252 

Vane, Sir Harry 187, 189 

Varick, William R 352 

Vaux, William S 259 

Villieu, Sieur de 240, 241 

Wadleigh, Bainbriclge ....:. .401 

Wait, Alberts 4,118 

Waldron, D. W 52 

Thomas Westbrook 79 

Walker, Arthur W US 

Charles, Jr 207 

Charles 1 259 

Cynthia 337 

Florence J 252 

Helen D 226 

Isaac 17, 52, 258 

Joseph A 212 

Joseph B. .4, 10, 22, 28, 52, 57 
5S, 90, 105, 119, 120, 122 
123, 130, 170, 214, 339, 350 

Reuben E 349, 350 

. Timothy 312,314,337 

Timothy, Jr 304 

Wallace, James B 28 

Ward, Xathaniel 189 

Warner, Jonathan 309 

Washington, Bushrod 73 

George 71, 149, 293, 294 

Waterman, Joshua W 259 

Lucius 47 

Watkins, Abner. 98, 100 

Abner, Jr .104 

David O :...17,52 

Watson, Irving A 17, 52, 123 


Weare, Meshech .65, 79, 409 


Weaver, George A 27 

Webster, Mrs. C. C 207 

Daniel 73, 169, 230 

257, 261, 395, 399, 401, 413 

J. C 17 

John 274 

Kimball 90,207 

Lawrence J 252 

Nathan B 213 

Sarah 133 

Tappan 278 

Weeks, William 323 

Welch, Joseph 327 

Moses 287 

Weld, Thomas 187 

Wellington, Leonard 117 

Wells, Benjamin W .52 

Frederick P 57, 59, 72 

Wendell, Jacob 75 

Wentworth, Benning 63, 64 


Ellen L 352 

Hannah 321 

John.... 79-81, 127, 143, 156 

157, 169, 301,312, 316, 31S 


Jonathan 147-149 

Stephen 318 

Wheat, William G 27 

Wheeler, Elbert .* 416 

Giles 4,7,10,50,52,57 

116, 119, 120, 126, 129,211 
214, 253, 257, 336, 341 

Wheelock, Eleazer 59, 60, 63 

74, 75, 77-83, 307, 326 

Ralph ! 80 

Wheelwright, John ISO, 190 

192, 198 

Whipple, Prince .....148 

William... 147, 148, 157,400 

Whitcher, William F 22, 341 

Whitcornb, Frank H • • 52 

White, Almira L 17, 52 

Armenia S 354 

Benjamin C 354 



White, Francis B 354 

Frank A 337 

Helen E ..,..26 

J. Du Pratt 52 

Mabel C 354 

Whitelaw, James 64 

Whiting, Samuel 188 

Whit more, William H 213 

Whittemore, Arthur G. 22, 119, 120 

Wiggin, Frank II 52 

Wilder, Frank J. 52, 226, 261, 353 

Wiley, Frederick L 214 

Williams, Roger . . . .186, 187, 189 

Stephen 74 

Wilson or Wilison, John 1S7 

189, 195, 198 

Mary B 118 

Wingate, John 117 

Joseph C. A 3,44,117 

Paine 117,336,399 

Winslow, Richard P 24 

Winthrop, John.... 133, 191, 192 
194-196, 198, 199 

John, Jr 193 

Sarah 133 

Witherow, Thomas 259 

Witherspoon, Doctor 63 

Wolcott, Charles D 52 

Wood, Samuel 336 

Woodbury, Ernest R 52 

Frank D 17, 52 

Gordon. 15 

John 52 

Levi 217,378,401 

Woodman, Edward 249 

Elizabeth F 416 

Fanny 250 

Jeremiah H 15 

John 244,248-250 

JohnS 249,250 

Jonathan 250 

Nathan 250 

Susan 337 

Susan P 270 

Woods, H. Maria. ..." 352 

Woodworth, Albert B 212 

Mrs. Albert B 17,52 

Edward K 416 

Helen W 260 

MaryP 354 

Wortele, F. E 52 

Wright, Elizabeth E 17 

Wyman, Florence M 127 

Thomas W 127 

Yeaton, Richard, Jr ; . ...288 

Young, Mabel 207